明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年02月24日 20:10:57
Science and technology科学技术Military camouflage军事伪装That old razzle dazzle旧式迷魂战术How to confuse the enemy about how quickly you are travelling如何让敌方无法判断己方的前行速度Go-faster stripes?船身高速伪装线?IN THE second world war, many Allied ships were painted with dark and light stripes,and other contrasting shapes, making them look a bit like zebra.二战期间,许多盟军军舰船身都被喷涂了黑白条纹及其它迷图案,这让它们看上去有些象斑马。The idea was to distort an enemy submarine commanders perception of the ships size, shape, range, heading and speed, so as to make it harder to hit with the non-homing torpedoes of the period.这样做的目的是为了迷惑敌军潜水艇指挥官,使其无法判断盟军船舰的尺寸,形状,距离,航向和速度。由于当时的鱼雷还不具备制导系统,因此想要击中目标愈加困难。These had to be pointed not at the target directly but, rather, at the place where the commander thought the target would be when the torpedo arrived.因此敌军指挥官不再让鱼雷直接对准目标发射,而是将它们发射到他认为盟军军舰可能会驶向的位置。At the time, though, it was only an educated guess that this so-called dazzle camouflage would work.当时, 对于这种所谓的迷伪装术的有效性判断还只是基于经验上的考量。Now someone has actually tested it and the short answer is that it does work—but not in the way that Allied navies thought it did.而如今已经有人对此进行了真实测试,结果验这种迷伪装的确有效—但并不是按照盟军海军所设想的那种方式发挥作用。Ships move too slowly for dazzle camouflage to be effective.迷伪装无法保护航行速度过慢的船艇。However, it might well have a role in protecting faster-moving vehicles, such as military Land Rovers.但它对于军用路虎这样快速行驶的车辆却能起到很好的保护作用。Nicholas Scott-Samuel, of the University of Bristol, and his colleagues, came to this conclusion by asking volunteers to watch patterned rectangles cross a computer screen.以上结论是由布里斯托尔大学的Nicholas Scott-Samuel和他的同事通过实验得出的。Some of the rectangles had horizontal stripes inside them.他们让志愿者观察在电脑屏幕内横向移动的长方形物体,这些物体内部被喷涂了不同图案,Some had vertical stripes.图案形式有横纹,Some had zigzags.竖纹,And some had checks.锯齿纹和方格纹。Others, acting as controls, had no internal patterns.而作为参照的物体则未喷涂任何图案。Each test involved a jazzy rectangle crossing the screen either before or after a plain one.每次实验志愿者在观看了迷图案的长方形横过电脑屏幕之前或之后,还被要求观看一个没有条纹图案的物体横过屏幕,Volunteers had to estimate which of the two was travelling faster.之后志愿者需要估计这两个物体哪个移动速度较快。In fact, in all cases, the two rectangles travelled at the same speed.实际上,在所有实验中,这两个长方形物体移动的速度都相同。But the researchers varied the conditions in other ways, without telling the participants.但研究人员通过其它方式改变了实验条件,志愿者对此却一无所知。Sometimes both rectangles travelled slowly, at just over 3o of arc a second from the observers point of view, as a ship might.有时两个长方形物体移动速度都很慢,从志愿者的观察角度看,就象一艘船以每秒驶过3度的距离在航行,Sometimes they travelled much faster, at 20o a second, mimicking the way a land vehicle moves.有时它们都模仿陆地车辆行驶方式以每秒走过20度的距离快速移动。The jazzy rectangles also came in different flavours. Some were low-contrast and some high-contrast.长方形物体的迷图案也不尽相同,有些图案对比度不强烈,有些图案的对比度则很强。The upshot, as Dr Scott-Samuel reports in the Public Library of Science, was that participants were not fooled by slow-moving rectangles, nor by low-contrast ones.实验结果如同Scott-Samuel 士在公共科学图书馆报告所说,志愿者对慢速移动或图案对比度不强的物体移动速度判断较准确。Fast-moving, high-contrast shapes, however, did befuddle them.而对于快速移动和图案对比度强烈的物体,他们的判断常常出错。On average, an observer reckoned that such a fast, jazzy rectangle was going 7% slower than was actually the case.志愿者对于有迷图案和快速移动的正方形物体的速度估计要比它们的实际速度平均低了7%。Ships, therefore, travel too slowly for dazzle camouflage to work.因此喷涂迷伪装的军舰航行速度过于缓慢是起不到迷惑敌军作用的。In any case, modern torpedoes and missiles are guided to their target electronically.在任何情况下,现代的鱼雷和导弹都采用了电子制导来跟踪目标。But 20o a second corresponds to the perceived movement of a vehicle 70 metres away that is travelling at 90kph.但是从视觉角度看,每秒20度的移动速度相当于在70米外看到一部车辆在以90公里/小时行驶。That is precisely the sort of distance from which an unguided rocket-propelled grenade might be fired at a lightly armoured military vehicle, and just the sort of speed such a vehicle might be travelling at.在与此相同的距离和速度条件下,一个非制导火箭推进榴弹能够击中一辆轻型装甲军车。Perhaps the answer, then, is for modern armies to buy their Land Rovers second-hand from game parks, which often paint them in zebra stripes for effect.如果果真如此,那么现代军队可以考虑在狩猎公园买个涂有斑马条纹的二手路虎车了。Whether real zebra got their own jazzy stripes to confuse predators has yet to be determined.至于斑马身上的条纹能否让其躲过掠食动物的捕杀则还有待实。 /201304/235805

