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楼主:周问答 时间:2017年12月16日 03:51:38 点击:0 回复:0
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The last skyscraper built in Paris opened in 1973, an unadorned dark block, rising 59 stories — the Montparnasse Tower. It was considered a disaster. To this day, Parisians joke that the tower offers the best views in the city, because it is the only place from which you cannot see it. City officials went to work banning future skyscrapers altogether.巴黎的最后一个天大楼是1973年揭幕的蒙帕纳斯大厦(Montparnasse Tower),它是一座楼高59层、朴素的黑色大楼。它被认为是一个灾难。直至今日,仍爱开玩笑说,这座大楼的视野是全城最好的,因为只有在这里你看不见它。市政府后来干脆禁止再盖天大楼。Now, however, four decades later, Paris is again considering a new skyscraper — a triangular, 42-story glass office tower designed by the Swiss architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron that would stand in the city’s southwest corner.不过,四十年后,巴黎再度考虑建造天大楼——一座42层的三角形玻璃写字楼。它由瑞士建筑师雅克·赫尔佐格(Jacques Herzog )和皮埃尔·德默隆(Pierre de Meuron)设计,位于该市西南角。Over the years, Parisians have come to embrace some of the city’s bolder architectural adventures, such as the glass pyramids inside of the Louvre courtyard or the Pompidou Center, built with its network of colorfully painted water pipes and air-conditioning ducts on the outside. But the resistance to skyscrapers has been fierce.这些年来,在建筑上开始接受一些更为大胆的尝试,比如卢浮宫庭院里的玻璃金字塔或蓬皮杜中心——这个建筑的外侧布满五颜六色的水管和空调管道网。但是人们对天大楼的抗拒依然强烈。For some Parisians, the new proposal is another Montparnasse in the making, an architectural star turn that would further disfigure one of the city’s key selling points — an almost perfect 19th-century skyline.有些觉得这个新项目在走蒙帕纳斯大厦的老路,会进一步削弱这座城市的一个关键卖点——几近完美的19世纪天际线。For the last few decades, they say, the city has done very nicely by keeping office towers outside the city limits in areas like La Défense, on its western edge, now a forest of glass and steel.他们说,过去几十年,这座城市成功地把写字楼排除在市区范围之外,集中在西侧的拉德芳斯等地区,那里现在是玻璃钢筋的森林。But in these trying times, with the country’s economy moribund, the mayor of Paris, Anne Hidalgo, has been arguing otherwise, delighted to see such a huge private investment in an area of Paris that, at the moment, is not much to look at.但如今时势艰难,该国经济停滞不前,所以巴黎市长安妮·伊达尔戈(Anne Hidalgo)对此持不同态度,她乐于在目前相貌平平的一个巴黎区域看到这样一个巨大的私人投资项目。For now, the area is a collection of conference centers that lie between the highway that runs around the city periphery and a not particularly distinguished residential neighborhood in the 15th Arrondissement, near the Porte de Versailles.目前,这个地区集中了很多会议中心,它们位于环绕市中心的高速公路和第15区凡尔赛门附近一个不太显眼的住宅区之间。The tower would provide 5,000 construction jobs, city officials say. It would offer marquee office space that could attract new companies to establish headquarters here. Backed by Unibail-Rodamco, a top European property developer, the Triangle Tower would cost about 500 million euros, or about 7 million.市政府官员称,这座大厦将提供5000个建筑工作机会。它将提供宽敞的办公空间,吸引新公司在这里建总部。这座三角形大厦由欧洲顶级地产开发商尤尼百-洛当科集团(Unibail-Rodamco)投资,将耗资约五亿欧元,约合6.27亿美元。“There are many selling points to this project,” said Jean-Louis Missika, the city’s deputy mayor for architecture and urbanism. “It would be an important economic development for the city.”“这个项目有很多卖点,”巴黎市负责建筑和城市化的副市长让-路易斯·米西卡(Jean-Louis Missika)说,“它将是这座城市的一个重要经济增长点。”Mr. Missika argues that a project like the new tower would act as a kind of lighthouse, giving distinction to the entire neighborhood, as Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, prompted a rejuvenation of that city.米西卡认为,新大楼这样的项目将具有灯塔作用,给整个街区带来亮点,正如弗兰克·盖里(Frank Gehry)设计的古根海姆物馆给西班牙毕尔巴鄂带来活力。