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连云港无痛人流那个医院好江苏连云港上环哪家医院最好的Books and Arts;Leonardo in London;Deciphering the da Vinci code;文艺;李奥纳多在伦敦;解密达芬奇密码;A new show offers a rare opportunity to compare Leonardo da Vincis paintings;一个新展览为比较李奥纳多达芬奇的画作提供了一个难能可贵的机会;Scientist, engineer, musician and great artist, Leonardo da Vinci is the archetypal Renaissance man. This undisputed genius, who lived to be 67, was also one of historys most accomplished underachievers. He started many projects he did not finish; he accepted commissions he never began; his many planned treatises remained just notes. Only 18 of his paintings survive. Half of them are included in a show that opened on November 9th at Londons National Gallery, making this the most important da Vinci display ever.集科学家,工程师,音乐家和伟大的艺术家于一身的李奥纳多达芬奇就是文艺复兴时期人类的原型。毫无疑问,达芬奇是个天才,他活到了67岁,虽然有很多成就,但是这位天才也是历史上没有充分发挥真实水平的艺术家之一。他启动的很多工程都没有收尾,他接受了任务却从来没开始做,他计划的很多论文却仅仅停留在几条注释上。达芬奇的画作只有18幅流传了下来。11月9日在伦敦国家美术馆举办了一次画展,达芬奇9幅作品也在其中展出,这是迄今为止最隆重的达芬奇画展。The artist was born near Florence in 1452 and went to Milan at the age of 30. Luke Syson, the shows curator, has come to believe that the freedom da Vinci enjoyed there as court painter to Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, was the key that unlocked his genius.达芬奇1452年生于佛罗伦萨附近,三十岁的时候他去了米兰。该展馆馆长卢克塞森相信,宫廷画师达芬奇在为米兰公爵Ludovico Sforza创作时,享受了充分的自由,这是激发达芬奇绘画天赋的关键Mr Sysons contention that Leonardos great breakthrough came in Milan and not later in Florence, as has generally been accepted until now, has captivated curators, collectors and museum directors who have been generous in loaning works to the show; from the Vatican, Prague, Cracow, Paris and the Royal Collection.塞森认为,李奥纳多取得的重大突破在米兰,而不是在后来的佛罗伦萨,一直到今天这一看法都被普遍接受。而塞森的这一主张也吸引了许多展馆馆长,收藏家和物馆负责人,他们都慷慨的将作品借给这次画展,这些画作有的来自梵蒂冈,有的来自布拉格,有的来自克拉科夫,有的来自巴黎,还有的来自皇家珍藏。All the pictures on show were painted during da Vincis 18 years in Milan. Never has it been possible to see so many of da Vincis paintings together. There are also some 50 drawings, including the monumental “Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist” (sometimes called “The Burlington House Cartoon”).展出的所有画作都是达芬奇在米兰18年间创作的。以前要同时见到那么多幅达芬奇作品是不可能的。画展还展出了50幅炭笔素描,具有里程碑意义的《圣母圣婴和圣安妮及施洗约翰》(有时也称《柏林顿宫的漫画》)也包括在其中。The one picture missing from this period is “The Last Supper”, which is painted on a wall. This work, which is badly damaged, is represented here by a large photograph and a near-contemporary (though far inferior) copy. In pages from a notebook da Vincis slanted “mirror” writing describes the guests at a dinner. With a novelists interest in detail, he carefully observed the shrug of one mans shoulders, the position of anothers hands, the scowl on one face and the frown on yet one more.在这一时期,绘制在墙上的画作《最后的晚餐》已经遗失了,这幅作品损坏严重,只能用一张大照片和一幅近现代仿品代替(尽管这幅仿品远远比不上真作).达芬奇在一本笔记本里用倾斜的镜像书写描绘了晚餐中的客人。他带着一个小说家对细节的兴趣。细致入微地观察谁耸了一下肩膀,谁的手怎么放,谁的脸上有怒容,或者谁皱了眉。The exhibition is arranged thematically; in addition to “Beauty and Love”, there is also “Character and Emotion” and “Body and Soul”. The visitor quickly comes face to face with the portrait of Cecilia Gallerani, also known as “The Lady with an Ermine” (pictured above). Although the image is familiar from reproductions, the radiance of the painting is surprising. Further along is an unfinished, yet searing, “Saint Jerome”. For the first time, both versions of “The Virgin of the Rocks”, one the National Gallerys own and the other belonging to the Louvre, are shown together.这是一次主题展览。除了“美与爱”的主题外,还有“个性于情感”,“身体与灵魂”两个主题。参观者一进美术馆立即就能与《西西莉亚·加莱拉尼的画像》,也叫《抱貂的女人》打个照面。