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武汉/阿波罗男子医院有看生植器的吗武汉/大学中南医院治疗龟头炎多少钱武汉/阿波罗男子医院可信嘛 Leaders社论Britains planning laws英国规划法An Englishmans home英国人之家The shortage of housing is a gathering national crisis. Rev up the bulldozers英国住房匮乏,危机重重,应大兴土木!NOW that the economy is at last growing again, the burning issue inBritainis the cost of living.既然英国最终恢复了经济增长,如今国民生活成本问题便成了燃眉之急。Prices have outstripped wages for the past six years.过去六年来,物价一直超过工资水平。Politicians have duly harried energy companies to cut their bills, and flirted with raising the minimum wage.政治家们已适时地督促能源公司削减账单,辅以增加最低工资水平的措施。But the thing that is really out of control is the cost of housing.但是真正失控的是房价。In the past year wages have risen by 1%; property prices are up by 8.4%. This is merely the latest in a long surge.去年,工资已增长了1%;房地产价格却增长了8.4%。If since 1971 the price of groceries had risen as steeply as the cost of housing, a chicken would cost 51.这仅仅是长期价格飙升中最近的一次。倘若自1971年,百货商品的价格以房价一样的增长比例大幅上涨,一只鸡将会卖到51英镑。By subsidising mortgages, and thus boosting demand, the government is exacerbating the problem.政府助房屋贷款,进而促进需求,如此是不断使问题恶化。But that is not the main reason for rising prices.但是这并不是房价上涨的主要原因。Driven by a baby-boom, immigration and longer lives,Britains population is growing by around 0.8% per year, faster than in most rich countries.受婴儿潮、移民、寿命延长的影响,英国人口每年以大约0.8%的比率增加,要比大多数富裕国家更快。Foreign wealth, meantime, is pouring intoLondon.同时,外来人口正不断涌入伦敦。If supply were rising fast too, increasing demand would not matter; but it is not.如果供给也增长迅速,那么日益增长的需求问题也就不值一提了;然而事与愿违。Though some 221,000 additional households are formed in England annually, just 108,000 homes were built in the year to September 2013.尽管每年英国都会新建多达22.1万的额外住房,2013年年初到9月仅有10.8万建好。The lack of housing is an economic drag.住房的匮乏一直给经济拖后腿。About three-quarters of English job growth last year was inLondonand its hinterlands, but high prices make it hard for people to move there from less favoured spots.去年,四分之三的就业率增长是来源于伦敦与一些内地贸易区,但高昂的房价如今使人们对这些地方望而却步。It also damages lives.人们的生活也因此深受其害。New British homes are smaller than those anywhere else in Europe, household size is rising inLondonand slums are sping as immigrants squash into shared houses.新的英国住房变得比欧洲其他地方更小,但随着移民不断挤进合住房屋,伦敦的家庭规模日益庞大,贫民区也不断扩张。Inequality is growing, because the higher property prices are, the greater the advantage that accrues to those whose parents own their homes.不平等性日益明显,因为房价越高,对于父母拥有房子的家庭占据的优势越大。This is all the result of deliberate policymaking.这都是政府经过深思熟虑后才制定的政策。Since the 1940s house-building inBritainhas been regulated by a system designed to prevent urban sprawl, something it has achieved spectacularly well.自从20世纪40年代,英国就有专门的体系来控制建房以免城市扩张,部分成果显著。It is almost impossible to construct any new building anywhere without permission from the local council.要大兴土木必须要经过当地议会批准。In the places where people most want to live—suburbs at the edge of big cities—councils tend not to give it.但对于人人皆眼红的宝地—紧邻大城市的郊区—议会一般是不会批准。Ministers have tried to override local NIMBYs.部长们也努力推翻当地的邻避主义者。The previous, Labour, government set regional house-building targets and bullied councils to accept high allocations.之前的英国工党政府设立了区域性的建房目标以及强迫议会接受高额分配。The current coalition has scrapped that approach in the name of local democracy—but it, too, has resorted to strong-arming councils to release more land.