Don: Hi everyone. On this show we usually talk about other peoples experiments, but today were going to do an experiment of our own. Heres the deal: see if you can tell if Im smiling or not as I speak. Ready? Heres goes. Am I smiling now? How about now? What about...唐:嗨,大家好。这个节目一般讲其他人的实验,但这一期我们可以拿自己做实验。具体情况是这样的:猜猜看,我是在笑呢,还是没有笑。真的吗?现在开始。我在笑吗?现在呢?...怎么样?Yael: Wait, hold on. Don, what are you doing?雅艾尔:等等,打住。唐,你在干什么?Don: An experiment. Like I said, I want to see if our listeners can tell if Im smiling just by the sound of my voice.唐:做实验。正如我说的,我想知道听众是否能通过我的声音分辨出我在微笑。Yael: But how is that possible?雅艾尔:但这怎么可能呢?Don: Researchers at the University of Portsmouth, in England, have worked on this. They recorded interviews with volunteers who were asked silly questions, the idea being to make them smile as they spoke. Then the researchers played the recordings for another set of volunteers and asked them to identify when the speakers were smiling. And more often than not, they could.唐:英国朴茨茅斯大学的研究人员正在研究这个。他们问志愿者很傻的问题,让他们在回答的时候感到好笑,并记录了采访过程。然后研究人员向另一组志愿者播放采访录音,让他们分辨说话人什么时候在笑。而且大部分时候都能猜对。Yael: Interesting. Is that because smiling affects the vocal cords or something?雅艾尔:真有趣。那是因为笑会影响声带还是什么吗?Don: Sorta. Its probably more that smiling can affect your pitch, making your voice sound higher. So the listeners might have been picking up on that cue. They might also have been concentrating on the intensity of the voices. Its not an exact science, obviously, but something was tipping off the listeners.唐:差不多。微笑更有可能影响你的音高,让声音听起来更高。因此,听者可能是根据这条线索来做出判断。他们也许一直专注于声音的强度。显然这不是一门精密的科学,但听的人的确可以发现点什么。Yael: So does this have any practical application?雅艾尔:那这个研究有没有什么实际用途呢?Don: It could help improve voice recognition software and synthetic voices for things like computer games.唐:它对声音识别软件的开发很有帮助,还有电脑游戏中的那些合成声音。Yael: Cool. OK, so let me try. Im smiling now, can you tell? And now Im not smiling. Do I sound different?雅艾尔:酷。好吧,让我试试吧。我现在在笑,你能分辨出来吗?现在我没有笑了,我的声音听起来有什么不同吗?Don: Yes...and yes. 唐:是的...是的。原文译文属!201305/238934



  Business商业报道Opening a business in Brazil在巴西做生意Why make it simple?何等简单Setting up shop has just got easier. But not much开店变得简单。却没有很多BRAZIL is not an easy place to start a business.巴西并不是开店的好地方。The World Bank ranks it 120th out of 183 countries—worse than Burkina Faso or Nigeria.世界将其在183个国家中列为第120位—比布基纳法索及尼日利亚还糟糕。Take one small example.试举一例,Until recently, you needed at least two partners to form a limited-liability company.至今,仍需三人才能成立一家有限责任公司。Sole traders had to find a 1% sócio—an employee, friend or family member willing to lend his name to the articles of association, or a shell company set up solely to hold a tiny share.一人投资者必须寻求一名1% 合作伙伴—雇员、朋友或家庭成员同意将他们的姓名列入公司章程或令其占有极少股份而成立的空壳公司中。Things may have just got a little easier.要求可能放宽了些。A new law, which supposedly came into effect on January 9th, allows a lone business-owner to set up an Empresa Individual de Responsabilidade Limitada:据说一部新法将于1月生效,a single-holder limited-liability firm.其中允许一人设立有限责任公司。The main requirement is capital of 62,200 reais.主要的规定是资产额为62,200雷亚尔。This is a big deal. Alas, it may not happen as planned.此举意义重大,唉,或许会事与愿违。In December the federal body that oversees state business registries told them to turn away firms trying to register Eirelis, as well as foreigners without permanent right of residence.12月监管公司注册的联邦机构回避关于试图注册一人有限责任公司,以及不具有永久居留身份的外国人所提出的申请。No reason was given.