尽管各种仿制品已经让我们对这幅画很熟悉了,但是真作所散发出来的光辉仍让人惊叹。往前走能看到一幅未完成但却饱含的《圣杰罗姆》。首次,《岩间的圣母》的两个版本同时展出,一幅属于国家美术馆本馆,另一幅来自卢浮宫。The two versions hang at opposite ends of the long exhibition space. The more one looks at the two pictures, the more visible are the differences between them; the strangely formed rocks in the Louvres version create a protective atmosphere, whereas in the National Gallerys painting the rocks seem quite eerie, contributing to the overall sepulchral feel of the work.这两幅画分别挂在长长的展览区两个相对的尽头,遥遥相望。而且你看得越仔细,就会发现它们的区别也更明显。卢浮宫的版本中,岩石奇特的形状营造出一种保护性的氛围,然而在国家美术馆的版本中。岩石似乎十分可怖,给整幅画蒙上了一层阴森森的感觉。As a philosopher and scientist, da Vinci strove to understand what he observed in his close studies of nature. Art was an expression of his thoughts. “The Lady with an Ermine” shows the Duke of Milans teenage mistress in a fashionable red gown, its slit sleeves revealing a pale underdress. Da Vinci, always fascinated by knots, carefully details the way the black ribbons are tied on Cecilias left sleeve. Her right arm is in shadow. The ties on that sleeve are sketchy. The artist has taken into account his observation that visual acuity declines in the dark. The brain fills in necessary information. The sketchiness of the right sleeve helps bring the portrait to life, creating what Walter Pater, a 19th-century British essayist and art critic, described as a “reality which almost amounts to illusion”.做为一个哲学家和科学家,达芬奇总是在努力的理解他在对自然深入研究中所观察到的一切。艺术曾是他用来表达自己想法的一种形式。《抱貂的女人》画的是米兰公爵年轻的情妇,她身着时髦的红袍,从袖子侧缝中透出她浅色的内衣。打好的结,,还有系在西西莉亚左侧袖子上的黑缎带的精心处理过的细节深深吸引着达芬奇。她的右臂处在阴影之中,所以右侧袖子上的缎带只是粗略的几笔。这位艺术家观察到在阴暗处视觉敏锐度会下降,并把这种观察结果应用到绘画中。达芬奇的大脑总是装满了各种必要的信息。正是右侧袖子的模糊轮廓将这幅肖像变得栩栩如生,正如19世界英国家和艺术批评家沃特帕特所描述的那样,创造出了“几乎等同于幻想的现实”Da Vinci would sometimes spend years thinking about a single painting. Mr Syson hopes visitors to the National Gallery will, in turn, look long and hard at these works. Advance tickets for entry to the end of the year had sold out by the opening day. The show does not close until February 5th 2012, but advance tickets for its final weeks are going fast. Meanwhile, the only way to get in now is to queue for one of the 500 tickets being held back for sale each morning. The security checks are elaborate, but the wait is well worth it.达芬奇有时候会花上几年的时间思索一幅画。所以塞森希望来国家美术馆参观的人们反过来也能仔细的欣赏这些作品。到年末的预售票在开馆当天就已经抢购一空。展览将一直持续到2012年2月5日,展览最后一周的预售票正在大卖。现在要进去参观的唯一方式就是去排队买票,每天早上美术馆只出售500张票。而且安全检查十分复杂,不过这种等待是绝对值得的。 /201305/240203灌南县人流医院 Books and Arts; Book Review;The science of music;Sounds wonderful;文艺;书评;音乐的科学;听起来很美;The Music Instinct: How Music Works and Why We Cant Do Without It. By Philip Ball.音乐本能:音乐的作用机理及人们欲罢不能的缘由。Philip Ball著。Music is a mystery. It is unique to the human race: no other species produces elaborate sound for no particular reason. It has been, and remains, part of every known civilisation on Earth. Lengths of bone fashioned into flutes were in use 40,000 years ago. And it engages peoples attention more comprehensively than almost anything else: scans show that when people listen to music, virtually every area of their brain becomes more active.音乐真是神秘。它对人类具有独一无二的意义:没有其他事物可以无端发出如此精美的声音。它曾是且仍然是地球上任何一个已知文明的一部分。人类40000年前就开始使用骨头制成的笛子。而且,音乐较任何其他事物更能让大家全神贯注:观察发现,当人们聆听音乐的时候,大脑的几乎每一个部分都会变得更具活力。Yet it serves no obvious adaptive purpose. Charles Darwin, in “The Descent of Man”, noted that “neither the enjoyment nor the capacity of producing musical notes are faculties of the least direct use to man in reference to his ordinary habits of life.” Unwilling to believe that music was altogether useless, Darwin concluded that it may have made mans ancestors more successful at mating. Yet if that were so, you might expect one gender to be musically more gifted than the other, and there is no evidence of that. So what is the point of music?