现在的联合政府以当地民主之名不再采用了这种方式—但是它也有使高度警惕的议会让与出更多的土地。It has also worked with the Bank of England to reduce the cost of credit and has subsidised high loan-to-value mortgages through a scheme called “Help to Buy”.目前政府已和英格兰合作以减少信贷成本,也通过出台“购买帮手”这项体制以持高额的贷款比率。This has boosted demand for housing but not supply.这都促进了人们对住房的购买需求,但没有提高住房的供给。Compare global housing data over time with our interactive house-price tool采用交互式的房价工具,比较全球楼市数据不同时段的变化A much better way of encouraging house-building would be to give local councils bigger incentives to allow it.鼓励建房更好的方式就是刺激当地议会批准它。NIMBYism is not always irrational.邻避主义者并不总是不理性的。Housing developments spoil views; incomers fill roads, schools and doctors surgeries.楼市的发展会改变他们的观点;不断有移民者搭乘汽车上班、进入学校学习、去医院看病。Yet though land prices can soar 200-fold when planning permission is granted, councils cannot extract much of the increased value to spend on services.然而尽管建筑许可的颁发使房价翻了200番,议会却无法将增值的大部分用之于务。A new scheme, the Community Infrastructure Levy, nods in the right direction.社区基础设施征税这一新的体系算是走对了方向。But it is hedged with restrictions and is expected to raise just 650m a year nationally. That is not nearly enough to change minds.但是它的限制条件依旧模糊不清,可能税收每年全国范围仅会增长6.5亿英镑。这还不足以改变人们的观念。Local governments, which are short of cash these days, could be allowed to charge developers much more.当地政府如今缺乏资金,倒是可以向开发商收取些费用。But the ideal solution would be a tax on the value of land.但理想的解决方案是对土地价值征税。This would be low or zero for agricultural land and would jump as soon as permission to build is granted.这对于农业土地而言,税收近乎是零或者十分低,只要批准建房,那么税收就会猛增。It would prod builders to get to work quickly.如此可刺激建房者高效率工作。It would also help to capture the gains in house prices that result from investment in transport or schools.同时,也有助于获取因投资交通或学校的房价收益。The green belts that stop development around big cities should go, or at least should be greatly weakened.阻止大城市发展的绿化带必须去除或至少应极力减少。They increase journey times without adding to human happiness.他们只是增加人们旅行时间而没有提升人们幸福指数。Londons, in particular, mostly protects scrubby agricultural fields and pony paddocks.尤其是伦敦的绿化带只是保护矮小的农业土地还有小马围场。Parts would be prettier with housing on.其中部分区域,在上面建上房屋会更宜人。This blessed plot天佑方案The government should also do more to organise and pay for industrial wastelands to be prepared for housing.政府也应大力组织或买下一些工业废址以为建房做准备。“Brownfield” sites are typically built on only when land prices rise enough to cover the high cost of development.只有当土地价格上涨至足以覆盖发展的高成本时,“布朗菲尔德”地区才特别作为建筑地址。Urban development corporations, such as the one established in the 1980s to regenerate eastLondons docklands, could assemble such plots of land more effectively than private developers.城市发展性企业可以比私人开发商更有效地集合这类土地,比如20世纪80年代成立的一家城市发展性企业就使东部伦敦多克兰港区改头换面。Not all these policies would be popular or easy.并非所有的政策都容易实施或大众化推广。Even the modest planning reforms introduced by the coalition are resented.甚至联合政府引进的最保守的规划改革都令人怨声载道。Building on fields in a country that is as crowded asEnglandwill always rile some people, however well-designed the system.不管该体制有多好,在同英格兰那般拥挤的乡村田地上建房,总会激怒一些民众。But the alternative is worse: a nation of renters and rentiers, where only the rich own houses但是可选的办法更糟:国家属于房东与靠出租生活的人,只有这些有钱人才有房子。 201401/273510武汉/传统包皮手术多少钱

