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武汉阿波罗医院做包皮手术多少钱武汉市儿童医院阳痿早泄价格The Eastern Han Dynasty entered its middle period when the 10-year-old Emperor. He came to the throne in 88 AD, his mother, Empress Dowager Dou led the court audiences.公元88年,仅10岁的和帝继位,窦太后临朝。东汉的统治进人了中期。By then, Xiongnu had split into the northern and the southern parts again.这时,匈奴再次分裂为南、北两部分。By 91, the northern group had been wiped out in the allied expeditions of Han and the Southern Xiongnu.公元91年,汉和南匈奴联手铲除北匈奴。The triumph over the Northern Xiongnu enabled Dou Xian, the commander-in-chief and the brother of the Empress Dou to take over the administrative affairs.这一胜利,使大将军窦宪(窦太后的兄弟)得以掌权。This threw the imperial court into prolonged turmoil.汉朝廷从此被卷人混乱的漩涡。In 92, Emperor He allied with his eunuch, Zheng Zhong, finally destroyed the power of the Dou clan and grasped the power himself. Zheng Zhong was granted the title of Marquise for it.和帝于公元92年与宦官郑众等人合力诛灭窦氏,掌握实权,郑众因功封侯。From then on, eunuchs were involved in the reign progressively.自此,宦官越来越多地参与到东汉的政治统治之中。Most successors to of the throne after Emperor He were children.和帝以后继位的皇帝也多是小儿。Therefore, reigns of government had to be held by empress regents, in fact who usually relied on their clansmen. Naturally, the power were lost, and the consort clans manipulated the imperial court.太后临朝听政,实是依靠娘家的父兄掌权,因此往往是大权旁落,外戚势力集团左右朝政。When a young emperor grew up, he tried to break away from the control of the empress * s family, seeking the support of eunuchs close to him. Consequently, eunuchs replaced consort clans to seize the power.小皇帝年长之后,为摆脱外戚的控制,就向身边的宦官寻求帮助,继而宦官又掌大权。Such pattern repeated constantly, and the reign of Emperors An, Shun and Huan had no exception, either.外戚与宦官的斗争循环往复,在安、顺、桓帝时也都发生过。The year 146, when Emperor Huan came to the throne, it was a turning point at which palace eunuchs began to rise to supremacy, causing even greater upheavals in the court. The Eastern Han Dynasty entered its last stage when consort clans and eunuchs had the imperial power in hands.公元146年,桓帝在位时,这一斗争出现了转折点。宦官的权利达到无以复加的地步,在朝廷中掀起更大的波澜,形成东汉王朝后期的宦官与外戚专权的格局。Liang Ji, the brother of the Empress Liang, was the general during the reign of Emperor Shun.顺帝时,梁冀(梁皇后的兄弟)为大将军。After the death of Emperor Shun in 144, Empress Dowager Liang and Liang Ji became the prominent power holders of the Eastern Han court.公元144年,顺帝死后,朝廷的大权便落人梁太后和梁冀的手中。Initially, Liang Ji installed a two-year-old boy on the throne, known as Emperor Chong.梁冀先立2岁的小儿为帝,是为冲帝。The young emperor died in the following year. Then he had another boy the emperor, who was the eight-year-old Emperor Zhi.次年冲帝死, 他又立8岁的小儿为帝,即质帝。Young as an emperor, he knew that Liang Ji was imperious and despotic.质帝虽小,但却知道梁冀专权骄横。Once in the court, the young emperorsaid to Liang, “You are a domineering general. ”上朝时,他说梁冀此跋扈将军也。In resentment, Liang Ji poisoned Emperor Zhi,and put fifteen-year-old Liu Zhi on the throne, that was Emperor Huan.梁冀很忿恨,就把质帝毒死,另立宗室15岁的刘志为帝, 是为桓帝。Therefore, Liang Ji controlled the imperial court for nearly twenty years and his influence was tremendous.梁冀专权近20年,势力庞大。When Empress Dowager Liang died in 159, it gave way to Shan Chao, a eunuch who could defeat the Liang clan. Conspired with Emperor Huan, Shan Chao had the army besiege Liang’s mansion, then Liang Ji committed suicide, while all his family members were executed.公元159年(延熹二年),梁皇后死,桓帝与中常侍单超等人合谋,以1000余人包围梁冀的府第,梁冀自杀,梁氏的族人皆被诛。Title of nobility was bestowed to Shan Chao.单超因功封侯。In fact, it was the fourth time that eunuchs dealt heavy blows on consort clans in the history of the Eastern Han.这是宦官对外戚的第四次打击。