但音乐无法满足适应性需要。查尔斯·达尔文在“人类的遗传”中说道“既非谱曲的乐趣也非此种能力在人们的日常生活习惯方面没有丝毫的直接用处。”由于不相信音乐一无是处,达尔文推断它或许可以使人类祖先的交配成功率更高。然而,如果事实如此,可以预料某一种性别会较另一种在音乐方面更具天赋,而并无显著的据实这一点。于是音乐的意义何在呢?Steven Pinker, a cognitive psychologist best known for his book “The Language Instinct”, has called music “auditory cheesecake, an exquisite confection crafted to tickle the sensitive spots of at least six of our mental faculties.” If it vanished from our species, he said, “the rest of our lifestyle would be virtually unchanged.” Others have argued that, on the contrary, music, along with art and literature, is part of what makes people human; its absence would have a brutalising effect. Philip Ball, a British science writer and an avid music enthusiast, comes down somewhere in the middle. He says that music is ingrained in our auditory, cognitive and motor functions. We have a music instinct as much as a language instinct, and could not rid ourselves of it if we tried.认知心理学家Steven Pinker因作品“语言的本能”而出名,他将音乐称为“听觉上的奶酪蛋糕,一份精心制作的高级甜点,至少能对六种心理官能的敏感点有所刺激。”他说,如果人类突然失去音乐,“我们的生活方式将几乎一成不变。”有人争论认为,与此相反,音乐及艺术和文学是人之所以为人的一部分;没有音乐恐怕会使人更具兽性。英国科学作家及音乐的狂热爱好者Philip Ball在其中有所领悟。他认为音乐根植于人们的听觉、知觉和运动技能之中。人类的音乐禀赋同语言不相上下,摆脱音乐可谓欲罢而不能。Music can mean different things in different cultures. But although it is culturally specific, some of its building blocks are universal: melody, harmony, rhythm, the timbre produced by a variety of instruments and the distinctive style added by particular composers. Almost all musical systems are based on scales spanning an octave—the note that sounds the same as the one you started off with, but at a higher or lower pitch. Pythagoras, a Greek philosopher who lived around 500, is said to have discovered that notes that sound harmonious together have simple ratios between their frequencies: for example, one that is an octave higher than another has double the frequency. The Pythagorean “diatonic” scale, still the basis of most Western music, is made up from seven notes. But it is far from the only one. Javanese gamelan uses two scales with different numbers of notes; North Indian music has 32 different scales. Arnold Schoenberg devised a 12-tone scheme of atonal music about a century ago.音乐的意义因不同文化而异。但是,即使音乐带有文化特殊性,其某些构建模块却具有普适性:节奏、和谐、韵律、不同乐器产生的音色和特别作曲家增添的迥异乐风。几乎所有的音乐体系都是基于所跨越的八度音阶范围——这一音符的发音同开始时的完全一样,只是音高或高或低。据说,公元前500年左右,希腊哲学家毕达哥拉斯已经发现了发音和谐的音符在频率之间成简单比例:例如,高一个八度的音符具有两倍的频率。毕氏“全音阶”范围仍然是多数西方音乐的基石,它由七个音符组成。但是,这远不是仅有的一个。爪哇的加麦兰乐器使用两个音阶范围,每个音阶具有不同的音符数;北美印第安音乐具有32个不同音阶范围。一个世纪以前,Arnold Schoenberg已经设计出一种无调音乐,由12音色组合而成。Mr Ball goes through each component of music in turn to explain how and why it works, using plentiful examples drawn from a refreshingly wide range of different kinds of music, from Bach to the Beatles, and from nursery rhymes to jazz. If you can music, you will find yourself humming aloud to see what he means. If you cant, you might occasionally get lost among the technicalities. But before things get too rarefied, Mr Balls facility for conveying complex facts in simple language comes to the rescue.Ball先生曾通过依次检查音乐的每个成分来解释其运作机理,他从大量不同种类的音乐中抽取实例,从巴赫到披头士,从童谣到爵士乐。如果你能领悟音乐,你会发现自己通过大声哼唱来理解其中的含义。如果不能领悟,或许你会偶尔迷失在专业术语中。但是在事情变得简化之前,Ball先生以简单语言表达复杂实事的作用可以来救救场。