2018年03月20日 00:22:16|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度技术健康家园
Sitting down for more than three hours a day can shave a person#39;s life expectancy by two years, even if he or she is physically active and refrains from dangerous habits like smoking, according to a study to be published on Tuesday in the online journal BMJ Open. 一项最新研究表明,每天坐三个小时以上可减少两年的预期寿命,就算保持良好的运动习惯、禁绝吸烟等不良嗜好也无助于改变这一结果。《英国医学杂志》在线版(BMJ Open)将于周二发表该项研究。 Watching TV for more than two hours a day can exacerbate that problem, decreasing life expectancy by another 1.4 years, said the report, which analyzed five underlying studies of nearly 167,000 people over a range of four to 14 years. 报告称,每天看电视超过两个小时将使问题变得更加严重,进一步减少1.4年的预期寿命。该报告分析了五项基础研究,这五项研究在四年到14年的时间跨度内对167,000名对象进行了调查。 The meta-analysis comes just two years after Australian researchers found that people who said they watched TV for more than four hours a day were 46% more likely to die of any cause than people who said they spent less than two hours a day watching TV. Those watching TV more than four hours a day were also 80% more likely to die of cardiovascular disease. 这项综合分析报告出炉之前的两年,澳大利亚的研究人员发现,那些声称自己每天看电视超过四个小时的人因任何一种原因死亡的可能性都比那些声称自己每天看电视不到两个小时的人高出46%。而且,那些每天看电视超过四小时的人死于心血管疾病的可能性要高出80%。 ;Sedentary behavior is something we need to take note of beyond telling people to get 30 minutes of activity a day,; said Peter T. Katzmarzyk, one of the lead researchers for the study and a professor of population science at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, La. 该项研究的项目主管之一卡兹马兹克(Peter T. Katzmarzyk)说,对于那些久坐成习的人,我们给他们的建议不仅仅应该是每天运动30分钟。卡兹马兹克是路易斯安那州首府巴吞鲁日市(Baton Rouge)彭宁顿生物医学研究中心(Pennington Biomedical Research Center)的一名人口学教授。 ;We have people who can meet that guideline,; explained Dr. Katzmarzyk. ;However, if you#39;re sedentary or sitting the other 20 hours a day, you#39;re still going to be at risk for that.; 卡兹马兹克解释说,有一些人的确可以做到每天运动30分钟,但如果在每天其余的20个小时里他都不动或是坐着,那么他仍有预期寿命缩短的风险。 But while the evidence linking sedentary behavior to various illnesses is mounting, it remains difficult for many people to find time to get on their feet, especially if they work desk jobs. 不过,尽管将久坐与各种疾病联系起来的据汗牛充栋,对很多人来说花点时间迈开双腿仍然非常困难,尤其是对需要伏案工作的人来说。 ;Try to stand as much as you can,; Dr. Katzmarzyk said. ;Typically when you#39;re on the telephone you can stand with speaker phone. Instead of emailing someone in the office, just get up and go talk to them.; 卡兹马兹克说,尽可能想办法站着;通常来说,如果你是在打电话的话,你就可以站着讲话;不必给同一个办公室的人发电子邮件,站起来走过去,当面跟他们讲。 However, Dr. Katzmarzyk added, standing shouldn#39;t be an alternative to exercising, but an alternative to sitting. ;Several studies show that when you#39;re sitting, your leg muscles are completely inactive,; he said. ;When you#39;re sitting and completely inactive, this is when you run into trouble managing blood glucose.; 不过,卡兹马兹克士还补充道,站立并不是用来代替运动的,而是用来代替久坐的。他说,一些研究表明,人在坐着的时候,腿部的肌肉是完全松弛的,如果你总是坐着总是不动的话,就可能在血糖控制上遇到麻烦。 Researchers determined the prevalence of sedentary behavior by using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which provided data on sitting habits between 2009 and 2010. The most recent available data on TV viewing was between 2005 and 2006. 