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2017年12月11日 11:49:06    日报  参与评论()人

铅山县开眼角多少钱上饶铅山县去痘坑多少钱If Hillary Clinton wins the US presidential election in November, three of the world’s five largest economies will be led by women. 如果希拉#8226;克林Hillary Clinton)赢得11月的美国总统选举,那么在世界五大经济体中,三个经济体的领导人都将是女性。Angela Merkel, Germany’s chancellor, Theresa May, UK prime minister, and Mrs Clinton, have all been hailed as role models for women and girls. 德国总理安格#8226;默克Angela Merkel)、英国首相特里萨#8226;Theresa May)和希拉里,都已被誉为妇女与少女的楷模。But the singularity and precariousness of their success raises the question: are women automatically good examples for other women?但是,她们成功的异常性和不稳定性引出了如下疑问:女性会自然而然成为其他女性的好榜样吗?The ability of role models, in portraits and more importantly in the flesh, to influence gender inequality is both encouraging and muddy, says Iris Bohnet, professor of public policy at Harvard University’s Kennedy School.楷模——通过肖像和更重要的身体力行——影响性别不平等的能力既令人鼓舞,又有些含混,哈佛大学(Harvard University)肯尼迪学Kennedy School)的公共政策教授艾里斯#8226;内Iris Bohnet)说。Some evidence on the power of role models is overwhelmingly positive. 有些关于楷模力量的据是压倒性正面的。Ms Bohnet cites the Panchayati Raj act, a constitutional amendment in India introduced in 1993, which stipulated that village councils needed to reserve one-third of their seats, and one-third of their council leader positions, for women. 内特引用了印度993年颁布的一个宪法修正案——《潘查亚特制度法Panchayati Raj act)——该法规定,村委会应保留三分之一的席位、三分之一的领导岗位给女性。Not only did the share of Indian local government posts held by women rise from 5 per cent in 1993 to 40 per cent by 2005, but the new role models the law created had a dramatic impact on families and younger women.993年到2005年,在印度地方政府担任职务的女性比例从5%上升0%。同时,该法造就的新楷模对千家万户和年轻妇女产生了非常大的影响。With the advent of female village leaders, the likelihood that a woman spoke up in a village meeting increased by 25 per cent. 随着女性村领导登场,女性在村会议上发言的可能性提高了25%。Villagers who had been exposed to at least two female chiefs in West Bengal overcame their initial bias against women as leaders and rated male and female leaders equally. 在西孟加拉邦(West Bengal),至少见过两名女长官的村民们克了他们最初对女性领导的偏见,开始对男性和女性领导人平等看待。This category of converts included parents, who were more likely to want their daughters to study past secondary school, thus eliminating the gender gap in aspirations. 改变观念的群体包括父母,他们更可能希望女儿在读完中学后深造,由此消除了男女在抱负上的差距。The Indian legislation, writes Ms Bohnet in her book What Works: Gender Equality by Design, showed that the act of seeing women lead increased women’s self-confidence and their willingness to compete in male-dominated domains, and it changed men’s and women’s beliefs about what an effective leader looked like.内特在她的书《什么管用:用设计来实现性别平等What Works: Gender Equality by Design)中写道,这部印度法律表明,看到妇女担任领导职位,加强了妇女们的自信,使她们更愿意在男性占主导地位的领域展开竞争,这改变了男人和妇女对于有效领导人是什么样子的观念。There is plenty of evidence from elsewhere in the world on the effectiveness of female role models. 世界其他地区也有大量据明了女性楷模的作用。In the US, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission analysed data from more than 20,000 private-sector companies and found that, when the share of female top managers increased, the share of women in middle-management subsequently rose.在美国,平等就业机会委员Equal Employment Opportunity Commission)在分析了万家私营部门公司的数据后发现,当担任高层管理人的女性比例提高时,担任中层管理岗位的女性比例随后也会提高。The US research contains some less good news, though. 不过,美国的研究包含一些不太好的消息。