武汉/龟头上有红点是什么原因武汉/哪里有好的皮肤科 Science and technology科学技术Visible-light communication可见光通信Tripping the light fantastic与光共舞A fast and cheap optical version of Wi-Fi is coming一个高速而廉价的光学Wi-Fi即将问世AMONG the many new gadgets unveiled at the recent Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas was a pair of smartphones able to exchange data using light.最近,在国际消费电子展上首次展出的电子产品中,有一对能利用光交换数据的智能手机。These phones, as yet only prototypes from Casio, a Japanese firm, transmit digital signals by varying the intensity of the light given off from their screens.目前,这两部不过是日本卡西欧公司的样机,它们能通过改变自身屏幕的光强来传传输数字信号。The flickering is so slight that it is imperceptible to the human eye, but the camera on another phone can detect it at a distance of up to ten metres.这样的闪光很微弱,人眼无法感知,但另一部手机的摄像头能够在十米的范围内检测得到。In an age of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, flashing lights might seem like going back to sending messages with an Aldis lamp.在这个Wi-Fi和蓝牙横行的时代里,使用闪光可能有点像回到用奥尔迪斯手提信号灯发送信息的年代。In fact, they are the beginning of a fast and cheap wireless-communication system that some have labelled Li-Fi.事实上,它们正是有人称之为Li-Fi的高速、廉价的无线通讯系统的鼻祖。The data being exchanged by Casio’s phones were trifles:两部卡西欧手机交换的数据量非常小:message balloons to be added to pictures on social-networking sites.不过是添加在社交网站图片中的虚拟对话框。But the firm sees bigger applications, such as pointing a smartphone at an illuminated shop sign to information being transmitted by the light:但卡西欧公司发现这项技术有更大的应用前景,比如将智能手机对准发光的商店招牌读取通过灯光传送的信息:opening times, for example, or the latest bargains.如营业时间或最新优惠。Yet that is still only a flicker of what is possible.但是,这项技术可能有万千功能,以上不过是冰山一角。Last October a number of companies and industry groups formed the Li-Fi Consortium, to promote high-speed optical wireless systems.去年十月,多家公司及实业集团共同成立了Li-Fi联盟,以推广高速无线光学通信系统。The idea is that light can help with a looming capacity problem.他们的想法是可见光通信将有助于解决即将来临的数据传输瓶颈问题。As radio-based wireless becomes ubiquitous, more and more devices transmitting more and more data are able to connect to the internet, either through the mobile-phone network or through Wi-Fi.随着无线电通讯的普及,越来越多的数据传输量越来越大的设备能够通过移动网络或Wi-Fi与互联网连接。But there is only a limited amount of radio spectrum available.但可用于通信的无线电频段是有限的。Using light offers the possibility of breaking out of this conundrum by exploiting a completely different part of the electromagnetic spectrum, one that is aly ubiquitous because it is used for another purpose: illumination.运用一个完全不同的电磁波段—可见光,就有可能解决这个难题;这个波段其实早已相当常用,因为它有另一个作用:照明。Lighten the darkness照亮黑暗To turn a light into a Li-Fi router involves modulating its output, to carry a message, and linking it with a network cable to a modem that is connected to a telephone or cable-broadband service, just like a Wi-Fi router.要将一个可见光源变成能够携带信息的Li-Fi路由器,需要调制其光强以及用网线将其与一个调制解调器连接,一如Wi-Fi路由器。Incandescent light bulbs and fluorescent tubes are not really suitable for modulation,白炽灯和日光灯的光其实并不适合调制,but they are yesterday’s lighting technology.不过它们已是旧式的照明技术了。Tomorrow’s is the light-emitting diode.新式的照明技术是发光二极管,LEDs are rapidly replacing bulbs and tubes because they are more efficient.LED正凭借其更高的能量利用率迅速取代电灯泡和灯管。And because they are semiconductor devices, tinkering with their electronics to produce the flickering signals required for data transmission is pretty straightforward, according to Gordon Povey,歌登·波文在英国爱丁堡大学与哈拉尔德?哈斯及其同事一起研究光通信;他说,因为LED是半导体器件,who is working on light communication with Harald Haas and his colleagues at the University of Edinburgh, in Britain.