Nonetheless, the project came close to dying this week as it failed to garner enough votes in the City Council. But as the vote came to an end, the winners made the mistake of brandishing their “no” ballots, making public what was supposed to be a private poll — and giving Ms. Hidalgo an opening to bring the whole matter to court.不过,本周这个项目差点胎死腹中,因为它在市议会没有得到足够的票数。但是在投票接近尾声时,获胜方犯了个错,他们炫耀自己的“否决”票,公开了这个本该私密的投票,伊达尔戈因此可以把整件事提交法庭。The vote was close, 78 to 83, pitting Ms. Hidalgo’s Socialist city councilors against those from the center right and the environmentalist parties. A little more time and a new vote, city officials believe, and the tower might yet be built.票数很接近,78票对83票,伊达尔戈的社会党城市顾问对阵中右翼和环保主义党派。市政府官员们相信,再多给一点时间,再来一次新投票,这座大厦仍有可能修建。Those against the project are furious at the mayor’s maneuver. “It the vote had gone the other way, you can be sure that the mayor would have been just fine with it,” said Olivier de Monicault, the president of SOS Paris, an association founded in the 1970s to oppose architectural projects, such as skyscrapers, that it believed would destroy Paris’s distinct heritage.反对该项目的人士对市长的操纵感到愤怒。“如果投票结果是相反的,市长肯定不会去管,”拯救巴黎协会(SOS Paris)的主席奥利维尔·德·莫尼科(Olivier de Monicault)说。该协会创立于20世纪70年代,旨在反对它认为破坏巴黎独特遗产的建筑项目,比如天大楼。Mr. de Monicault said there were all kinds of arguments to be made against the tower, including that it was not a tower, but a wall that would cast a huge shadow on the surrounding neighborhood.莫尼科说,反对修建这座大厦有很多原因,比如,它不是个大厦,而是一面墙,会令周围街区见不到阳光。But perhaps most fundamental, he said, is the fear of doing damage to the look and feel of the city: “Tourists do not come here to see Manhattan,” he said.但他说,也许最根本的原因是担心它破坏这座城市的外貌和感觉,“游客来这里不是为了看曼哈顿”。Leading the charge against the tower in the City Council was Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet, from the center-right Union for a Popular Movement, who ran for mayor against Ms. Hidalgo this year and lost.在市议会反对修建该大厦的领导者是中右翼人民运动联盟(Union for a Popular Movement)的娜塔莉·科希丘什科-莫里泽(Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet)。她今年竞选市长一职败北。Ms. Kosciusko-Morizet said the city’s experience with solitary towers had proved them disastrous. “They overwhelm the neighborhood,” she said.科希丘什科-莫里泽说,这座城市的历史明,孤零零的高楼是灾难性的,“它们压制了周围地区”。Moreover, she said, the tower would only help signal the edge of the city at a time when Paris is trying to reach across the highway that encircles it to better integrate the neighborhoods beyond.她说,况且,这座大楼只会帮助标记这座城市的边界,而此时巴黎正在努力突破环绕它的高速路,想与周围地区更好地融合。“We are not against modernity,” Ms. Kosciusko-Morizet said, “but this is not about modernity. What we are hearing is the same arguments that got us the Montparnasse Tower. There is nothing unique here. All the cities in the world have glass towers. There is nothing inventive here.”“我们不是反对现代化,”科希丘什科-莫里泽说,“但这不是现代化。他们给出的理由跟当初主张修建蒙帕纳斯大厦的理由是一样的。它没有独特性。世界上所有的城市都有玻璃大楼。这毫无新意。”Ms. Kosciusko-Morizet said she found the use of a secret vote to be particularly dishonest since such votes were never used except over issues of personnel nominations. She said her party members had objected to the secret ballot all along and said before the vote that they would not keep their votes private.科希丘什科-莫里泽说,采用秘密投票的方式太不诚实了,因为这种投票方式仅用于人事提名。她说自己的党派成员一直反对秘密投票,投票之前就表示不会对投票保密。A poll conducted last year by the B.V.A. polling agency found that most Parisians — 62 percent — were against any new skyscrapers, even if for much-needed new housing. Often it seems it is the younger Parisians who are more inclined to see the new Triangle Tower in a positive light.去年,民调机构B.V.A.进行的一项调查发现,大多数——多达62%——反对新建任何天大楼,甚至包括有迫切需求的新住宅大楼。巴黎的年轻人似乎更倾向于从正面角度看待新的三角大楼。“For me it makes economic sense,” said Ralph Hippocrate, 28, a publicist for a French television channel. “For jobs it might create, but also for the good it might do for the businesses in the neighborhood.”