It benefited the politics and society to annihilate Liang Li and his partisans, but from than on, the regime of the Eastern Han was monopolized by eunuchs.诛除梁冀及其党羽,对当时的政治、社会都有好处;但从此以后,东汉政权为宦官垄断。When the imperial power came into the governance of eunuchs, the politics tended to be gloomy. At this point, some righteous state officials with their followers united to fight against the clique of eunuchs in various means.宦官垄断政权以后,政治日益黑暗,一些比较正直的高级官吏及其门生、故吏, 采取各种形式,对宦官集团展开了斗争。Then the Movement of Pure Comments and Partisan Prohibition took place successively.于是相继发生了 “清议”运动和“党锢”事件。The Movement of Pure Comments: Eunuchs ’ monopoly on the regime not only worsened the politics, but interdicted scholars’ official career, depriving their further development.清议:宦官专政不仅使政治黑暗,而且也阻断了仕途,严重地侵夺了士人的上进之路。At that time, the number of students in the state academy had reached up to over 30 000. Along with many Confucian scholars in the prefectures and counties, they allied with scholar-bureaucrats, forming a huge political force in the court and the commonalty to criticize the eunuchs * interference in the regime.这一时期,太学生已发展到30000余人,各郡县的儒生也很多,就与官僚士大夫结合,在朝野形成一个庞大的官僚士大夫反宦官专权的社会政治力量,批评宦官专权乱政。This is the so called Pure Comments.这就是所谓的“清议”。Partisan Prohibition: Confucian officials and students of the state academy not only availed public opinion to attack eunuchs, but began a conscious effort to form a coalition to drive out the political influence of the eunuchs.党锢:官僚士大夫和太学生们不仅在舆论上抨击宦官,还试图在政治上打击宦官势力。Therefore, the conflicts between the two sides intensified gradually.这样,官僚士大夫和太学生与宦官集团之间的斗争愈演愈烈。The matter came to a climax in 166 over a murder case.公元166年的一桩命案则使其斗争达到高潮。Zhang Cheng, a fortuneteller in Luoyang, instructed his son to commit a murder.术士张成教唆其子杀人,为司隶校尉李膺逮捕。Li Ying, one of the famous Confucian scholars in government who was serving as the governor in the capital province, arrested the Zhangs, but indeed at this time a general pardon was issued.适逢国家有赦令,可是李膺因张成与宦官关系密切,就把他们处死。Li disregarded it and executed the Zhangs anyway due to the Zhang#39;s close relation with eunuchs.不料想张成的弟子,诬告李膺与太学生、诸郡儒生及游学士人“共为部党,诽讪 朝廷”。However, Li did not anticipate that ZhangJ s disciple would then accuse him of forming clique with students of the academy and scholars in various prefectures to defame the imperial court and the emperor.EmperorHuan became extremely enraged, and arrested Li as well as some 200 students.桓帝大怒,逮捕了李膺等200余人。This arrest order that coined the term “the partisans”.“党锢”一词由此而出。Later, officials Huo Xu and Dou Wu submitted humble petitions again and again, requesting leniency for the partisans. Under their urging, Li Ying and the university students were released and exiled back to their hometowns. Their civil liberties were stripped for life.后经尚书霍 婿、城门校尉窦武等一再向桓帝说情,才得赦免回归田里,但却禁锢终身。This was the first partisan prohibition.这是第一次“党锢”。After this event, the opposition and struggle between Confucian official and students and eunuchs became acute farther自这次事件之后,官僚士大夫和太学生与宦官集团的对立和斗争进一步激化。After the death of Emperor Huan in the next year, Emperor Ling succeeded to the throne.第二年,桓帝死,灵帝立。General Dou Wu, the father of Empress Dowager Dou and taifu Chen Fan acted as regents.太后之父窦武以大将军的身份与太傅陈蕃辅政。They restored the rights of the partisans, like Li Ying and other famous scholars, and in fact made many of them imperial officials.他们起用了李膺和其他一些被禁锢的名士。Later in 168, concerned that the eunuchs were exerting too much influence over the young emperor and the empress dowager, Dou Wu and Chen entered into a plan to exterminate the leading eunuchs.由于幼帝和太后为太监所左右,公元 168年,他们又共谋诛除宦官集团。When word got out, headed with Chao Jie, the eunuchs instead mobilized the imperial guards and had Dou Wu arrested, who committed suicide later.