对此并未公布相关的理由。Later, lawyers were briefed that the laws aim was to let Brazilian sole traders protect their personal goods against lawsuits or bankruptcy—not to make life easier for big business or foreigners.随后,律师被简要告知律师事务所意在保护巴西个体经营者免受诉讼或破产之灾—并不是保障大公司或外国投资者。Since the restrictions have no basis in the law, challenges are inevitable. Husam Abboud of Establish Brazil, a company-formation specialist, is thinking of Brazilian-style direct action: simply trying to register an Eireli for a firm or a foreigner, and seeing what happens.由于这些限制在法律上没有渊源,因此不可避免地存在质疑。来自Establish Brazil的Husam Abboud ,是一位公司设立的专家,其指出巴西风格的直接效果:只是试图为公司或外国人注册一人有限公司,之后坐观成败。We wont be trying just once, but many times, he says cheerfully.我们并非仅尝试一次,而是多次, 他语带兴奋地称。In Brazil, it always depends whos on the desk on the day.在巴西,总是彼时处在台上的人左右决定。A few speedy locals have aly set up Eirelis.一些敏锐的本国人已开始设立Eirelis。It was quick and easy, because I didnt have to hunt for a partner, says Taise Litholdo, an architect.这样简单快捷,而无需寻找合伙人,建筑师 Taise Litholdo说道。Sebastiao Lino da Silva, an accountant in Sao Paulo, is helping a medical-research firm, which recently lost a partner, to convert into an Eireli.圣保罗的会计师Sebastiao Lino da Silva正协助一家失去合伙人的医药研发公司转为一人有限公司。The remaining owner would otherwise have to find a new partner or close.该公司目前的所有人希望寻找新的合伙人或以类似的模式延续公司。Joao Marcelo Pacheco of Pinheiro Neto Advogados, one of Brazils largest law firms, says that some wealthy clients will use Eirelis to make their lives simpler.来自巴西最大律所之一Joao Marcelo Pacheco的Pinheiro Neto Advogados称,某些重要客户打算运用Eirelis以令生意更顺遂。All this amounts to a tweak, not a revolution.所有这些构成扭转,而非改革。By January 18th only 14 Eirelis had been registered with Sao Paulos board of trade, Brazils biggest.直至1月18日仅有14家Eirelis成功在巴西最大的圣保罗商业局得以注册。The truth is Eirelis are not really suitable for most small businesses, says Mr Abboud. Few hot-dog vendors and hairdressers have enough spare cash to satisfy the capital requirement, he points out.他称事实上Eirelis并非适用所有小型企业,并指出一些卖热的商人和美发师手头上就有满足资本限额的闲钱。That is an argument for scrapping the capital requirement.放弃资本限额引起一番争论。The Socialist Peoples Party, an opposition group, has asked the Supreme Court to rule it unconstitutional for discriminating against micro-traders.反对党—巴西社会人民党已请求最高法院规范歧视微型贸易者的违宪行为。Even if foreigners are allowed to set up Eirelis, breaking into Brazil will remain tough.即使外国投资者被允许设立Eirelis,他们融入巴西仍成问题。The biggest hurdle—finding a permanent resident willing to hold power of attorney for foreign owners—will remain.最大的阻碍—寻找一位永久居留者愿意作为外国所有人的代理人—始终存在。Establish Brazil and its rivals will do this for foreign clients,及其对手将以同样方式对待其外国客户,but only until a local manager has been appointed, or an expatriate has arrived on a permanent business visa.但仅需指定一位本地管理人或一位取得永久居留的移民。The snag is that acting for a foreign firm leaves agents vulnerable to Brazils capricious tax authorities and labour courts, which tend to ignore limited liability and pursue individual owners.代理外国公司的中介因容易被巴西反复无常的税收机构及劳动法庭追查而受到牵绊,他们更倾向个人所有者而非有限责任。They want to be able to freeze someones bank account if problems arise, explains Stephen OSullivan of Mattos Filho Advogados, another big Sao Paulo law firm.发生问题时他们希望冻结某人的账户,另一家律所Mattos Filho Advogados的Stephen OSullivan称。And if theyre the only people in the country, theyll go after the local managers, or even the lawyers.若这个国家仅剩下他们,则他们将追寻本地管理人,甚至本地律师。Unsurprisingly, Mattos Filho is willing to fulfil this role only for old and valued clients.不出意外,Mattos Filho 期待在务已有的尊贵客户的同时能够为更多的公司扮演同样的角色。Eirelis may eventually make it easier to set up shop in Brazil.在巴西做生意可能因Eirelis 而变得简单。But only a little.但仅仅是一点点。 /201305/240047