研究人员在确定久坐这一行为的流行程度时利用了美国国家健康与营养调查(National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey)提供的2009年至2010年间的久坐习惯数据。目前可得的最新电视观看数据是2005年到2006年间的数据。 When looking at the five underlying studies, the researchers eliminated data on patients with existing diseases and were therefore more likely to be sitting a lot. 研究人员在审视五个基础研究的过程中剔除了已经患病因而更有可能久坐的病人的数据。 One of the analysis#39;s limitations was that it relied on self-reporting, as people tend to underestimate how much sitting they do, Dr. Katzmarzyk said. 卡兹马兹克说,该项分析的局限之一就是完全依赖自我报告,而人们往往倾向于低估自己坐着的时间。 The study bolsters an emerging body of research that points to a number of dangers associated with leading a sedentary lifestyle. 这项研究为一系列声称久坐的生活方式会导致一系列风险的研究提供了持。 Last year, scientists found that people who worked 10 years in sedentary jobs, or jobs that don#39;t require a lot of energy expenditure, had twice the risk of colon cancer and a 44% increased risk of rectal cancer, compared with people who had never worked sedentary jobs. 去年,科学家发现,与那些从未从事过需要久坐工作的人相比,那些坐着工作10年的人,或是工作中不需要消耗太多能量的人,罹患结肠癌的风险高出一倍,罹患直肠癌的风险高出44%。 And in March, scientists found that the rate of cancers linked to obesity and lack of physical activity, such as cancers of the kidney, pancreas, lower esophagus and uterus, rose every year from 1999 through 2008. 今年3月份,科学家发现罹患癌症的几率与肥胖程度和缺乏体育运动有关,比如从1999年到2008年间,肾癌、胰腺癌、食道癌和子宫癌的发病率每年都在增加。 /201207/189764There is turmoil in the strange world of citizenship tests. The UK is planning to revise its test for would-be Britons, adding questions on crucial issues such as the life of the poet Robert Browning. In France#39;s test, introduced this month, applicants must obviously know about Brigitte Bardot. Meanwhile a recent survey by Xavier University found that more than one-third of Americans would fail their own country#39;s naturalisation test. Only 8 per cent could name even one author of the Federalist Papers. And Denmark is quietly scrapping its test. No wonder that no country seems quite happy with its citizenship test. Being a citizen has little to do with what#39;s in your head. 千奇百怪的公民入籍考试领域目前出现了动荡。英国正计划修订针对入籍申请者的考试,增加一些关键的问题,如诗人罗伯特#8226;勃朗宁(Robert Browning)的生平。在本月推出的法国公民入籍考试中,申请者显然必须了解碧姬·巴铎(Brigitte Bardot)。与此同时,泽维尔大学(Xavier University)最近的一项调查显示,超过三分之一的美国人可能通不过本国的入籍考试。只有8%的人能够说出《联邦党人文集》(Federalist Papers)的任何一名作者。同时丹麦正在悄悄放弃该国的入籍考试。难怪没有哪个国家似乎对其公民入籍考试非常满意。成为一个国家的公民与头脑里装了什么没有太大关系。 Tests for wannabe immigrants or citizens came into vogue in the era after September 11 2001. Most seemed designed to weed out Muslim fundamentalists. The Netherlands made this most explicit: along with its test, it released an integratiefilm featuring a gay wedding and topless Dutchwomen. These images were presumably meant to shock Muslims out of coming to the Netherlands, just as they would have shocked most Dutch people of a generation ago. The idea was so brilliant that the anti-immigrant Danish People#39;s Party proposed sticking breasts into Denmark#39;s film. However, the Dutch soon had to offer a breast-free version of their film, after discovering that diligent, aspirant Dutchmen caught with the hardcore version in, say, Afghanistan, might get into difficulty. 