His basic message is encouraging and uplifting: people know much more about music than they think. They start picking up the rules from the day they are born, perhaps even before, by hearing it all around them. Very young children can tell if a tune or harmony is not quite right. One of the joys of listening to music is a general familiarity with the way it is put together: to know roughly what to expect, then to see in what particular ways your expectations will be met or exceeded. Most adults can differentiate between kinds of music even if they have had no training.他的基本信息就是鼓励和激昂:大家对音乐的了解远超所想。通过倾听环绕周身的音乐,人们对音乐规则的无师自通与生俱来,或许更早。特别年幼的儿童也能感觉出一个曲调或和声是否正确。聆听音乐的一大乐趣就是对音乐组合方式的总体领悟:大概了解所期望的内容,而后知道你所期望的东西以什么具体方式得到满足或超越。多数成年人即使不经特殊训练也能区分不同类型的音乐。Music is completely sui generis. It should not tell a non-musical story; the listener will decode it for himself. Many, perhaps most, people have experienced a sudden rush of emotion on hearing a particular piece of music; a thrill or chill, a sense of excitement or exhilaration, a feeling of being swept away by it. They may even be moved to tears, without being able to tell why. Musical analysts have tried hard to find out how this happens, but with little success. Perhaps some mysteries are best preserved.音乐完全自成一格。它不应该讲述一个无音乐的故事;听者会自我解构。许多人,或许是大多数人,曾经历过一听到某首特别的乐曲而突然迸发情感;一个震颤或寒颤,一份激动感或者兴奋感,被其一扫而空的感觉。人们甚至不知道究竟就被感动落泪。音乐分析家曾努力寻找发生这些现象的原因,但鲜有成功。或许,某些神秘隐藏其中。 /201306/245434And among the loot, was Josephus himself, carried to Rome and installed in the Flavian family compound.而在战利品中,约瑟夫将自己带到罗马,并且受命于弗拉家族。But no one in Rome thanked him for doing the right thing.但是罗马没有人因为他所做的事情而感谢他。The kind of people youd expected him to hang out with, historians, philosophers, playwrights and politicians, all despised the Jews.你会希望同历史学家,哲学家,剧作家和政治家一起出去,而单单唯独犹太人例外。And they didnt mind saying so.他们不介意这样的说法。At some point, Josephus had had enough of all this ignorance and gloating.在某些时候,约瑟夫已经受够了这一切的无知和幸灾乐祸。About 20 years after he wrote the Jewish Wars, he took up his pen again, this time to explain with patient dignity and a note of firm defiance and over considerable length just what Judaism was and what it did.大约20年之后他写了关于犹太人的这场战争,再次拿起笔的他这次以耐心和坚定的无视以及相当大的篇幅来解释犹太教是什么,它做了什么。 201406/308411连云港国泰妇科医院妇科人流

连云港市康复医院治疗宫颈糜烂多少钱Venetian glass玻璃制品业Blow up吹制的艺术How high art will come to the rescue of Venices glassblowers (fingers crossed)高雅艺术拯救玻璃吹制匠(祈求好运)A pointedly new approach新颖艺术A CITY of enchantment, Venice is also besieged with problems. It is threatened by rising sea levels, polluted lagoons and a grim economy. And glassmaking, its most famous industry, has long been sinking along with the city.是魅力之都,同时也是问题之城。周边海平面升高,城内水质污染,经济形势严峻。玻璃制造业最负盛名。长期以来,这个盛名之业也随一起沉落。Murano, an island near the city centre, has been home to glass factories for 700 years. But a shift in taste from elaborate, heavy glass to inexpensive, contemporary designs that go in the dishwasher has hurt local artisans. More than a third have shut up shop in the past decade. At the bottom end of the market Chinese glass now does the job more cheaply.慕拉诺是城中心的一座小岛,是玻璃工厂之家,已有700年的历史。但是,人们的审美情趣发生了改变,从原来的工艺精湛的重质玻璃转向了能装进洗碗机廉价设计品。这种转变伤害了当地的工匠,近十年里关闭了三分之一多的店铺。中国的玻璃产业处于行业市场的底端,其产品更加廉价。Venices Chamber of Commerce estimates that 5m visitors a year trail down Muranos Fondamenta dei Vetrai , where the shop windows are stacked with glass gondoliers and grotesque glass clowns. But the profit margin for producing these gewgaws is very small. Gas prices have soared and some studios now find it more cost-effective to dispense altogether with manufacture. Some of Muranos glass studios are, however, turning to a new source of income: contemporary art. Across Venice this month no fewer than nine exhibitions feature contemporary artists using glass, only some of which are in this years Biennale.