调整一下其电路就能很轻易地产生传输数据所需的闪光信号。The rate of data transfer is also good. Dr Povey’s group is aly up to 130 megabits a second over a distance of about two metres, using standard LEDs.用可见光传输数据的速度也相当可观。波文士的研究小组已能利用标准LED在约两米内以最高每秒130兆位的速度传输数据。Dr Povey, who is also the boss of VLC, a firm set up to commercialise the technology, thinks such devices should be able to reach 1 gigabit per second, and do so over greater range.同时也是VLC公司的老板的波文士认为这种器件应能达到每秒1千兆比特的传输速度,且传输距离可以更远。Specially constructed LEDs would be even faster.采用特制LED所达到的速度将会更高。The Li-Fi consortium reckons more than 10 Gbps is possible.Li-Fi联盟估计传输速度可能达到10 Gbps以上。In theory, that would allow a high-definition film to be downloaded in 30 seconds.理论上,这个速度意味着不到30秒就能下载一部高清电影。Dr Povey believes that adapting existing LEDs to work with the sensors and light sources—cameras, ambient-light detectors, screens, flashbulbs, torches and so on.波文士认为,改造现在的LED使之适应智能手机及类似设备上已有的感应器及光源,如摄像头、环境光感应器、屏幕、闪光灯泡、手电筒等,aly found in smartphones and similar devices will be the fastest way to bring Li-Fi to market.是将Li-Fi推向市场最快的方法。VLC has aly produced a smartphone app which allows low-speed data transmission between a pair of iPhones.VLC已设计了一款智能手机软件,两部iPhone能用此软件以低速传输数据。It has also made an experimental optical transceiver that plugs into a laptop to receive and send light signals.该公司也制造了一台用作试验的光收发器,可插入笔记本电脑以收发光信号。Later this year it will bring out Li-Fi products for firms installing LED-lighting systems.今年再过不久,VLC将面向安装了LED照明系统的企业推出Li-Fi产品。There are limitations to using light, of course.当然,利用可见光通信也存在局限性。Unlike radio, light waves will not penetrate walls.可见光不同于无线电波,无法穿透墙壁。Yet for secure applications that could be a bonus.但对于安全应用而言这可能是个意外的优点。And light bulbs—some 14 billion of them around the world—are almost everywhere and often on.而全球大约共有一百四十亿个灯泡,它们几乎随处可见,而且经常亮着。As they are gradually replaced by LEDs, every home, office, public building and even streetlight could become a Li-Fi hotspot.随着电灯泡逐渐被LED所取代,每家每户、办公室、公共建筑物、甚至路灯都可能成为一个Li-Fi热点。Having a line-of-sight connection with the LED in question would undoubtedly improve the signal,若你正在使用的LED光源处于视线范围内,信号强度无疑会有所增加,but light reflected from walls or ceilings might often be enough.不过仅靠墙壁或天花板的反射光可能往往也足够了。In any case, having a good line of sight helps Wi-Fi as well.同样,不论如何,若在视线之内有Wi-Fi信号源,信号当然也会更强。And spotting a nearby light in order to sit next to it is certainly easier than finding the location of a Wi-Fi router.而在身边找一个光源就近使用之当然要比寻找Wi-Fi路由器来得容易。Communication, though, is a two-way street.不过通信是双向的。That means the LEDs involved in Li-Fi would need photodetectors to receive data.这意味着Li-Fi中的LED需要有光电探测器来接收数据。Some LED systems have such sensors aly.一些LED系统已经配备这种探测器了。But even if LEDs are not modified Dr Povey reckons hybrid systems are possible:但即使不对LED进行改造,波文士认为混合系统也可能行得通:data could be downloaded using light but uploaded using radio.通过光下载数据,而上传数据则使用无线电波。In an office, for example, an LED-powered desk lamp could work as a Li-Fi router, able to link up with any networked device placed on the desk.例如在一个办公室里,一盏LED台灯也可以是一个Li-Fi路由器,它能连接桌上任何一个已经联网的设备。A big advantage of light is that it can be used in areas which contain sensitive equipment that radio signals might interfere with, such as aircraft and operating theatres.