“在我看来,它具有经济意义,”28岁的拉尔夫·希波克拉底(Ralph Hippocrate)说。他是法国一个电视频道的宣传人员。“因为它可能创造就业机会,也可能有利于周围的商业。”But many older Parisians fear that city officials did not learn the lesson of Montparnasse, a building that regularly makes lists of the 10 ugliest buildings in the world. They believe that skyscrapers are simply out of place in the heart of Paris.但是很多年长的担心,市政府官员没有接受蒙帕纳斯大厦的教训——该建筑经常被列入世界上最丑陋的十大建筑榜单。他们认为,在巴黎市中心建天大楼就是不合适。“We are not in Dubai,” said Danielle Outreman, 60, who is retired. “I like it that in Paris I am not surrounded by enormous buildings. I think that putting them all in La Défense is just fine.”“我们不是在迪拜,”60岁的丹妮尔·奥特里曼(Danielle Outreman)说。她已经退休了。“在巴黎,我不喜欢被巨大的建筑包围。我觉得把大楼都盖到拉德芳斯区就挺好的。” /201411/345072VALLETTA, Malta — As wealthy foreigners rush to get citizenship in Malta under a new program, the residency requirement is taking many forms.马耳他瓦莱塔——富有的外国人争相通过一个新计划获得马耳他公民身份,采取不同方式满足居住要求。Russians rent high-end villas, then stay in five-star hotels when they visit.俄罗斯人租下高档别墅,不过他们来访时依然是下榻五星级酒店。An American financier plans to live in Switzerland but occasionally vacation in Malta.一位美国金融家打算在瑞士生活,不过偶尔来马耳他度假。One Vietnamese businessman, eager to start the clock ticking on the 12-month timetable for residency, sent the necessary paperwork on his private jet to expedite renting a property he had never seen.一名越南商人为了尽快满足12个月的居住要求,用私人飞机送来必要的文件,以方便租下一块他从没见过的地产。“They come twice, once to get a residency card and once to get a passport,” said Mark George Hyzler, an immigration lawyer at a firm here.“他们只用来两次,一次是获得居住卡,另一次是获得护照,”瓦莱塔一家公司的移民律师马克·乔治·希兹勒(Mark George Hyzler)说。Malta’s citizenship program, which offers a passport to those willing to pay 1.2 million euros, about .3 million, has been controversial since it was introduced more than a year ago. But the residency requirements, meant to make the program more palatable, are only increasing the consternation among critics, who say the program has resulted in the sale of citizenship to the global 0.1 percent.一年多前,马耳他推出公民身份计划,为愿意付120万欧元(约合130万美元)的人提供护照。该计划一推出就引发争议。不过,旨在让该计划更易于为人所接受的居住要求反而增加了批评者的恐慌,他们认为该计划实际上是向全球0.1%的富豪出售公民权。Applicants must show they have rented a property in Malta for 12 months. But they do not necessarily have to spend any time in this Mediterranean island nation, raising the question of what genuine links they are establishing.申请者必须明他们已在马耳他租赁地产达12个月,不过他们不必在这个地中海岛国居住,因此让人质疑他们是否能与该国建立真正的联系。“It is questionable how the residency requirement is being applied,” said Tonio Fenech, a member of Malta’s Parliament“居住要求如何实施令人怀疑,”马耳他议员托尼奥·费内克(Tonio Fenech)说。 /201505/373704Ian Frazer has global ambitions.伊恩#8226;弗雷泽(Ian Frazer,右图)怀有改变世界的抱负。The co-inventor, with Jian Zhou, of the vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV), the precursor to cervical cancer, wants the treatment to reach as many people as possible.作为人乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)疫苗的共同发明人,弗雷泽希望尽可能让更多人接种该疫苗。HPV病毒会引发宫颈癌,该疫苗的另一位共同发明人是中国科学家周健士。“All vaccines are for the public good,” says Prof Frazer. “You get the full value out of them only when they are effectively deployed across the planet.”弗雷泽教授说:“所有疫苗都是为了造福民众。只有当这些疫苗真正在世界各地普及,它们的价值才能充分发挥出来。”The HPV vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix, which were the result of more than 25 years of research by the two men, have aly been administered to more than 125m people globally, and the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends the vaccine for women aged from nine to 25.现在市面上有的佳达修(Gardasil)和卉妍康(Cervarix)两种HPV疫苗,是这两位科学家逾25年研究的成果。全世界接种这两种HPV疫苗的人数已超过1.25亿人,世界卫生组织(WHO)建议9到25岁的女性接种。