It found that the positive influence of women in top leadership positions on gender diversity at management level diminished over time, suggesting that women at the top play a positive yet transitory role in women’s career advancement.研究发现,随着时间的推移,担任高层领导职位的女性对于管理层性别多元化的正面影响逐渐减小,这似乎表明,高层女性在女性职业进展方面发挥了一种积极但暂时的作用。Richie Zweigenhaft, a professor of psychology at Guilford College in North Carolina, provides one possible explanation for this in his recent book on female and ethnic minority chief executives at Fortune 500 companies. 里奇#8226;威根哈福Richie Zweigenhaft)是北卡罗来纳州吉尔福德学Guilford College)的心理学教授。他在最近一本有关财00Fortune 500)女性和少数族裔CEO的书中对此提出了一个可能的解释。He suggests that the existence of a few trailblazers has allowed companies and political parties to become lazier in promoting women.他提出,少量开拓者的存在,使得公司和政党在提拔女性方面变得懈怠。One of the ironic effects of the past rise in numbers of women at the top, Prof Zweigenhaft argues, may be that the heyday of diversity has come and gone. 威根哈福特教授认为,高层女性人数过往的增长带来的讽刺效应之一,可能是多元化的全盛时代来了又走了。His study found that the number of white women, African-Americans, Latinos and Asian Americans appointed as the chief executives of Fortune 500 companies declined sharply in 2015. 他的研究发现015年,财富500强企业中白人女性、非裔、西语裔和亚裔美国人CEO人数锐减。Now that a few women have made it to the top, there appears to be less, not more, pressure on boards to appoint them.由于已经有一些女性进入最高层,因此董事会继续任命女性的压力似乎减小了,而不是增加了。Such a development is itself open to alternative explanations. 这样的发展本身可能有多种解释。There are just 21 women at the helm of Fortune 500 companies, meaning that even one fewer female chief executive constitutes a large percentage swing. 目前仅有21位女性执掌着财富500强企业,这意味着哪怕减少一位女性CEO也会产生较大的百分比波动。In addition, the fact that women make up just 4 per cent of chief executives may not constitute enough of a critical mass for less senior women to aspire to.此外,女性在CEO中仅%,可能不足以构成让级别较低的女性向往的关键多数。Indeed, having a small number of highly successful women at the top can prove a double-edged sword. 的确,少数极为成功的女性担任最高职务可能是一把双刃剑。Anecdotal evidence suggests that if the women in leadership posts are overwhelmingly white, highly educated and often childless this can deter other women who do not fit these categories.坊间据似乎表明,如果身处领导层的女性绝大多数是受过高等教育的白人——而且往往没有孩子——这可能吓阻不符合这些特征的其他女性。The experience of much-written-about superwomen, such as fund managers Nicola Horlick and Helena Morrissey in the UK, or Sheryl Sandberg, chief operating officer of Facebook in the US, can sometimes discourage as much as encourage those attempting to imitate their success.新闻报道中常常提到的女超人——比如英国的基金经理妮古#8226;霍利Nicola Horlick)和海伦娜#8226;莫里Helena Morrissey)、或者美国的Facebook首席运营官谢里尔#8226;桑德伯格(Sheryl Sandberg)——既有可能鼓舞那些试图效仿其成功的女性,有时也有可能让后者泄气。Brenda Trenowden, chair of the 30% Club, which campaigns globally to increase female representation at senior corporate levels, acknowledges the problem. 在全球推动增加女性在企业高层任职0%俱乐30% Club)的主席布伦达#8226;特雷诺登(Brenda Trenowden)承认存在这一问题。But she also proposes a solution, suggesting that more senior women need to be encouraged to talk authentically and frankly, warts and all about their rise to top positions. 不过她也提出了一个解决方案:需要鼓励更多高层女性真诚、坦癀?毫无保留地讨论她们晋升至顶级职位的过程。There is no normal for how to go about engineering success or what that might even look like; nor is there is one correct model for getting to the top and that needs to be visibly and candidly reflected in society, she says.她称,对于如何取得成功或者怎样算成功,没有什么正常模式;也没有什么晋升至高层的正确模式,而那需要明显而坦白地反映于社会。