商会估算,每年会有500万游客到慕拉诺的Fondamenta dei Vetrai观光,街道两旁有很多玻璃饰品商店,店外整齐地堆放着船夫的玻璃像以及各种风格奇异、引人发笑的玻璃制品。但这些制品非常便宜,利润微小,因为燃气价格飙升。一些工坊发现,省去全部的手工程序更加划算。还有工坊转向了新的收入来源:现代艺术。本月,有少于9家的展会,展出了艺术家用玻璃制成的现代艺术品。其中一些仅是在本年的双年展3中展出。Leading this local initiative is Adriano Berengo, who has divided his Murano studio in two. One side still churns out lamp stands; the other collaborates with artists such as Thomas Schütte and Tony Cragg to create works in glass in the same way that artists collaborate with a foundry. The deal is that two editions are created at Mr Berengos expense: one is given to the artist, who can sell it, the other Mr Berengo keeps for himself. Occasionally a third edition is made and the proceeds are split between artist and studio. Mr Berengo has just completed two glass heads by Mr Schütte, which sold to a London-based Turkish collector for 200,000 (1,000). “Cristinas Frozen Dreams” by a Catalan sculptor, Jaume Plensa, is on sale at the studio for 100,000. The glassmaker says his contemporary-art studio has an annual turnover of 6m. It beats making glass fish for 7 a throw.此项运动是由阿德里亚诺·贝伦戈发起,他把自己的工坊一分为二。一个继续生产灯座;另一个与托马斯·舒特和托尼·克拉格合作,创作玻璃艺术品,跟铸造的工作方式相同。双方之间有一项协议:由贝伦戈出资生产双份艺术品,一份赠给作者本人,可以将其出售,另一份则由贝伦戈个人保留。有时,艺术品也会制造出第三份,所得利益就会均分。现在,贝伦戈刚刚完成两件舒特头像。它们以20万欧元卖给一位现居伦敦的土耳其收藏家。现在,贝伦戈工坊出售加泰罗尼亚雕塑家乔玛·帕兰萨的作品《克里斯蒂娜冰冻的梦想》,售价10万欧元。贝伦戈说,自己的现代艺术品工坊年营业额为600万欧元,鱼类玻璃制品每件7欧元。Mr Berengo founded his studio in 1989. He got the idea of working with artists by following the example of Peggy Guggenheim who reportedly said, “Glass is too important a material to be left in the hands of glass masters.” It is a sentiment he has taken to heart. But rather than wait for artists to realise they want to make glass sculptures, Mr Berengo contacts them and dangles the prospect of coming to Murano to work with a glassblower. Few refuse the challenge. So far, he has worked with more than 160 artists including Cornelia Parker, Joseph Kosuth and Cai Guo-Qiang from Britain, America and China respectively.贝伦戈工坊创立于1989年。艺术家佩姬·古根海姆经说过,在一些玻璃制作大师或店主的手中,玻璃的重要性远远超过材料。当时贝伦戈与他合作时得到了启发,把古根海姆的这句肺腑之言铭记在心。他没有等待,期待着艺术家们自发地用玻璃进行创作,而是与他们进行联系,说他们来慕拉诺进行合作,阐明了前景。拒绝邀请的还不多。迄今,他已经和160多位艺术大师进行了合作,其中包括英国的科妮莉亚·帕克,美国的约瑟夫·科瑟斯和中国的蔡国强。“Artists love new toys to work with,” Mr Berengo says. “What we have to do is make them think in glass.” The results can be seen in “Glasstress: White Light/White Heat”, an exhibition that is split between the Palazzo Franchetti and a converted studio space on Murano itself. It is a mixed bag. Some artists can indeed “think in glass”. Miroslaw Balkas piece comprises a row of shutters, in wood or opaque glass, that exude a ghostly and ominous air. Francesco Gennari has gone for triangular minimalism and Gavin Turk has subverted tradition by blowing a larger-than-life glass exhaust pipe. Others, such as Tracey Emin, have not got the hang of it at all—unless her cat is an ironic comment on the kitsch glass animals found in shop windows off San Marco.“艺术家喜欢摆弄新玩意儿,”贝伦戈说。“我们的工作就是让艺术家站在玻璃的角度去思考。”从艺术展“玻璃应力:白光/白热”中可以看到成果。此次展览由弗兰凯蒂宫和穆拉诺岛贝伦哥玻璃工坊共同承揽,展品无所不包。一些艺术家确实能“站在玻璃的角度思考。”比如,米罗斯瓦夫·巴尔卡的作品。他的作品用木材和不透明玻璃制成,散发着一种幽灵般的神秘气息。弗朗西斯科·真纳里的作品极简主义三角形。还有加文·特克,他用玻璃吹制了一个具有传奇色的排气管,颠覆了传统。其他人,比如翠西·爱美,她也理解了其中的真谛,否则她关于猫的作品就是圣马可附近商店橱窗里那些工艺拙劣的玻璃动物的讽刺。Working with artists brings other benefits than just cash. It encourages studios to discover new techniques. The Schütte head, for example, had to be blown into a lost wax mould, and required 40 days cooling before it was completed. When Mr Berengo was asked to create a piece that resembled green bamboo, he consulted the Venetian archives and discovered that in the 16th century glassmakers had created an effect called avventurina, which makes glass look green.