可是,由于事泄,以曹节为首的宦官发兵逮捕窦武,窦武自杀,窦氏宗族惨遭灭门。The dan of Dou was executed. The eunuchs immediately removed the partisans from government and again suspended their civil liberties.曹节等宦官迅速清除其同党,再次实行免官禁锢。The eunuchs were not content with just removing the partisans from government. In 169, they persuaded the 13-year-old Emperor Ling that the partisans were intent to rebel.但是宦官并不满足于此,公元169年,他们对13岁的灵帝说朋党欲造反。The leading partisans, including Li Ying, Du Mi, and Fan Pang were arrested and executed. Overall, about 100 people lost their lives.后以李膺、杜密、范滂为首的朋党皆被杀,前后又100多人丧命。This was the second Partisan Prohibition.The Partisan Prohibition was not lifted until 184, when the Yellow Turban uprising took place.这是第二次党锢这次党锢直到中平元年(184年)黄巾大起义时才被解除。It was Lu Qiang, also a eunuch, who made the proposal.建议解除禁锢的也是一个宦官,即中常侍吕强。Fearing that the prohibited partisans felt discontented and would plot with Zhang Jiao, then Lu made the suggestion.他怕受禁锢的人心怀不满,与张角等“合谋”,因之提出这一建议。Emperor Ling accepted it, decreeing that the partisans be free from the prohibition.灵帝接受了这个建议,下诏解除了“党锢”。Then the internal struggle of the ruling clique, which lasted more than several decades, was suspended temporarily in the confrontation of peasant rebellions.统治阶级内部的这场长达数十年的斗争,在农民起义面前,暂告中止。 /201512/413035武汉阿波罗在哪里 ;Your Honor, I want to bring to your attention how unfair it is for my client to be accused of theft.;法官先生,我的当事人被指控偷窃,这是多么不公正啊。He arrived in New York City a week ago and barely knew his way around. What#39;s more, he only speaks a few words of English.;他一周前才来到纽约,几乎不认路。而且,他只会说几个英语单词。;The judge looked at the defendant and asked, ;How much English can you speak?;法官看了看被告,问道:;你会说多少英文?;The defendant looked up and said, ;Give me your wallet!; 被告抬起头,说:;把你的钱包给我!; /201511/409323武汉割包皮过长包茎手术的费用

武汉阿波罗男子生植中心任建枝武汉阿波罗医院官方网 King Wu : When Chang, the son of Ji Li, was in the reign, the state had been powerful and prosperous, for he was benevolent and courteous, and many scholars went to Zhou.武王伐封:季历的儿子昌在位时,国富民强。昌,仁慈爱民,礼贤下士,天下士人都来投奔。Fearing for the prosperity of the Zhou, King Zhou of the Shang Dynasty imprisoned Chang in Youli for seven years.周的发展,使商纣感到威胁,于是将西伯昌囚禁于羑里7年。The Zhou people ransomed him with jewels and beauties. Hereafter, under the assistance of Lu Shang, Chang pretended to be obedient and make merry every day, but actually accumulated virtue ,pleasing common people, developing production, having more vassals submit to him and subduing hostile ones. Eventually, Chang controlled much of the world, and in the name of the Mandate of Heaven he proclaimed himself king, namely King Wen of Zhou. King Wen moved the capital to Fengyi (now on the west bank of Fengshui of Southwest of Chang^n county in Shaanxi).周人以珍宝和美女将西伯赎出,此后,在吕尚的辅佐下,昌表面上耽于游乐,对殷纣十分驯,实际上却更为积善修德,和悦百姓,大力发展生产,使更多的诸侯前来归附,进而征讨不驯的诸侯和商的盟国,自称王,即周文王,并将都城迁到丰邑(今陕西长安西南沣水西岸)。Nine years later, King Wen died, and his son came to the throne, Known as King Wu.9年后,周文王逝世,其子发继位,称武王。With Lu Shang as teacher, Duke Dan of Zhou, Zhao and Bi as assistants, King Wu continued his fathers unfinished cause.他继续以吕尚为师,周公旦为辅,召公、毕公等人为主要助手,继续文王未尽的事业。In 1048 , King Wu called in eight hundred vassals to have a meeting, making a pledge to conquer the Shang Dynasty at Mengjin.将都城扩至沣水以东的镐京(今陕西长安县境),积极作灭商的准备。公元前1048年,武王在孟津召集八百诸侯会师盟誓伐纣。Two years later, he led army to depart from Tongguan, allying various vassal states, and marching eastward. In the next February, King Wu defeated the Shang forces at the battle of Muye; then established the Zhou Dynasty.两年后,文王兵出潼关,联合各方诸侯,挥师东向,于次年2月在牧野打败商朝的军队,建立了周朝。King Cheng (1042 ~ 1006): King Cheng was succeeded to King Wu.周公辅成王:武王死后,其子成王继位。