可见光通信的一大好处在于:它在装有可能会受无线电信号干扰的敏感设备的场所能派上用场,如飞机上及手术室内。LEDs in the ceiling of an airliner would not only allow internet access but could also transmit films on demand to individual seats, removing the need for lots of expensive and heavy cabling, thus saving airlines fuel.将LED安装在大型客机的舱顶,不仅能提供网络务,还能将旅客点播的电影传送至他们的座位上,这样就不必安装许多昂贵而又笨重的线缆,如此一来也会节省燃油。That alone could be enough to, as it were, make this idea fly.光是这一点,似乎就足以令这项技术腾飞。点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201307/246741武汉/蛋疼硬不起来

武汉/龟头炎的检查费用 Finance and Economics;Oil prices;Keeping it to themselves;Gulf states not only pump oil; they burn it, too;财经;油价;为己所用;海湾国家产油亦耗油;Everyone knows why oil prices, at around 5 for a barrel of Brent crude, are so high. The long-term trends are meagre supply growth and soaring demand from China and other emerging economies. And in the short term, the market is tight, supplies have been disrupted and Iran is making everyone nervous.每个人都清楚每桶布伦特原油高达125美元的原因是在未来很长一段时间内,相对于有限的原油供应增长,中国和其他一些新兴经济体对原油的需求会越来越大。而短期内,原油市场吃紧,原油供应链的断裂更是雪上加霜。除此之外,伊朗的局势也是弄得人心惶惶。Saudi Arabia, the only OPEC member with enough spare capacity to make up supply shortfalls, is the best hope of keeping the market stable. The Saudis recently reiterated their pledge to keep the market well supplied as American and European Union sanctions hit Iran. Over time, other producers in the Persian Gulf may be able to pump more. Iraq—and Iran itself—have vast oilfields that could eventually provide markets with millions more barrels a day (b/d). All this is conventional wisdom.石油输出国组织成员,沙特阿拉伯是最有余力来弥补原油供应不足的国家,也是最有希望维持石油市场稳定的国家。最近,在美国与欧洲联手制裁,打击伊朗期间,沙特人重申了他们将对石油市场提供足够补给量的诺言。随着时间的推移,其他一些波斯湾地区的原油生产国将能够生产更多的原油。伊拉克,以及伊朗其自身都拥有广阔的油田,他们能够每天向市场提供多于上百万桶的原油,而这一切都是为世人所共知的。Yet these calculations do not take account of the regions growing thirst for its own oil. Between 2000 and 2010 China increased its consumption of oil more than any other country, by 4.3m b/d, a 90% jump. It now gets through more than 10% of the worlds oil. More surprising is the country that increased its consumption by the second-largest increment: Saudi Arabia, which upped its oil-guzzling by 1.2m b/d. At some 2.8m b/d, it is now the worlds sixth-largest consumer, getting through more than a quarter of its 10m b/d output.然而,考虑到地区自身对原油的需求。在2000年到2010年的十年间,中国的石油消耗量已增加到每天430万桶,较之前增长了90%比任何一个国家的增长速度都要快现在中国已占据了这个世界上大于百分之10的石油消耗量。更令人惊讶的是,如今中国已然成为世界第二大石油消耗国。而位列第六的沙特阿拉伯,其现在每天的石油消耗量大约为280万桶,较之前也增长了每天120万桶。这样的内部消耗量恰恰大约为其每天1000万桶石油出口量的四分之一。Saudi Arabia is not the only oil-producer that chugs its own wares. The Middle East, home to six OPEC members, saw consumption grow by 56% in the first decade of the century, four times the global growth rate and nearly double the rate in Asia (see map).沙特阿拉伯并不是唯一自产自销的石油生产国。石油输出国组织成员的坐落地,中东地区在新世纪的头十年里,其石油消耗量增长了百分之56,这样的增长速度是全球增长速度的4倍,是亚洲地区的2倍。(见地图)Energy use per head is also rising. According to BP, in 1970 in the Middle East it was half what it was in other emerging markets. By 2010 it was three times higher. Global oil consumption stayed at roughly 4.6 barrels a head annually between 2000 and 2010, but the average Iranian and Saudi was getting through roughly 30% more by the end of the decade. The Saudis consume 35.1 barrels each. Overall energy consumption per head, at 7.3 tonnes of oil equivalent, is roughly the same as in America (see chart), which is much richer.