  Books and arts文艺A history of guerrilla warfare游击战的历史How the weak vanquish the strong以弱胜强之道Fighting an insurgency requires patience, restraint and a good public-relations strategy平定叛乱需要耐心,克制和良好的战略公关Invisible Armies: An Epic History of Guerrilla Warfare from Ancient Times to the Present.《看不见的军队》:一部述说古今游击战的史诗。By Max Boot. Liveright; 750 pages; .作者:Max Boot. Liveright;750页,定价35美元。To be published in Britain in February by W.W. Norton; 25.W.W. Norton将于2月份在英国出版;定价25英镑。Buy from Amazon.com, Amazon.co.uk可以在英国亚马逊网上书城购买。LIKE the poor, guerrilla armies have, it seems, always been with us.游击队就像穷人一样,似乎一直都伴随在我们左右。From the nomadic rebels who brought down the Roman empire to the internet-savvy, plane-exploding jihadists who triggered Americas ill-conceived global war on terror, irregular forces are a constant factor in the history of warfare.游牧叛乱武装打垮了罗马帝国;互联网专家,爆炸飞机的圣战分子使美国开启了思谋不周的全球反恐战争,非正规部队是战争历史中的一个永恒元素。And fighting them has become tougher than ever.现在对付游击武装比以往更棘手。Plenty of literature gives advice on how to beat such maddening foes.很多文献给都教你如何击败这些令人发狂的敌人。Max Boot, a neoconservative American military historian, has done something different.属于新保守派的美国军事历史学家Max Boot做了一些不同的工作,Invisible Armies is a narrative history of guerrilla warfare and terrorism, ranging from what he describes as its origins, in bringing down the Akkadian empire in Mesopotamia in the 22nd century , to the present day.《看不见的军队》叙述了从古至今的游击战和恐怖行动。他认为这种战争起源于公元前22世纪,美索不达米亚的阿卡德帝国就是被游击战摧毁的。The author moves quite quickly over the first 4,000 years or so and only really gets going in the 18th century, with its revolutionary wars of independence.作者很快讲完了前4000年的历史,从18世纪的独立革命战争切入,这大概是真正游击战的发端。Among the many liberal insurgencies he considers are the American revolution; the struggle against Napoleon in the Iberian peninsula; Greeces war for independence against the Ottomans; the wars of unification in Italy and various uprisings against colonial powers, such as the slave revolt against the French that led to the foundation of the Republic of Haiti.在很多自由起义中,他思考了美国革命,伊比利亚半岛反对拿破仑的斗争,希腊人反抗奥斯曼人独立战争,意大利统一之战以及各种反抗殖民势力的起义,如反抗法国的奴隶起义引发了海地共和国的成立。In the 20th century Mr Boot examines the impact of irregular forces in the two world wars; the contribution to insurgent theory of Mao Zedongs seminal work On Guerrilla Warfare, gleaned from his experiences in the Chinese civil war; the very different French and British responses to rebellions against their fading empires; the radical chic revolutionaries of the 1960s and the rise of radical Islamism.Boot先生仔细观察了非正规部队对20世纪两次世界大战的影响;毛泽东那部给起义理论做出贡献的有开创性的著作《论游击战》,这是他从中国内战中收获的经验,不同于逐渐衰落的英法帝国处理叛乱事件;上世纪60年代激进派时髦的革命和极端伊斯兰分子的叛乱。If this sounds a bit like a list, it is because of the way the book is organised. Mr Boot picks a theme, for example, The End of Empire, and then hoovers up into that section all the conflicts that can be made to fit that description.上面的内容有点像开列清单,因为这是本书的组织方式,Boot先生选择一个主题,例如帝国的终结,然后把所有符合主题的斗争收录到这个部分。Each one gets a few pages of lively narrative and a brief analysis of why one side prevailed over the other.每个主题都占据几页篇幅,叙述的很生动,并且简要地分析了一方为何能战胜另一方。The formula works rather well. Even when the author is rattling through fairly familiar territory, such as the failures of the French against the Vietminh, he usually finds something fresh or pithy to say.这种方式的效果很好。即使述说大家熟悉的事情,作者也能讲出点新鲜东西和独到见解。Take, for example, Vo Nguyen Giap, the brilliant Communist general who succeeded in expelling first the French and then the Americans from Vietnam.例如杰出的共产党将领武元甲成功地把法国人和美国人先后赶出越南。Giap closely followed the teachings of Mao in planning a three-stage struggle,first localised guerrilla war, then war of movement and finally general uprising,which he waged with a three-tier force of village militias, full-time guerrillas and a regular army.武元甲密切遵循毛泽东的教导,制定了一个包含三个阶段的斗争—先是局部的游击战,接着实施运动战,最后发动大起义 —他投入了三种力量:民兵、专职游击队和正规军。