However, King Cheng was young, and the Zhou Dynasty had just brought order to the empire. Duke Dan of Zhou was afraid that the patrician lords would rebel against Zhou, so he assumed the powers of a regent to administer the state.成王年少,天下初定,周公旦恐怕诸侯不,以王叔摄政。Guan Shu and Cai Shu, dissatisfied, together with, under the standard of Wu-geng, the son of the last Shang king Zhou, rose up in rebellion against the Zhou Dynasty.管叔、蔡叔不,与殷纣之子武庚,发动叛乱。Duke Dan of Zhou resolutely commanded the troops to launch on eastern expedition, which led to the deaths of Wu-geng and Guan Shu, and to the banishment of Cai Shu. Subsequently, he pacified the orient states.周公毅然率兵东征,平定了叛乱,诛杀了武庚和管叔,放逐了蔡叔,再相继平定了东方诸国。The unification was finally completed through the war.经过这次战争,周的统一事业才告完成。In order or to enhance the control over the east, Duke Dan of Zhou acted under the order of King Cheng, taking charge of the task of building Luoyi.为了加强对东方的统治,周公奉成王之命负责营建洛邑的工作。After the completion of the city, Duke Dan of Zhou installed Wei-zi Kai, a prince of Yin, as the clan leader of the Yin lineage and gave him a patrimonial estate in Song, the former capital of the Shang Dynasty. Then he rounded up many of the remnant people of Yin and presented them to his youngest brother Feng,who became the ruler of the land of Wei under the title Kang Shu.洛邑建成后,周公封降周的商贵族微子凯于商朝故都宋地;封武王少弟康叔于纣都,成立卫国,赐以殷国,赐以殷民六族。Thus, the remnants of the Yin had been split, who came to submit to the Zhou Dynasty gradually.这样,殷商余民已被分割,逐渐从于周朝的统治。Duke Dan of Zhou occupied the office of regent for seven years. When King Cheng came to age, Duke Dan of Zhou returned to him the reigns of government and faced north at court in the position of a minister.周公执政7年,成王成年后他就把政权交给成王管理,自己则面北称臣。Duke Dan of Zhou established the Rites of Zhou and created the Classic of Music, setting up various institutions and systems, which led to the establishment of the patriarch system.周公还制礼作乐,建立了周朝的各项典章制度,确立了以宗法制度为中心的政治体制。King Cheng had headed the troops to launch a punitive expedition on Dongyi tribes and ensured the stability of the eastern regions.成王曾亲自讨伐东夷,使东部得以安定。After the death of King Cheng, his son King Kang succeeded him to the throne. He carried on the cause of his farther, being diligent in the governmental affairs, amiable to the people. The penal punishment had never been used over the period of several decades, and the society was more stable.成王死后,继位的康王继承先王的事业,勤于政事,平易近民,刑罚几十年不用,社会更加安定。Guoren^ Uprising and the Period of Gonghe : In the later period of the Western Zhou, the social economy got a rapid development with mountains, forests, land and swamps exploited in certain degree.国人暴动与共和行政:西周后期,社会经济发展较快,山林川泽有所开发。When King Li was on the throne,he took over all of these natural resources in the vicinity of the capital and had them under the control of royal house. Therefore, the nobles of lower ranks were excluded from using them, and the common people were not allowed to enter these areas to cut wood, pick, go hunting and fishing.至厉王时,他把王畿以内的山林川泽收归王室控制,不许中小贵族利用,亦不准劳动 人民进人樵采捕捞。The measure led to a wide discon-tentment In response, King Li employed a shaman to watch over the public, and anyone who spoke against him was executed, which intensified the contradiction.厉王的这一措施引起人们的不满。他就派巫师监视,杀掉议论的人,使矛盾更为尖锐。In 841 , Guoren (also interpreted as freeman referring the common people living in the capital cities with a relatively high social status) could no longer tolerate his tyranny, and rose in armed revolt.至公元前841年,国人(居住在国都内的人的统称,多是平民,身份较高)发动暴动,反对周厉王。They attacked the royal palace and forced the king to flee.他们进攻王宫,厉王出逃。Then they surrounded the residence of Duke Zhao, where they got the news that Prince Jing, heir to the throne, was hidden. They compelled the Duke to hand over the prince.