Australia has also introduced a government-funded vaccination programme for boys, after it recorded a sharp drop in the rate of genital warts linked to HPV since it began using the vaccine in girls, and a marked decline in the rate of high-grade cervical abnormalities in teenage girls.澳大利亚自从开始为女孩注射疫苗后,记录显示HPV引起的生殖器疣患病率大幅下降,并且少女出现宫颈细胞高度异常的比率明显下降,于是出台了一个为男孩接种的计划,由政府出资。The University of Queensland, which holds the patents for the vaccine, has waived royalties for its sale in the developing world. About 85 per cent of all deaths from cervical cancer occur in low or middle-income countries, according to the WHO.HPV疫苗专利持有者昆士兰大学(University of Queensland)已放弃对在发展中国家销售该疫苗要求使用费。根据世界卫生组织的数据,全球因子宫颈癌导致的死亡案例,有85%发生在中低收入国家。“The drug has the potential to make a big difference in the developing world, where cervical cancer is common,” says Prof Frazer. “But we still have to make sure it gets there.”弗雷泽教授说:“宫颈癌在发展中世界是常见病,这种药物有可能极大地改变那里的状况。但我们眼下仍需首先确保那些地区能获得这些疫苗。”Dr Zhou, a Cambridge immunologist who paved the way for the vaccine by cloning HPV surface proteins on to a separate virus that served as a template, died at the age of 42, before the vaccine could come to market. His wife, Dr Xiao-Yi Sun, who worked as Dr Zhou’s assistant, remembers those years well.剑桥大学(Cambridge)免疫学家周健士通过将HPV表面蛋白克隆到一个作为模板的病毒样颗粒上,为HPV疫苗的发明铺平了道路。然而未等到HPV疫苗能够投放市场,周健士猝然离世,年仅42岁。周健士的妻子孙小依士曾担任他的助手,她对那些岁月历历在目。“Jian and Ian would often leave the lab only to go home, shower and change their clothes and grab a couple of hours sleep. In those days, we were all much younger, determined and singularly focused on finding the answer.”“周健和伊恩整天都待在实验室里,通常只是为了回家洗个澡,换身衣,抓紧时间睡上几个小时才离开。那些日子我们还很年轻,一心一意地执著地想找到。”Dr Sun says that Dr Zhou, a modest man, tended to look for the nearest exit at black tie events celebrating scientific achievement, but he would have been happy to have prevented the premature deaths of so many women.孙小依士说周健士为人谦逊,他在出席庆祝科学成就的正装活动时往往会寻找最近的出口离开。如果他知道自己预防了那么多女性过早死亡,一定会非常高兴。Prof Frazer continues his research as director of the Translational Research Institute in Australia. His therapeutic vaccine for patients aly diagnosed with HPV is currently in human trials.作为澳大利亚转化医学研究所(Translational Research Institute)的所长,弗雷泽教授继续着他的研究。他所研发的针对已确诊HPV患者的治疗性疫苗目前已进入临床试验阶段。“We recognise that research is a long- haul game — you do it for your children. Twenty years development time for the cervical cancer vaccine is about normal for most new treatments, particularly for vaccines where you have to be really sure the vaccine is going to be safe.”“我们知道研究是漫漫长路,搞研究是为了造福子孙。对于大多数新的治疗手段,尤其是必须绝对确保安全的疫苗而言,宫颈癌疫苗的二十年研发时间是基本正常的。”This can be a challenge for scientists and for governments in terms of resource allocation, as they tend to be influenced by short-term electoral cycles, he says.弗雷泽说,这对科学家可能是个挑战,从资源配置角度来讲对各国政府也是个挑战,因为政府往往受到短期选举周期的影响。Prof Frazer and Dr Zhou won the popular prize — via an online public vote — in the European Inventor Award.经过网上公开投票,弗雷泽教授和周健士获得了欧洲发明奖(European Inventor Award)“最受欢迎发明奖”。 /201506/380638Your birthday may be more important than you think when it comes your health.考虑到健康因素,你的生日可能比你想象的更重要。Scientists at Columbia University used an algorithm to identify ;significant associations; between the time a year a person is born and 55 diseases, including ADHD, asthma and heart disease. The new study, which was published in the Journal of American Medical Informatics Association, concludes that people born in May have the lowest overall risk for disease, while people born in October have the highest.哥伦比亚大学的科学家们通过某种算法发现生日和55种疾病之间存在明显联系,这些疾病包括小儿多动症、哮喘和心脏病。这一新研究发表在《美国医疗信息学协会杂志》上,它的结论认为,五月出生的人得病几率最低,而十月出生的人几率最高。