But where Mao was always cautious to avoid confrontations with more powerful forces, Giaps tendency to roll the dice on premature offensives in 1951, 1968 and again in 1972 could have proved fatal each time had it not been for the psychological and political frailties of the other side.毛泽东总是谨慎地避免和更强大的力量发生对抗,但是武元甲愿意为过早攻击孤注一掷。1951年,1968年和接下来的1972年他都用了这种方法,要不是对方存在着心理上和政策上的弱点,这三次作战就不会造成致命的影响。In guerrilla warfare, what matters most is the ability to shape the story, not the facts on the ground.在游击战中,最重要的是推动战争向前发展的能力,而非战场上的实际情况。This is how guerrillas are able to win wars even as they lose battles.这就是游击队即使战斗失利的情况下仍然能够赢得战争。Because insurgencies pit the weak against the strong, most still end up failing.因为这些起义以弱势抗强敌,大部分还是以失败告终。Between 1775 and 1945 only about a quarter achieved most or all of their aims.Boot先生说,从1775年至1945年,只有四分之一的起义完成了自己的大部分或全部目标。But since 1945 that number has risen to 40%, according to Mr Boot.但是自1945年以来,成功率增长到了40%。Part of the reason for the improving success rate is the rising importance of public opinion.成功率的提高部分原因是公众舆论的重要性日益突出。Since 1945 the sp of democracy, education, mass media and the concept of international law have all conspired,自1945年以来,民主、教育、大众媒体和国际公法的概念得到推广,to sap the will of states engaged in protracted counter-insurgencies.这都削弱了应对长期叛乱的国家意志。In the battle over the narrative, insurgents have many more weapons at their disposal than before.战斗过程中,可供叛乱分子使用的武器比以前多得多。Mr Boot does not conclude that counter-insurgency in the 21st century is a losing game.Boot先生没有推断在21世纪镇压叛乱是徒劳之举。But to prevail requires an understanding of the games rules.然而获胜之前要理解游戏的规则。He is a powerful advocate for the so-called population-centric approach pioneered by the British during the 12-year post-war Malayan Emergency, which lasted until 1960, and rediscovered by American generals,such as David Petraeus and Stanley McChrystal in Iraq and Afghanistan,only after things there had gone disastrously wrong.他极力鼓吹所谓以民众为中心的方法,这是战后英国在应对马来亚12年危机时倡导的理论,美军将领如分别在伊拉克和阿富汗的局势,严重恶化之后对此做出重新发现。The first principle is to abandon conventional military tactics.第一原则是放弃常规战术。Clear and hold beats search and destroy.清除和控制胜过搜寻和破坏。To defeat an insurgency you must provide enough security for ordinary people to live their lives.要平息叛乱,必须给普通民众的生活提供充足的安全保障。The second is that legitimacy is vital for both sides: corrupt or excessively violent governments will always struggle,第二合法性对双方来说都是重要的:腐败或过于暴力的政府一直会引发斗争,but so too will guerrillas who terrorise their own people.但是游击队也会威胁本国人民。The third is staying power.第三是耐力。Firepower is no substitute for patience and boots on the ground.在战场上火力不能取代忍耐力和士气。The people you need on your side must believe that you are in it for the long haul.必须要让你争取的民众相信你会长期和他们在一起。The fourth is that most counter-insurgency campaigns abroad are lost at home.第四大部分在海外开展的镇压叛乱的战斗都输在国内。Liberal democracies have short attention spans, low tolerance for casualties and other calls on their cash.自由主义的民主国家对于需要花钱的重大伤亡事故和其他征召不大关注,容忍度也不高。Unless voters believe that an intervention is necessary for their own security they will quickly withdraw support for it.除非选民认为有必要采取干涉措施才能保障自身的安全,否则他们会很快放弃对这种行动的持。All of which explains why things are not going well in Afghanistan.以上情况都可以解释为什么阿富汗的事情进展不顺。The population-centric approach—and the troop surge needed to realise it came late in the day and with a foolishly rigid deadline.实行以民众为中心的方法和增加部队都来的太晚,而且愚蠢地附带着严格的时限。The Afghan government has some popular legitimacy, but not enough in the places where the insurgency is resilient.阿富汗政府在一定程度上拥有广泛的合法性,但是在叛乱行动回弹的地方该政府的合法性还是不足。Nor has it been possible for American forces to deny the Taliban their sanctuary in Pakistan: insurgencies with outside support are much harder to beat.美国人不可能容忍塔利班在巴基斯坦避难:得到外部持的叛乱更加难以平息。Voters in America and Europe are not prepared to spend any more blood or money on what most presume is a lost cause.美国和欧洲的选民还不想在大部分人看来要注定失败的行动上流更多的血,花更多的钱。Few think that what happens in Afghanistan will affect their own safety.