Deborah Gillis, president of Catalyst, which campaigns to improve gender diversity at work, argues that the presence of more women in senior positions helps to break down the think-leader-think-male mindset. 致力于推进职场性别多元化的组织Catalyst的总裁德波#8226;吉利Deborah Gillis)认为,更多女性出现在高级岗位有助于打破想到领导就想到男性的思维模式。Ms Gillis points out that women such as Ms Merkel and Mrs Clinton often face biting judgments about their gender, experience, likeability and their appearance. 吉利斯指出,像默克尔和希拉里这样的女性往往面对着外界对其性别、经验、亲和度和外表的尖刻评价。Men who run for office or rise to lead companies are largely free from such criticism and benefit from long-held advantages in politics, business and society as a whole. 参加竞选或晋升到掌门人位置的男性在很大程度上不会遭受类似批评,同时受益于男性在政界、商界和整个社会的长期优势。A critical mass of women at the top should slowly change that.高层女性达到关键多数应该会慢慢改变这一现状。来 /201610/469780上饶去眼袋手术 玉山县人民医院韩式三点多少钱

上饶铅山县比基尼脱毛价格玉山县做眼角除皱手术多少钱 上饶玉山县割双眼皮多少钱

上饶整形医院哪个好The sugar industry paid scientists in the 1960s to downplay the link between sugar and heart disease and promote saturated fat as the culprit instead, newly released historical documents show.新发布的历史文档显示,制糖业曾在上世0年代付钱给一些科学家,让他们淡化糖类和心脏病之间的联系,并把饱和脂肪推为罪魁祸首。The internal sugar industry documents, recently discovered by a researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, and published Monday in JAMA Internal Medicine, suggest that five decades of research into the role of nutrition and heart disease including many of today’s dietary recommendations may have been largely shaped by the sugar industry.制糖业的这些内部文件,由加州大学旧金山分校(University of California, San Francisco,简称UCSF)的一名研究人员在不久前发现,并于周一发表在了《美国医学会期刊:内科学JAMA Internal Medicine)上。文件显示,长达50年的关于营养物的作用与心脏病之间关系的研究——包括今天的许多膳食建议——也许基本是由制糖业塑造的。They were able to derail the discussion about sugar for decades, said Stanton Glantz, a professor of medicine at UCSF and an author of the new JAMA paper.他们让关于糖类的讨论在数十年里偏离了轨道,UCSF医学教授、《美国医学会期刊》新发表的那篇论文的作者斯坦顿#8226;格兰Stanton Glantz)说。The documents show that a trade group called the Sugar Research Foundation, known today as the Sugar Association, paid three Harvard scientists the equivalent of about ,000 in today’s dollars to publish a 1967 review of sugar, fat and heart research. 这些文件显示,一个名叫糖业研究基金会(Sugar Research Foundation)的贸易团体,也就是今天的糖业协会(Sugar Association),付给哈佛的三位科学家一笔资金——约合今天的5万美元——让他们967年发表了一篇关于糖类、脂肪和心脏研究的综述文章。The studies used in the review were hand-picked by the sugar group, and the article, which was published in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine, minimized the link between sugar and heart health and cast aspersions on the role of saturated fat.综述中引用的研究成果由这个糖业团体钦点,文章发表在颇具声望的《新英格兰医学杂志England Journal of Medicine)上,极力淡化了糖类和心脏健康之间的联系,并将饱和脂肪所起的作用污名化。The Harvard scientists and the sugar executives with whom they collaborated are no longer alive. 哈佛的这几名科学家以及与他们合作的糖业高管均已去世。One of the scientists who was paid by the sugar industry was D. Mark Hegsted, who went on to become head of nutrition at the Agriculture Department, where in 1977 he helped draft the forerunner to the federal government’s dietary guidelines.其中一名从制糖业那里得到资金持的科学家是D#8226;马克#8226;赫格斯特(D. Mark Hegsted),他后来当上了农业部营养部门的负责人,并977年帮忙起草了联邦政府的第一版膳食指南。In a statement responding to the JAMA report, the Sugar Association said the 1967 review was published at a time when medical journals didn’t typically require researchers to disclose funding sources or potential financial conflicts of interest. 