Though previous research had explored the connection between disease risk and birth season, this study confirmed 39 associations as well as laid out 16 new ones. Researchers looked at more than 1,600 diseases and 1.7 million patients treated in New York between 1985 and 2013 to identify the months most associated with asthma (October and July babies), ADHD (November babies, matching a Swedish study), and nine kinds of heart disease. They plan to replicate the study in other locations, to better identify the environmental factors contributing to such disparities.尽管之前有研究探索了患病风险和出生季节的联系,但此次研究确认了39种,并对新的16种联系加以说明。为了发现出生月份和哮喘(十月和七月的婴儿最易患此病)、小儿多动症(十一月婴儿,和瑞典的一项研究结果一致)以及9种心脏病之间的联系,研究人员对1985至2013年期间在纽约治疗的170万患者以及查过1600种疾病进行分析。他们计划在其他地区重复这一研究,以便更准确的鉴别环境因素在其中起的作用。;It#39;s important not to get overly nervous about these results because even though we found significant associations the overall disease risk is not that great,; said Nicholas Tatonetti, the study#39;s senior author and an assistant professor at Columbia University Medical Center. ;The risk related to birth month is relatively minor when compared to more influential variables like diet and exercise.;该项研究的主要作者,哥伦比亚大学医学中心的尼古拉斯·塔托内蒂教授表示:;重要的是,不要对这些结果过于紧张。虽然我们发现了这些明显的联系,但总体患病风险并不高。和饮食、锻炼等其他因素相比,出生月份带来的患病风险相对较小。; /201506/379920

A new economics paper has some old-fashioned advice for people navigating the stresses of life: Find a spouse who is also your best friend.新近发表的一篇经济学论文,给正面临生活压力的人提了一个有些老派的建议:找最好的朋友做你的配偶。Social scientists have long known that married people tend to be happier, but they debate whether that is because marriage causes happiness or simply because happier people are more likely to get married. The new paper, published by the National Bureau of Economic Research, controlled for pre-marriage happiness levels.社会科学家向来知道,已婚人士往往更幸福,但对于这是因为婚姻带来了幸福,还是说越幸福的人越可能走进婚姻,他们意见不一。美国国家经济研究局(National Bureau of Economic Research)新近发表的一篇论文,将婚前的幸福水平作为控制变量。It concluded that being married makes people happier and more satisfied with their lives than those who remain single – particularly during the most stressful periods, like midlife crises.文章的结论是,婚姻使人们比孑然一身者更幸福,对生活更满意,特别是在压力最大的时期,如中年危机。Even as fewer people are marrying, the disadvantages of remaining single have broad implications. It’s important because marriage is increasingly a force behind inequality. Stable marriages are more common among educated, high-income people, and increasingly out of reach for those who are not. That divide appears to affect not just people’s income and family stability, but also their happiness and stress levels.尽管结婚的人减少了,但单身的弊端影响广泛。这一点颇为重要,因为婚姻越来越成了不平等背后的一个因素。稳定的婚姻在受过教育的高收入人群中更普遍,而情况与之相反的人则越来越难获得稳定的婚姻。这一差异影响的似乎不仅是人们的收入和家庭的稳定,还有他们的幸福和压力状况。A quarter of today’s young adults will have never married by 2030, which would be the highest share in modern history, according to Pew Research Center. Yet both remaining unmarried and divorcing are more common among less-educated, lower-income people. Educated, high-income people still marry at high rates and are less likely to divorce.皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)称,当下的年轻人中,有四分之一不会在2030年前结婚,这一比例将是现代历史上的最高水平。但在受教育较少、收入较低的人群中,未婚和离异都更普遍。受过教育的高收入人群结婚的比例依然较高,离婚的可能性也更小。Those whose lives are most difficult could benefit most from marriage, according to the economists who wrote the new paper, John Helliwell of the Vancouver School of Economics and Shawn Grover of the Canadian Department of Finance. “Marriage may be most important when there is that stress in life and when things are going wrong,” Mr. Grover said.这篇文章的作者是两名经济学家,分别是温哥华经济学院(Vancouver School of Economics)的约翰·赫利韦尔(John Helliwell)和加拿大财政部的肖恩·格罗弗(Shawn Grover)。他们认为,生活最困难的人从婚姻中的受益最大。“当生活中出现了压力,有了问题时,婚姻可能是最重要的,”格罗弗说。