几乎没有人意识到发生在阿富汗的事情会影响到自己的安全。Counter-insurgency may be out of fashion again, but it remains necessary to know how to do it.镇压叛乱可能又过时了。但是我们还需要如何应对叛乱。Mr Boot offers a timely reminder to politicians and generals of the hard-earned lessons of history.Boot先生及时地向军政要人提醒了这个得来不易的历史教训。 /201403/282539The obvious risk of this happening to crowded passenger planes in British airspace was enough for the UKs Civil Aviation Authority to enforce a total ban on flights-a move which was mirrored by other northern European countries.发生在英国领空拥挤乘客的飞机中最为明显的风险足以让英国民航执行全面禁飞,其他北欧国家可以借鉴此举。The dangers of flying through volcanic ash were demonstrated in 1982 when a British Airways flight from Malaysia to Australia lost power in all four engines after flying into a cloud of dust spewed out by an eruption of Mount Galunggung in Indonesia.飞过火山灰的危险之旅出现在1982年从马来西亚飞往澳大利亚的一架英国航空公司航班在飞入一片印度尼西亚加隆贡火山喷发出的火山灰云层后所有四个引擎失去动力。After 15 minutes of gliding in a controlled descent from 37,000 feet to 12,000 feet, the pilot, Captain John Moody, managed to restart the engines once enough of the molten ash in the engines solidified and broke off.15分钟后滑翔从37000英尺控制降至12000英尺,飞行员,队长约翰?穆迪曾经试图启动引擎,但融化的火山灰在其中已经凝固并且造成机器停止运转。The plane went on to land safely in Perth.飞机最终安全降落了在珀斯。Speaking to the B last week, Captain Moody demonstrated the typically phlegmatic attitude of his profession.上周对于B发表讲话时,队长穆迪展示了他职业般冷漠示人的态度。;It was, yeah, a little bit frightening,; he said.“是,是的,是有一点害怕,”他说道。201309/258384

  Are you surprised by all the attention现在你有着空前的关注度that is going on right now, surrounding you?有没有让你始料未及Its pretty intense.确实蛮热情的So I... this was what I told you earlier.就像我之前和你说的一样I mean, its kind of the craziest time in my whole life.这仿佛是我此生最疯狂的阶段I think of everything that I did, getting up to this moment,我回想过去发生的一切I feel like it was all just me training for this marathon我就像置身一场马拉松比赛that Im in the middle of right now.我已经跑过一半路程Its the most insanse week of my life,这是我至今最疯狂的一个礼拜and I dont know how Im still standing and kind of awake.我都佩我自己一直坚持 还保持着清醒Its kinda have been amazing, Ive just been everywhere.感觉很神奇 像是历经世间沧桑But making, you know, my album No.1 has been made it all okay可是当我的专辑登顶在榜单我觉得一切痛苦都没什么Yeah, congratulations to that. Thank you.是啊 恭喜你 谢谢I mean No.1 is so good.真的 第一名很棒Umm, well talk about ;Bangerz; in a second.我们一会儿再说你的专辑《Bangerz》But... the one thing that I think Im surprised by,我觉得最让我惊讶的一件事是Umm...you know, Robin Thicke was on stage as well.robin 当时也在台上啊Right, no one talks about that. And its...对的 完全没有人议论他 真是No one cares about the man behind the booty. Right.完全没人在乎PP后面的那个人 是的They only care about the one that was shaking it.他们只关心抖的那个人Well, yeah. the problem is that... double standard.对的 问题就在 双重标准哼I think what people thought was he was surprised by it.我觉得大伙认为他被吓到了And hes sort of... he was in the rehearsal as much as I was.他有点 他每次都是和我一起排练的好么And loving it, people. Yeah.而且可乐在其中 筒子们 是的And loving it.喜闻乐见呢So everyone there knew. there was rehearsal,所以有排的话 大家都知道and everyone there knew what was gonna happen.大家都知道接下来会发生什么Everyone there knew except maybe some other people in the audience,大家都知道可能除了有些观众吧I saw a lot of faces that were kinda like...因为我看到了好多像这样的表情注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201312/268109If you follow football, hockey, soccer, or boxing, then youknow that athletes in these and other contact sports are at constant risk for a concussion.如果你喜欢橄榄球、橄榄球、足球或是拳击运动,那么你就会很清楚这些以及其他接触性运动中的运动员常处于脑震荡的危险境地。Everyseason several football players miss a number of games after absorbing vicious blows to the head.每个赛季都有数名橄榄球运动员由于头部遭受剧烈冲击而缺席接下来的一系列赛事。A concussion is a blow to the head that can result in temporary confusion,amnesia, nausea,dizziness, blurred vision, and loss of consciousness.脑震荡是头部受到撞击而导致的,可能造成暂时性思维混乱,失忆,呕吐,眩晕,视觉模糊以及失去意识。