人均能源消耗量也在上升。英国石油公司的数据显示, 1970年,东地区的人均能源消耗量是其他新兴市场的一半。而截止到2010年,却已经高出三倍之多。2000到2010年间,全球每人每年的石油消耗量大约为4.6桶,可是伊朗和沙特地区于2010年底的人均消耗量大约高出全球平均量30%。沙特年均每人消耗35.1桶,总计人均能耗7.3吨石油,这一数据大致与相比之下要富裕很多的美国持平。There are three explanations for this growing taste for oil. The first is demography. Populations in the Persian Gulf, and in OPEC as a whole, are growing fast. Tiny Qatars population trebled between 2000 and 2010. Saudi Arabias grew from around 20m to 27.4m, a 37% increase. Demand for power, water and petrol has risen accordingly. Saudi power-generating capacity has doubled in the past decade. Partly this is to mitigate the fearful heat: according to a report from Chatham House, a think-tank, air-conditioning units soak up half of all power generated at peak consumption periods.我们将石油需求量的增加归因于以下三点。首先是人口。波斯湾和石油输出国成员国的人口增长十分快。小小的卡塔尔,其人口在2000-2010年间就增加了3倍。沙特阿拉伯人口从2000万增加到了2740万,上升了37%.相应的对于电力,水资源和石油的需求也增加了。一份查塔姆研究所智囊团的报告显示,在电力消耗高峰期空调的电力消耗量占据了总电力的一半之多。庆幸的是,沙特的电力生产力在过去的十年中得到了成倍的增强,缓减了这一恐慌。The second relates to economic structure. It takes energy to produce energy: pumps must be powered and vast quantities of seawater desalinated. Aramco, the Saudi state oil company, sucks up nearly 10% of the countrys energy output. Attempts to diversify the Saudi economy beyond oil, gas and petrochemicals have not gone far.第二个涉及到的是经济结构。生产能源就需要消耗能源。油泵运行需要电力驱动和大量的脱盐海水。沙特阿美石油公司将近消耗了其出口石油量的百分之十。而力图使沙特经济结构多元化,而不是仅限于石油、天然气和石化产业的尝试却也始终收效甚微。The third reason for rising Gulf consumption is the inefficiency of domestic energy markets. Some 65% of Saudi electricity is generated using black gold, even as successive price shocks and the relative inefficiency of oil generation have seen it all but phased out in rich countries. Oil is used with such profligacy because domestic consumption is massively subsidised. According to the International Energy Agency, global oil subsidies added up to 2 billion in 2010. OPEC countries accounted for 1 billion of the total.海湾地区石油消耗量上升的第三个原因是地区内能源市场的效率低下。,虽然连续不断的价格冲击和低效的石油生产等现象已然在这些富裕国家中匿迹,但仍大约有65%的沙特电力靠石油来生产。当地石油之所以能如此的肆意挥霍还应归因于国内的大量能耗补贴。据国际能源机构统计显示,2010年全球的石油补贴总计为1920亿美元,而石油输出国组织国家占据了其中的1210美元。Saudi Arabia has the cheapest fuel in the Gulf and dirt-cheap electricity, too. This has alleviated poverty but it has also encouraged an American-style driving culture (for men) and limited public transport. Only a third as many Saudis own cars as Americans; as they get richer many more will take to the desert highways.沙特阿拉伯海湾地区有着最便宜的燃料和廉价的电力。这大大减轻了当地的贫困状况,而这也使得许多人开始追求美式的价值观和生活(尤其是男性),并导致了公共交通事业发展缓慢。沙特拥有的汽车只有美国的三分之一,但随着他们变得更加富裕,会有更多的车开上沙漠的高速公路。Many oil-producing countries (including Saudi Arabia) have pledged to cut subsidies. But this is hard to do when regimes are terrified of unrest (and often unelected). Violent protests greeted Nigerias attempts in January to raise the price of imported petrol. Only Iran, which had the most generous subsidy regime, has managed a big price hike—and it had a handy scapegoat in the form of sanctions.许多产油国(包括沙特阿拉伯)曾宣誓要减少石油补贴。但是,政体上的动荡不安(总统职位长期空缺)导致了这一诺言终究难以实现。一月份的武装抗议更是使得尼日利亚尝试提高进口油的价格。而石油补贴一向慷慨的伊朗更是大大的提高了油价,这也使得他成为了被制裁的主要对象。