针对移民或公民申请者的考试,是在2011年9月11日之后流行起来的。多数此类考试似乎意在淘汰穆斯林原教旨主义者。荷兰的态度最为明确:除了实行考试制度外,还发行一部带有同性恋婚礼和无上装妇女镜头的荷兰生活宣传片。这些画面想必是为了吓走穆斯林,使他们不敢来荷兰(一代人以前,这些画面也会吓着大部分荷兰人)。这个创意如此;高超;,以至于反对移民的丹麦人民党(Danish People#39;s Party)也提议在该国电影中加入乳房画面。然而,荷兰很快发现,有志成为荷兰人的勤奋的、有上进心的外国人如果在阿富汗这样的地方被发现带着这种片子,可能会遇到麻烦。于是,荷兰不得不删除宣传片中的乳房镜头。 The Iraqi refugee Rodaan al Galidi, who wrote a prizewinning novel in Dutch, failed the Netherlands#39; integration test. He explained afterwards: ;I don#39;t know when a woman gets her period after a miscarriage, because I have never been pregnant. I can prove that.; 曾经用荷兰语写了一部获奖作品的伊拉克难民卢达恩#8729;阿尔#8729;加里迪(Rodaan al Galidi)没能通过入籍考试。后来他解释说:;我不知道女士在流产之后什么时候会再来例假,因为我从未怀过。我可以明。; Other countries took the high road. The UK felt that prospective Britons should have some familiarity with the Magna Carta. At a debate on the matter in London, someone asked who in the room had actually the Magna Carta. Of the several hundred overeducated Londoners present, only two or three raised their hands. 其他国家选择比较阳春白雪的内容。英国认为准英国人应该熟悉《大宪章》(Magna Carta)。在伦敦关于这个话题的一场辩论中,有人问在场的人中谁真正读过《大宪章》,在场的几百位受过高等教育的伦敦人中只有两三个人举手。 Every country has made much the same discovery: few natives can answer basic constitutional questions. The German Green politician Volker Beck said Germany#39;s citizenship test ;expects knowledge that Germans only have after they#39;ve studied law for a semester;. 每个国家都得出了同样的结论:土生土长的人中很少有人能够回答基本的宪法问题。德国绿党政界人士富克尔#8226;贝克(Volker Beck)表示,德国的公民入籍考试;要求掌握德国人需要学过一学期的法律才能具备的知识。; Immigrants memorise the answers, and generally pass, though it#39;s doubtful how much knowledge sticks. A Filipina I know recently attended her day-long ;citizenship course; in Paris. That evening I asked her what she#39;d learnt. There was this European organisation, she said, which excluded Turkey. Or maybe, she added, it included Turkey. What had most impressed her that day were the constant meal breaks, which may indeed be the best introduction to Frenchness. 移民们通过死记硬背,一般能够通过考试,尽管他们真正消化吸收了多少知识令人怀疑。我认识的一个菲律宾女士最近参加了巴黎一个全天的;公民课程;。当天晚上我问她都学到了什么。她说,有一个什么欧洲的组织,不包括土耳其,后来她又补充说,可能也包括土耳其在内。那天给她印象最深刻的是接二连三的进餐休息时间,这或许的确是引导她熟悉法国生活方式的最好方式。 The most famous story about citizenship tests points up their essential wrongness. In 1947, the great Austrian logician Kurt Gouml;del went to a hearing in Trenton, New Jersey, to acquire American citizenship. His friends Albert Einstein and the economist Oskar Morgenstern came along. The story has long been shrouded in myth, but ;the lost Morgenstern document;, containing Morgenstern#39;s 1971 memories of the affair, surfaced some years ago. We now know what happened. 有个关于公民资格考试的最著名故事,让我们看出此类考试的根本缺陷。1947年,伟大的奥地利逻辑学家库尔特#8226;哥德尔(Kurt Gouml;del)前往美国新泽西州特伦顿(Trenton)参加听会,以获得美国国籍。他的朋友阿尔伯特#8226;爱因斯坦(Albert Einstein)和经济学家奥斯卡#8226;根斯坦(Oskar Morgenstern)也陪他前往。这个故事长期被披上传奇外衣,但丢失的;根斯坦文档;(记载着根斯坦1971年对那次考试的回忆)前些年又找到了。现在我们知道当时发生了什么。 