Although a single concussion does not appear to result in structural brain damage or swelling ofthe brain, repeated concussions can cause both.尽管一次脑震荡不会导致大脑结构性损伤或导致脑水肿,但是数次脑震荡可能引起上述两种情况同时出现。Concussions are caused in one of two ways: either by the head hitting a hard surface, or by thehead spinning suddenly.造成脑震荡的原因不外乎是这两种中的一种:头部撞到硬物,或者头部突然旋转。Take, for example, a common incident during a football game.以橄榄球赛比较普遍的事件为例,Thequarterback is hit, falls backwards, and bangs his head on the turf.四分卫触地得分,朝后方倒下,其头部就会猛烈撞击到草坪上。Although his skull stops suddenly upon impact, his brain, floating in cerebral fluid, keeps movingand hits the skull.尽管他的头骨在受到冲击时瞬间会保持不动,但是他大脑内的脑脊液仍然在晃动并不断撞击头骨。Similarly, when a boxer gets hit in the head with a right hook, his head twistsviolently.同样的,当一名拳击手头部受到一记右勾拳时,他的脑袋瞬间剧烈扭转。The skull stops moving, but the brain keeps shaking for a few moments and may brushthe skull.头骨停止移动,但是脑浆却还会震动一会儿,并有可能擦到头骨。The result is a chemical imbalance in the brain.结果是脑部化学失衡。All the neurotransmitters in the damaged area firesimultaneously, causing an overload of chemicals that impair receptors involved in learning andmemory.所有受损区域的神经传递素同时作用,造成脑内化学物质超负荷运转,从而损坏学习与记忆的神经元。The flood of chemicals also constricts arteries, making it difficult for the damaged cells toget the nutrients they need to recover.化学物质过多也会引起动脉收缩,导致大脑受损细胞难以吸收到利于复原的营养物质。Because the brain can take as long as several weeks to recover from a concussion, its a good ideato take a break from contact sports if youve had one.由于脑部需要长达数周的时间来恢复脑震荡带来的损伤,如果你脑部受到撞击最好还是休息一段时间再继续参加此类接触性运动。 201402/277100

  Business商业报道Business and geopolitics商业与地缘政治学Enter the G20走进G20Business hopes to be heard at next weeks G20 summit商界希望下周的G20峰会能倾听到自己的心声WHEN the G20, a group of governments from the worlds biggest economies,本月晚些时候,世界上最大的20个经济体组成的集团,meets in Los Cabos, Mexico, later this month, business will have a seat at the table.G20将在墨西哥的洛斯卡沃斯召开会议,这一次,商界将也要出席这次会议。The bosses of more than 300 large companies will be at the same beach resort for the fourth summit of the B20, a group that tries to persuade governments to be more business-friendly.超过300个大公司的总裁将会在同一个海滩度假胜地迎来第四次B20峰会。B20这个集团组织的宗旨是游说政府对对商业更加友好。For the first time, B20 leaders will be invited to address the assembled politicians.这是B20的领导第一次受邀在政治家云集的峰会上演讲。They will give advice on matters ranging from infrastructure to jobs,这些商界领袖将会针对从基础设施到就业等重大问题,向大会献计献策。but the B20s most useful role may be as a watchdog.不过B20最有益的作用或许是充当监督者。The politicians at these powwows have a reputation for saying one thing and doing another when they return home.众所周知,参加这类会议的政客回国后,常常说一套做一套,甚至光说不做。To hold them to account, the B20s chairman, Alejandro Ramírez, touts a new performance dashboard.为了让他们说到做到,B20主席亚利桑德罗·拉米雷兹竭力推荐实施一种全新的绩效榜机制。This dashboard, prepared with input from the International Chamber of Commerce, the McKinsey Global Institute and the University of Toronto, will track each G20 countrys progress in keeping promises made at each years summit.这个绩效榜上待评价的指标是由国际商会、麦肯锡全球研究所和多伦多大学共同编写的。每年G20 国家都会在峰会上做出承诺,绩效榜将跟踪每个G20 国家在实现承诺的进展情况。Initially, the dashboard will focus only on commitments directly relevant to business.最初,绩效榜将关注与商业直接相关的承诺。The Economist has seen a draft dashboard, minus the country names.《经济学人》杂志同僚曾经见到过绩效榜的草稿,略去了国家的名称。It tracks progress made between the 2010 and 2011 G20 summits on 13 categories of pledge.它跟踪调查了2010年G20峰会和2011年峰会间,13类承诺的实现情况。They include improving the financial system, fighting climate change, promoting free trade and curbing corruption.这些承诺包括:改善财政体系,积极应对气候变化,促进自由贸易并整治腐败。It makes dismal ing, in places.绩效榜上有些国家的表现十分低迷。On trade, only four of the G20 did what they said they would.在贸易方面,只有4个国家信守了承诺。Five made no progress at all, or regressed.5个国家没有实现任何进展,甚至有所倒退。Pledges to fight corruption, manage exchange rates sensibly and price fossil fuels to reflect their carbon emissions were also widely breached.