与艺术家合作带来的不仅是金钱。工坊受到了鼓励去发掘新技术。比如,制作舒特头像,要吹进一个失蜡模具里,需要40天的冷却才能成型。当让贝伦戈去创造一件类似于绿竹的作品时,他咨询了维也那档案馆后发现,16世纪的玻璃工匠们已经发明了一种叫avventurina的工艺,可以使玻璃发绿。Historically it is through innovation and concentrating on quality that Murano has survived the previous challenges from other glassmaking centres. David Landau, who, with his wife Marie-Rose Kahane, was one of the founders of Le Stanze del Vetro, a glass museum which has also created a centralised archive of Murano studio designs, points out that almost every century something has altered the working pattern of Murano, starting in the 16th century when the rival Dutch glass industry made a leap forward by learning how to make glass for telescopes.纵观历史,只有通过创新发明和专注质量,慕拉诺才经受处了来自其它玻璃制造中心的挑战,生存至今。Le Stanze del Vetro是一家玻璃制品物馆,集中收集贝伦哥玻璃工坊艺术设计。大卫·朗道和妻子玛丽·加亨是物馆的创始人之一。朗道说,16世纪,荷兰学到了如何用玻璃制造望远镜后,其玻璃产业产生了飞跃。此后,几乎每个世纪都会有某样东西改变慕拉诺的工作模式。Mr Landau is convinced that the only way forward for Murano is to raise standards. Le Stanze del Vetro, which opened its new galleries on the island of San Giorgio Maggiore last September, has aly made a mark. Its first show, by Carlo Scarpa, an architect who was also artistic director of the Venini Glassworks from 1932 to 1947, is travelling to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in November. It is a reminder of Muranos pre-eminence as the backlash against cheap glass gains momentum. As Mr Landau says, it could be that Muranos future lies in its history.朗道确信,慕拉诺在今后的进程是必须提升品质。去年9月,Le Stanze del Vetro在圣乔治马乔雷教堂小岛开办了新展馆,已经迈出了第一步。首次展出由斯卡帕主办。斯卡帕是位建筑师,曾担任威尼尼1932至1947年玻璃工艺品巡展的艺术总监。11月,展品将前往纽约大都会艺术物馆。此次巡展提醒人们,慕拉诺的突出地位强烈反对了廉价的玻璃制品的发展势头。正如朗道所言,慕拉诺的未来可能根植于历史之中。 /201404/287826连云港做无痛人流那里 Are aliens going to eat us?外星人会来吃我们吗?Thats more of a science fiction question.这更像是科幻小说里的才会出现的问题。But science does havesomething to say here, and sometimes purely imaginativequestions are great tools for helping us think about how the realworld works.但是在这个问题上我们还是可以寻求科学的。很多时候像这种纯粹异想天开的问题却能够帮助我们更好地思考,更好地认识这个世界。First, its not strictly impossible.首先,严格地说,这也不无可能。Many scientists agree that theMilky Way galaxy is probably brimming with living things.许多科学家都认为系里可能到处都是生物,That doesnt mean any of them aresmart enough to build interstellar spaceships, but lets assume they are.但这并不是说它们就有能力建造星际间飞船。退一万步说,就算它们有这个能力来建造星际间飞船,Still, why are theyunlikely to eat us?可是,它们又为什么要吃我们呢?One reason lies in energy itself.原因之一就在于能量本身。The point of eating is to take in usable energy.吃东西最主要就是为了摄入可用的能量。A lion will expend a lot of energy running down azebra because, once it is caught, the calories contained in the meal far outweigh those expended in the chase.一头狮子可以耗掉大量的体力去追捕一匹斑马,那是因为一旦抓住了那匹斑马,它能摄入的斑马肉里的能量大大超过了他在追捕过程中消耗的能量。If this werent true–say, if the zebras body only had the caloric contentof a grape–then the energy expended would outweigh the energy gained, and the lion wouldlose out.如果以上都不成立,假如斑马肉里所含能量很少—少到根本就无法补充狮子追捕所耗能量,那么这头狮子也只能是白白耗掉体力了。Any alien predators would face the same problem.既然有这样的说法,那么食肉的外星人也会面对同样的问题。The amount of energy expended in building aspace program, fueling rockets, to say nothing of getting from one star to another, would behuge.建造一个空间计划,制造燃料火箭都需要消耗很多能量。更不用说从一个星球飞至另一个星球需要消耗更多的能量!For any realistic technology it would far outweigh the benefit of just munching on people.It would be like climbing Mount Everest in order to pick a few berries.与其猎食人类,还不如将那些能量用于更有实际意义的科技开发。其实猎食人类就像是辛辛苦苦攀上珠穆朗玛却只为摘些果子一样大材小用,劳民伤财。Some day we ourselves may travel to other planets. But any species that goes to such lengthsmerely to find food will find itself quickly exhausted.也许某一天人类能够踏上其他星球的土地。但是,任何一个为寻觅食物而踏上其他星球的物种终将认识到如此行径只会消耗掉自己的能量——自取灭亡。 /201408/318062连云港赣榆区治疗妇科炎症多少钱