Gouml;del had taken the hearing seriously. ;Since he is a very thorough man,; recorded Morgenstern, ;he started informing himself about the history of the settlement of North America by human beings. That led gradually to the study of the History of American Indians, their various tribes, etc.; 哥德尔很重视那次听会。;由于他是个特别较真的人,;根斯坦回忆道,;他开始研究人类在北美定居的历史。这慢慢地又让他考察上了美洲印第安人的历史、他们的不同部落等问题。; Eventually Gouml;del got to the American constitution, and made a terrifying discovery: a malevolent president could exploit a loophole and set up as a fascist dictator! Ah, said Einstein and Morgenstern, best not to raise this at the hearing. 最后,哥德尔查阅了美国《宪法》,并得出了一个令人恐怖的发现:一个心存邪念的总统可能利用其中的一个漏洞,让自己成为法西斯主义独裁者!算了吧,爱因斯坦和根斯坦都说,你在听会上最好别提这一点。 Morgenstern drove them all to Trenton. In the car, Einstein teased: ;Now, Gouml;del, are you really well prepared for this examination?; As Einstein had intended, the remark made Gouml;del even more anxious. 根斯坦开车载着大家来到了特伦顿。在车里,爱因斯坦拿哥德尔取乐:;哥德尔,现在你当真对这次考试准备充分了吗?;正如爱因斯坦所料,这话让哥德尔愈发焦虑了。 In Trenton, the judge asked Gouml;del where he came from. ;Where I come from? Austria,; replied Gouml;del in heavy Teutonic tones. The judge asked him about Austria#39;s form of government. Gouml;del explained: ;It was a republic, but the constitution was such that it finally was changed into a dictatorship.; 到了特伦顿,法官问哥德尔从哪里来。哥德尔用浓重的日耳曼口音回答:;我从哪里来?从奥地利来。;法官又问他奥地利是什么政体。哥德尔解释道:;奥地利是共和政体,但宪法是如此的无力,结果变成了一个独裁国家。; ;Oh! This is very bad,; said the judge, and added consolingly: ;This could not happen in this country.; ;Oh yes it can!; shouted Gouml;del, ;I can prove it.; Whereupon Einstein, Morgenstern and the judge hastily shut him up, and the hearing concluded. That#39;s because these tests require only memorised factual answers. Any deeper knowledge creates trouble. 法官表示,;哦,这可太不幸了。;然后如释重负地表示:;这种情况不可能会发生在美国。;;不对,美国有可能发生,;哥德尔喊了出来,;我可以明这一点!;法官、爱因斯坦所和根斯坦都赶紧让他闭嘴,听会就此结束。这是因为,应对这类考试只需要背诵事实型。更深入的知识会招来麻烦。 And even a modest factual test is probably pointless. It would be nice to live in a polis where all citizens have some familiarity with the Magna Carta, but we never will. To be a citizen, it doesn#39;t matter what you know, or what crazy stuff you have in your head. If you believe homosexuals are infidels, that#39;s fine. In a democracy you can believe what you like. You just can#39;t act on certain beliefs. 即便是考察对事实了解程度的难度不大的考试,也很可能毫无意义。要是能生活在每名公民都对《大宪章》有所了解的城邦里,将是一件很理想的事,但我们永远也办不到。要成为一名公民,无论你了解多少知识,或者你心里装了哪些疯狂的想法,这都不要紧。如果你认为同性恋者是异教徒,那也没关系。在民主国家里,你有信仰的自由。你只是不可以依照某些信仰去行事。 Penniless governments could save themselves some cash by ceasing to examine people#39;s minds. 一文不名的政府也可能省下一点钱,别再审查人们心里在想些什么了。 /201207/192263

  • 飞度咨询三甲医院黄石市中心医院看前列腺炎好吗
  • 鄂州市中心医院治疗龟头炎多少钱
  • 飞度新闻资讯信息武汉包皮手术哪家比较好
  • 武汉阿波罗人工受精大约多少钱
  • 飞度【养生在线】武汉哪所医院看男科最有权威的飞管家免费咨询
  • 武汉睾丸旁边痒痒怎么回事
  • 武汉男性科医飞度管家免费答武汉包皮专科医院
  • 飞度咨询问医生武汉治阳痿的费用是多少
  • 湖北省中山医院男科挂号
  • 飞度新闻养生医生武汉市中心医院男科大夫
  • 武汉不孕不育的治疗费用是多少
  • 武汉尿道炎的症状和治疗飞度永州新闻武汉市第九医院治疗男性不育多少钱
  • 飞度技术免费问答武汉男科医院有泌尿专科
  • 武汉包皮手术哪个医院比较好
  • 武汉看男科去哪飞度管家名院武汉包皮扎套手术与包切有何不同
  • 度排名快答武汉切包皮手术需要多少钱
  • 飞度技术养生问答网武汉有哪些医院割包皮飞度【快速问医生】
  • 武汉治疗不孕不育
  • 飞度管家公立医院武汉治疗精液异常哪里好飞度名院
  • 武汉治疗梅毒的专科医院
  • 武汉什么是阳伟
  • 宜昌市中心人民医院阳痿早泄价格
  • 国际在线娱乐微信