包括打击腐败,合理控制汇率,对矿物燃料定价使其能够反映其碳排放多少等在内的许诺大部分都没有兑现。The dashboard ought to embarrass people who deserve to be embarrassed.绩效榜应该然让那些理应蒙羞的人感到难堪。But although it has been shown to the G20 governments, the B20 is dithering about whether to publish it.但是,尽管G20各国政府都看到了这个绩效榜,但B20却对是否发表这个榜单犹豫不决。Fans of good government will be disappointed. What use is a watchdog that does not bark?有信誉的政府的持者可能会感到失望。但是,要是看门不叫的话,要它何用?For now Mr Ramírez, whose day job is boss of Cinépolis, a Mexican cinema chain, will say only that Australia has performed best, making progress on every pledge, whereas Argentina has performed poorly.作为B20主席,拉米雷兹的日常工作是担任一家名为辛普利的墨西哥影院连锁的总裁。仅就目前而言,拉米雷兹只能说澳大利亚的表现是最好的,在每一个承诺上都做出了成绩,相反,阿根廷表现很差。No surprises there.这点不足为奇,Australia has grown rich selling food and minerals to China, and is rolling out the welcome mat for foreign talent.澳大利亚通过向中国出售食品和矿产而大发横财,并展开怀抱,积极引进外国人才。Argentina, in contrast, cannot even keep honest inflation statistics, and has a nasty habit of nationalising foreign companies.相反,阿根廷甚至在通胀数据上都不能诚实一点,并有个恶劣的习惯——将外国企业收归国有。Following a disappointing B20 last year in Cannes, when the politicians lectured the bosses but did not listen,去年在戛纳召开的B20峰会令人不快,因为政治家们批评了商界总裁,但却没有听取他们的意见。Mr Ramírez has been doing all sorts of sensible things to make the B20 seem more than just a club of rich grumblers.自此之后,拉米雷兹采取各种各样的明智的手段,以使B20看上去不仅仅是个爱发牢骚的富人的俱乐部。He has invited NGOs and other outsiders to join its deliberations.他邀请了许多非政府组织和旁观者参与到自己的讨论中来。Barbara Stocking, the head of Oxfam UK, is on the B20s food-security task force. John Evans, a veteran trade-union official, is on its employment task force.英国乐施会的负责人芭芭拉·斯托金已经加入到B20的食品安全特别小组。资深工会领导人,约翰·埃文斯已成为其就业特别小组成员。But a pressure group is measured by results, not intentions.压力集团是否起作用靠的是结果而非意图。The B20 has yet to prove itself.这一点上,B20有待明自己。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201307/246742



  Yaeuml;l: [OVER THE DRUMS] Don! Hey, Don! Hey!咚!嘿!咚!嘿!D: Did somebody say something? 有人在说话吗?Y: Yes, over here, hello!?! 是的,在这里。你好?D: Oh, hi Yaeuml;l. What a sec, let my take my earplugs out. Man, drums are loud. 哦,嗨Yaeuml;l. 等我一下,我把耳塞拿出来。鼓声实在是太大了。Y: Tell me about it! What are you doing? Starting a rock band? 告诉我,你敲鼓干什么?开摇滚乐队吗?D: Nope. Im working out. 没,我在锻炼身体。Y: Uh, OK. It looked to me like you were nurturing your inner John Bonham. 呃,好吧。据我看,你就是在模仿John Bonham.D: Well, maybe I was living out my rock star fantasies, but Im also working up a sweat. 嗯,也许我是要活出我的摇滚明星梦,但我也出了一身的汗。Did you know that during a rock show the drummers heart rate can get as high as 179 beats per minute? 你知道吗?摇滚演出的时候鼓手的心率能达到每分钟179下。Y: Wow! Thats like professional athlete range. 哇!那就好比职业运动员的心率范围。D: Yep. Rock drummers burn something like six-hundred calories per hour. 是的。摇滚鼓手每小时要燃烧六百卡路里。Y: How do you know all this? 你是怎么知道这些的?D: Im a big fan of the rock group Blondie. Remember them from the 1970s and early 80s? 我是摇滚乐队Blondie的忠实粉丝。70年代末80年代初就知道他们了。Anyhow, the groups drummer, Clem Burke, has been working with scientists to study what drumming does for the body. Turns out it could be a great form of exercise. 总之,他们的鼓手,Clem Burke,一直在与科学家研究打鼓对身体的好处。事实明这可能会是一种很棒的健身形式。Y: I can see that. Youre using both arms and legs at the same time, and if youre playing a fast song, that really takes a lot of energy. 我知道。你要同时动用双臂和双腿,而且如果你在演奏快歌,那确实是要耗很大能量的。D: Exactly. And its more fun than running on a tmill like a hamster on a wheel. 的确。但那会比在跑步机上跑步有意思,后者就像是绕着转轮跑的仓鼠。Y: So are we going to see drumming fitness centers in the near future? 所以在不久的将来我们会看到击鼓健身俱乐部吗?D: Maybe. Theres still more research to be done on drumming as exercise. But drumming could very well emerge as a new fitness trend. 也许吧。但还需要做些深入研究。但是打鼓很可能成为一个新的健身趋势。201308/251325


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