连云港灌云县肛肠多少钱Last time, we talked about “motional induction,” aphenomenon by which the ocean generates a magnetic field.上次,我们提到过动生电磁感应:海洋产生磁场的一种现象。It works like this: earth has its own magnetic field.地球有自己的磁场,The oceanhas plenty of charged atoms in it, in the form of dissolved salt.海洋有无数溶解盐形式的带电原子,These atoms are in motion because the ocean flows.随着海洋运动而运动。Charged atoms moving through a magnetic field will induce an electric current.在磁场中运动的带电原子会引起电流,And an electriccurrent will, in turn, create another magnetic field.而电流反过来又回形成另一个磁场。The ocean should generate its own magneticfield.这样海洋应该就形成了自己的磁场。You said should. How could we know this “motional induction” is happening?你说“应该”,我们怎么知道这种动生电磁感应确有其事?Direct evidence came in 2003 from scientists working at the University of Washington and aresearch institute in Potsdam, Germany.直到2003年,华盛顿大学和德国波兹坦的某研究学院。These researchers used a magnetometer on board anorbiting satellite.研究人员将磁力计放在轨道卫星上,实海洋的磁场真是存在。First, they figured out what the magnetic field of the planet should be.最初,磁力计上的数据让科学家以为是地球磁场作用的。After subtracting thisfigure, they found there was still some leftover magnetic field.而后,他们发现除去这个因素后,仍然有磁场存在。Next, the team made a computer model of what kind of magnetic field the ocean shouldgenerate through motional induction.研究人员又电脑模拟在动生电磁感应让海洋产生哪种磁场,Sure enough, their prediction matched the excessmagnetic field measured by the satellite.当然,科学家的推论和卫星上测出的“另一个”磁场吻合。The satellite also found that magneticintensity over the oceans peaked every twelve and a halfhours, but not over the land. Can you guess why?卫星还发现,海洋磁场每隔12个半小时就会出现高峰,但是地球磁场不受影响。你能猜到原因吗?Every twelve hours…Oh, I get it— tides!每隔12个半小时?我知道了!是潮汐。Exactly right!完全正确!The tides rise and fall every twelve and half hours, just as that extra magneticenergy swells and diminishes.潮汐每隔12个半小时潮起潮落,正好和“另一个”磁场高低峰吻合。This is very strong evidence that motional induction is real… andthe ocean has its own magnetism.这正是磁场感应存在的真凭实据,海洋确实有自己独特的磁力。201405/302437 Business商业报道Myanmar gets y for business缅甸努力为外国投资做好准备Opening soon正在开放Big opportunities and big problems for firms in Myanmar对于投资缅甸的企业来说,巨大的机遇与巨大的风险并存IT DOESNT happen every day that a country of 60m people in the most dynamic region of the world is suddenly open for business,在世界上最有活力的地区内,具有六千万人口的国家一夜之间就放开了商业上的限制,这种事儿可不常见。argues Hans Vriens, a consultant in Singapore.新加坡国顾问汉森威尔森如此说道。He is describing the prospects in Myanmar, as the once isolated country moves from a military dictatorship to something less ghastly.他所描述的正是缅甸国内发生的变化,一个曾经封闭的国家从军官独裁之恐怖局势中解脱出来的过程。Rich in teak, minerals, oil, gas and much else, half a century ago Myanmar was one of the more prosperous countries in the region.凭借着丰富的柚树、石油、天然气和其他资源,缅甸半个世纪以前曾是东南亚区域内相对富有的国家之一。Decades of state socialism, oppression and sanctions put paid to that.但是国内数十年不成功的社会主义化进程,以及来做国外的压迫、制裁却使得这些优势消耗殆尽。But now Myanmar seems to be rejoining the real world. The army has relaxed its grip somewhat,不过现在,缅甸看起来又要重新回到世界舞台了。and the government is angling for foreign investment. Will the economy regain its former lustre?军方已一定程度上放松了对国家的控制,政府也尽力争取国外的投资。那么,缅甸国的经济能否重新恢复往日的光呢?Myanmars reforms may win diplomatic rewards.缅甸的改革也许可以赢来外交上的回报。America and the European Union imposed sweeping economic sanctions in the 1990s to punish the regime for stealing elections and jailing opponents.