这时,有人听说太子静躲在大臣召公家里,他们又立即包围了召公的府邸,逼召公交出太子。At this critical moment, the Duke made his own son take the place of the prince, thus saving the heir who later became King Xuan.情急之下,召公只得将自己的儿子顶替太子交了出去,这才保住了太子的性命。太子静就是后来的宣王。Since King Li had run away, there was no monarch in the imperial court.厉王逃走后,朝廷里没有国王。After the discussion of ministers, a decision was made that the Duke of Zhao and the Duke of the Zhou took charge of the government temporarily. This period was called the gonghe,known as;Gong-He;.经大臣们商议,由召公和周公暂时代替厉王执掌朝政,史上称之为“共和执政”。The first year of the gonghe was 841 B.C. From that year on, we have accurate dates of recorded Chinese History.从共和元年,也就是公元前841年,中国历史上才有了确切的纪年。The uprising of guoren shook the foundation of the Zhou Dynasty. The contradiction between the royal the common began to surface, and the prestige of the dynasty declined gradually.“国人暴动”大大动摇了周王朝的统治基础,贵族与平民的矛盾浮出水面,周朝日趋没落。Teasing the Dukes with Beacon: The period of Gong-He lasted for 14 years when the despot King Li died in Zhi,where he lived after the flight.烽火戏诸侯:“共和执政”维持了 14年之久,暴虐的周厉王终于在逃亡地彘死去。The Dukes of Zhou and Zhao enthroned Prince Jing as King Xuan.周公和召公立太子静为王,即周宣王。In the first years of his rule, severe droughts occurred,but didn’t develop into a serious situation.周宣王统治前期曾发生严重的旱灾,所幸并未酿成大祸。Later King Xuan carried out wars against some neighboring tribes and states and won some battles, but was defeated eventually.宣王统治后期不断对周边国家和部落用兵。虽然打了几场胜仗,但还是已失败而告终。For a time during the reign of King Xuan, there were signs of revival for a time.宣王统治时期,周朝曾一度有所复兴。But the conflicts between the Zhou State and the neighboring people, the social contradiction in the Zhou-controlled areas were not resolved.但是周与周边国家的矛盾以及国家的内部矛盾并没有得到解决。Moreover, continuous wars consumed much of the dynasty^ manpower and material resources.此外,长期的战争更是消耗掉了国家大量的人力和物力。King You, who succeeded King Xuan, was a stupid, self-indulgent and cruel ruler.继宣王之后的幽王是个愚蠢、任性妄为的暴君。The existing contradictions grew worse.这时,王朝的危机更为严重。The struggle between big and small slave owners became sharper.Severe natural disasters like earthquake, landslide and drying up of rivers occurred one after another in Guanzhong, which compelled people to leave their homes and wander about.关中地区发生地震、山崩和河水枯竭等严重自然灾害,人民流离失所。Without comforting and compensating the bereaved people, King You became more extravagant, corruptive and insatiably avaricious.周幽王不仅不抚恤灾民,反而更加奢侈腐化,贪得无厌。In order to gain a smile of his favorite concubine Bao Si, he even had the signal fire lighted, deceiving vassals into rescuing the king.为了得宠妃褒姒一笑,幽王举 烽火欺骗诸侯前来勤王。The most serious issue was that he dismissed Queen Shen and the crown prince Yi Jiu; and made Bao Si queen and her son to the throne.最严重的问题是,幽王废了王后申氏和太子宜臼,另立褒姒为王后,立褒姒的儿子为太子。Marquise Shen,#39; father of Queen Shen, attacked the king in collaboration with the Quanrong tribe and other states.申后的父亲申侯于是联合西方部族犬戎以及其它国家,举兵攻打周幽王。As the vassals refused to send him reinforcements, King You was killed at the foot of Mount Li.由于各路诸侯不去救援,幽王被杀死在彌山脚下。Under the threat of Quanrong and their allies, the Zhou ruler had lost control over the old capital by 771 B.C.在犬戎和联军的威胁之 下,公元前771年,周王已无法控制旧都。In the following year, King You’s successor, King Ping, moved the capital to Luoyi with the support of some of the nobles and vassal.次年,在一些贵族和诸侯的持下,平王迁都洛邑。From this year, the dynasty is known as the Eastern Zhou.从这一年起,东周开始。The dynasty’power and prestige had declined sharply, and the history entered a new stage.东周的实力和影响力急剧下降,历史又步入了一个崭新的阶段。 /201511/407428武汉射精太快 锁精阀

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