They analyzed data about well-being from two national surveys in the ed Kingdom and the Gallup World Poll. In all but a few parts of the world, even when controlling for people’s life satisfaction before marriage, being married made them happier. This conclusion, however, did not hold true in Latin America, South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.他们对英国的两项全国性调查,以及盖洛普全球民意调查(Gallup World Poll)中和幸福有关的数据进行了分析。全世界除少数几个地方外,即便将婚前的生活满意度作为控制变量,婚姻也会让人们更幸福。然而,这一结论对拉美、南亚和撒哈拉以南的非洲来说不成立。Intriguingly, marital happiness long outlasted the honeymoon period. Though some social scientists have argued that happiness levels are innate, so people return to their natural level of well-being after joyful or upsetting events, the researchers found that the benefits of marriage persist.有趣的是,婚姻带来的幸福远比蜜月期更长久。一些社会科学家称,幸福感是与生俱来的,因而在令人高兴或苦恼的事情过后,人们会回归天生的幸福感,但研究人员发现,婚姻带来的益处会持续下去。One reason for that might be the role of friendship within marriage. Those who consider their spouse or partner to be their best friend get about twice as much life satisfaction from marriage as others, the study found.原因之一或许是婚姻中的友谊所起的作用。研究发现,视配偶或伴侣为至交的人,从婚姻中获得的生活满足感大约是其他人的两倍。The effect of friendship seems to be the result of living with a romantic partner, rather than the legal status of being married, because it was as strong for people who lived together but weren’t married. Women benefit more from being married to their best friend than men do, though women are less likely to regard their spouse as their best friend.友谊的这种影响,似乎源自和一个浪漫的伴侣一起生活,而非法律上的已婚身份,因为它对那些未婚同居的人的影响同样大。和男性相比,女性从与至交结婚中受益更多,不过女性视配偶为至交的可能性更低。“What immediately intrigued me about the results was to rethink marriage as a whole,” Mr. Helliwell said. “Maybe what is really important is friendship, and to never forget that in the push and pull of daily life.”“相关结果立即引起我的兴趣,让我重新从整体上考虑婚姻,”赫利韦尔说。“或许真正重要的是友谊,并且永远不要在日常生活的波折起伏中忘了这一点。”Marriage has undergone a drastic shift in the last half century. In the past, as the Nobel-winning economist Gary Becker described, marriage was utilitarian: Women looked for a husband to make money and men looked for a woman to manage the household.过去半个世纪,婚姻经历了剧变。从前,就像获得了诺贝尔奖的经济学家加里·贝克尔(Gary Becker)所描述的那样,婚姻是功利的:女性为了找个丈夫挣钱,男性为了找个妻子持家。But in recent decades, the roles of men and women have become more similar. As a result, spouses have taken on roles as companions and confidants, particularly those who are financially stable, as the economists Betsey Stevenson and Justin Wolfers have discussed.但近几十年,男女的角色变得更加相似。结果,就像经济学家贝特西·史蒂文森(Betsey Stevenson)和贾斯汀·沃夫斯(Justin Wolfers)讨论的那样,配偶承担起了同伴和知己的角色,特别是那些经济状况稳定的人。The benefits of marital friendship are most vivid during middle age, when people tend to experience a dip in life satisfaction, largely because career and family demands apply the most stress then. Those who are married, the new paper found, have much shallower dips – even in regions where marriage does not have an overall positive effect.人到中年,往往会经历生活满意度的下降,主要是因为这时职业和家庭需求带来的压力是最大的。这个时候,婚姻中的友谊益处最为明显。新发表的这篇文章发现,即便是在婚姻总体上未产生积极影响的地区,已婚者生活满意度下降的幅度也要小得多。“The biggest benefits come in high-stress environments, and people who are married can handle midlife stress better than those who aren’t because they have a shared load and shared friendship,” Mr. Helliwell said.“最大的益处出现在高压环境中,和单身或离异者相比,已婚者能更好地应对中年压力,因为有人和他们一起承担压力,分享友谊,”赫利韦尔说。Overall, the research comes to a largely optimistic conclusion. People have the capacity to increase their happiness levels and avoid falling deep into midlife crisis by finding support in long-term relationships. Yet those relationships seem to be less achievable for the least advantaged members of society.总的来说,这项研究得出的结论基本上是乐观的。人们有能力通过在长期关系中找到持,来增强幸福感,避免深陷中年危机。但对最弱势的社会成员而言,形成这种关系的可能性似乎更小。 /201501/354737

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