作为对《美国医学会期刊》所发文章的回应,糖业协会发声明称,967年的综述论文发表出来的那个时代,医学期刊通常不要求研究人员披露资金来源或潜在的经济利益冲突。The New England Journal of Medicine did not begin to require financial disclosures until 1984.《新英格兰医学杂志》直984年才要求披露资助信息。The industry should have exercised greater transparency in all of its research activities, the Sugar Association statement said. 糖业协会在声明中称,行业的所有研究活动本应更加透明。Even so, it defended industry-funded research as playing an important and informative role in scientific debate. 尽管如此,它依然为得到行业资助的研究做出辩护,说这些研究在科学讨论中发挥着重要的传递信息作用。It said that several decades of research had concluded that sugar does not have a unique role in heart disease.它表示,长达数十年的研究表明,糖类在心脏病中扮演的角色并不独特 /201609/466504 Brazils first female president is out of a job, but not barred from the ballot if she wants to run again.巴西首位女总统被罢职,但再次参选公职的权利得以保留。The South American countrys Senate voted 61-20 Wednesday to remove President Dilma Rousseff from office, finding her guilty of breaking budgetary laws in an impeachment trial.周三,巴西参议院1票赞成0票反对的投票结果通过了总统弹劾案,迪尔#8226;罗塞夫被控违反财政预算相关法规,被罢免总统职务。Michel Temer, Rousseffs former vice president who has been serving as interim president since her suspension in May, will assume the office of president and serve out the remainder of her term. 前副总统米歇#8226;特梅尔接任总统,直018年本届总统任期结束。Temer, a leader of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, was sworn in Wednesday afternoon.他在罗塞夫五月被停职后成为代总统。周三下午,特梅尔宣誓就职。他是巴西民主运动党领导人。Temer, 75, inherits a tattered economy, along with the keys to the presidential palace in Brasilia, the nations capital.75岁的特梅尔接手了巴西糟糕的经济状况,以及首都巴西利亚的总统官邸。He met with his Cabinet and promised to tackle unemployment.他与内阁成员会面并承诺解决失业问题;I am not saying it is an easy task, since we have almost 12 million people unemployed in this country,; he said, according to a CNN translation. 据CNN的翻译,特梅尔表示:我并不是说这是件容易的事;Its a scary number, and there is nothing less dignified than unemployment.;我们国家有近1200万失业人口,这个数字非常惊人。没有什么比失业更令人缺乏尊严了。A general election is scheduled for 2018.巴西将于2018年进行大选。Wednesdays vote marks the culmination of a contentious impeachment process that has dragged on for months. 周三的投票宣告旷日持久又备受争议的总统弹劾案终于结束。Its a political crisis that ordinary Brazilians could do well without as the country, which just hosted the Summer Olympics in Rio, is trying to pull itself out of recession.刚刚举办了里约夏奥会的巴西正努力从经济衰退中走出,若没有这场政治危机,巴西民众会做得更奀?The Senates decision is a major blow for Rousseff, a member of the Workers Party, but it might not mark the end of her political career.参议院的表决是对劳工党成员罗塞夫的重大打击,但并非意味着其政治生涯的终结。While the vote to oust her from office was decisive, a motion to bar her from holding any public office for the next eight years failed.尽管被罢免的结果不可逆转,但禁止她今年担任公职的提案并没有通过。Rousseff, 68, a former Marxist guerrilla, said earlier this week that she had committed no crime and said she was proud shed been ;faithful to my commitment to the nation.;现年68岁的罗塞夫曾是马克思主义游击队员。本周早些时候,她称自己没有犯罪,并为自己始终忠实于对国家的承诺而骄傲。The heir-apparent to former President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, Rousseff was re-elected by a narrow margin in 2014, but a recession and a cross-party corruption scandal put an end to any political goodwill she might have earned, eventually leading to her ouster.罗塞夫是巴西前总统路易#8226;伊纳西奥#8226;卢拉#8226;达席尔瓦的接班人,又014年以微弱优势赢得连任。但国内经济衰退和跨党派的贪腐丑闻将其或曾拥有的政治声望付之一炬,最终导致其被罢免。来 /201609/464741上饶妇幼保健院去眼袋多少钱上饶祛痣

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