美国和欧盟曾在20世纪90年代向缅甸实行全面的经济制裁以对其无视选民的选举权利并且关押反对派人士的行为做出惩罚;These may be lifted.缅甸改革以后,这些制裁都有可能被取消,That would allow foreign firms, and particularly Western ones, to pour in.进而海外的尤其是来自西方国家的企业,将大量进入缅甸市场。Some countries are moving aly.有一些国家已经开始行动。America is allowing IMF and World Bank teams to visit the country in part to help the government modernise its sclerotic financial system.现在美国正允许世界货币基金组织以及世界的工作组在一些领域内访问缅甸以帮助该国政府扭转僵化的金融系统、实现现代化。The EU has abolished visa restrictions on leading government members and is expected to announce further relaxations in April.欧盟则已经针对主要的政府成员解除了签限制,并有预测指出四月份,更多的限制会被放宽。Western firms are excited by the countrys big population, abundant natural resources and palpable demand for modern products and services.缅甸国的巨大人口,丰富的自然资源以及对现代化产品和务的明确需求都让西方企业激动不已。Myanmars clocks stopped some time in the early 1960s, after the generals took over, so its citizens are hungry for just about everything.20世纪60年代军官独占统治权后,缅甸的社会曾经一度停止发展,因而现在,缅甸人民对即将到来的一切都如饥似渴。Few people own cars and the gleaming malls and supermarkets that infest much of Asia are largely absent.目前缅甸国内几乎无人拥有汽车,大多数亚洲国家内都成批出现的豪华购物中心或豪华超市也都在缅甸国内不见踪影。Mr Vriens says investors see opportunities everywhere, from finance to hotels to food processing.威尔森先生说投资者在金融,酒店乃至食品加工等各个领域内都可以看到机会。Myanmars new government is embracing Western investors.缅甸的新政府非常欢迎西方国家的投资者。During the years of sanctions, the main large investors were Chinese firms keen to extract oil, timber and other natural resources.在多年制裁后,现在主要的大规模投资者是将目光放在石油,木材等自然资源上的中国企业。Few of these firms did much for local workers, or paid much heed to the environment. Now Myanmar has other options.但是大部分这些企业都既不关注当地环境,也没有帮助改善当地工人的生活状况。现在,缅甸国有其他选择了。To make the country more attractive to foreign investors, the government is trying to rush through broad reforms of its legal and economic system in just a year.当国政府正努力加紧在一年内完成从法律系统到经济系统的广泛改革。New land and investment laws are being drafted, special economic zones created and advice solicited from all quarters.新的国土与投资法律正在起草之中,经济特区已划好,更多的建议也从不同的地区被征集。Officials are painting the country as the strategic nexus between China, India and South-East Asia,中国、印度与东南亚是当下世界范围内增长速度最快的三大市场,with easy access to the three fastest-growing markets in the world.凭借着通向这些市场的绿色通道,缅甸官员正努力将缅甸建设为中国、印度与东南亚之间的战略纽带。However, it will still be a hard place in which to do business.但是,当下缅甸依然不是投资的理想环境。First, the exchange rate is rigged.首先,该国汇率受到操控。The official rate is 6 kyat to the dollar;官方利率是6缅元对1美元;the more realistic black-market rate is about 800.但黑市上的利率却是800:1,这一比率更真实。The country lacks a proper banking system.其次,该国也缺少真正的系统。In the new spirit of openness, officials concede that corruption is endemic.在开放的战略下,官方终于承认腐败现象在地方盛行。That is putting it mildly:如下事实以温和的方式表述了现状:Transparency International, a watchdog, ranks it 180th out of 183 countries. Building a functioning legal system could take a long time.监管机构透明国际,将该国在全部183个国家中放到了第180个位置。显然缅甸国想建立起真正发挥作用的法律系统还尚需时日。A few firms have done well in Myanmar for years, despite sanctions.尽管制裁政策的存在,依然有一些企业对在缅甸的国商业投资上表现不错。Total, a French oil firm, is used to doing business in nasty places.道达尔,一家法国石油公司,就曾经在使人不悦的土地上成功投资。DHL, a German delivery company, has profited from the absence of a reliable postal service.敦豪快运公司,一家德国物流企业,也曾经在缺少可靠邮政务的情况下顺利盈利。But these are exceptions.但是这些公司都是特例。If Myanmar wants to join the broad-based Asian boom, it will have to keep reforming for years to come.如果缅甸想要在亚洲广泛的增长局势中分一杯羹,它还需先经历多年改革才行。 /201305/242085灌云县治疗混合痔多少钱新海新区治疗便秘多少钱

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