It is costing Saudi Arabia dear to burn through so much oil. With “lifting” costs of to a barrel the fuel is cheap but the opportunity cost, given a global price of 5, is huge. And like many Gulf oil producers Saudi Arabia has failed to use its abundant natural-gas supplies properly.沙特阿拉伯以每桶3-5美元的价格,大量的使用着石油。而同时,国际油价飙升至了每桶125美元。这样的代价是巨大的。除此之外,由于当地石油资源价格低廉,像许多海湾地区国家一样,沙特阿拉伯没有去合理开发利用当地丰富的天然气资源。Gas does now contribute 35% to power generation, but rock-bottom prices and a sniffiness about gas as oils poor relation mean that exploiting its bounty (Saudi Arabia apparently has the worlds fifth-largest gas reserves) has proven hard. Initiatives to attract Western oil companies to get at the gas foundered as low prices and stingy terms failed to attract bidders. Much of the “unassociated” gas that doesnt spew out alongside oil is tough to extract, and would require prices four or five times higher than now to make it worthwhile. According to BP, oil makes up 74% of the regions energy production. By 2030 it will have dropped only to 67%.天然气为该地区提供了35%的发电量,但是由于其市场价值与石油相比十分的低,因此当地人都不愿去大力开发和利用它(尽管沙特阿拉伯地区是世界第五大天然气储备区)。由于天然气低廉的市场价值和当地政府苛刻的一些条件使得一些吸引西方石油公司和竞标商的努力一再受挫。并不伴随原油析出的“非伴生气”提炼很困难,需要将其市场价格提高4-5倍才能彰显其价值。根据英国石油公司的统计预测称,如今石油占据了该地区能源供应的百分之74,而到了2030年,该数值将会下降到百分之67.Saudi Arabia is trying to develop nuclear and solar energy. But its fleet of oil-fired power stations will keep going for years. And as Mark Lewis of Deutsche Bank points out, two more big ones are now being built. On current trends the kingdom would become a net importer of oil by 2038 (unlikely though that is).沙特阿拉伯还致力于发展核能和太阳能工业。可是燃油发电站仍将持续发展数年。正如德意志的Mark Lewis指出的那样,两个更大的电站正在建造中。照此下去,沙特阿拉伯将会于2038年成为石油纯进口国。(虽然不太可能发生)This puts big strains on oil markets. In the short term Saudi spare capacity is an important factor in oil prices. As the year progresses seasonal Saudi demand is likely to jump. Last year the upswing between March and July was some 750,000 barrels of fuel a day, according to Barclays Capital. Much of that will be driven by air conditioners working overtime. This will put pressure on the countrys ability to maintain exports and keep oil prices stable.这给石油市场带来了很大的压力。短期来看,沙特地区的产油余力将会成为主导石油价格的一个重要因素。并且随着时间的推移,沙特国内石油需求量也会周期性的上升。根据巴克莱统计书卷显示去年3月至7月的耗油量上升到了750000桶。这大多是空调装置过度使用的结果。并且,这还会给沙特维持石油出口量和维持油价稳定带来压力。The longer-term picture is equally worrying. Global demand for oil is projected to rise to over 100m b/d by 2030. The Gulf states of Saudi Arabia, Iran and Iraq, which have vast and easily accessible reserves, are regarded as the obvious sources of new supply. But Iranian oil production will decline as sanctions bite and the country loses access to equipment and expertise. Iraq, currently producing 3m b/d, has the reserves to increase production significantly. But fragile politics, dodgy security and a battered oil infrastructure are deterring the investment required to boost supplies. And Saudi Arabias thirst for its own oil shows little sign of abating. The Gulf is usually seen as the answer to the worlds oil problems, but it looks ever more like a question-mark instead.长远来看,前景也是十分的令人担忧。全球石油需求量到2030年预计会达到每天1亿桶。沙特阿拉伯,伊朗以及伊拉克等海湾国家的巨大的石油储备将会是最大的供应源。但是,对伊朗的国际制裁,会使其失去大量技术设备与专家组的持,致使其石油产量下滑。近来产油量为每天300万桶的伊拉克虽具有足够的原油储量来大大提高其产量,可是其国内分崩离析的政治体系,不完善的安全体制,以及破败的石油基础设施将会大大影响其对海外投资的吸引力,从而影响到其产油量提高的进程。而沙特阿拉伯对石油的巨大内需,也使得局势更加的不稳定。我们都以为海湾地区的石油供给将会解决世界缺油难题,然而在现在看来,它反倒成了一个更令人担忧的问题。 /201306/244863武汉/第一次硬不起来武汉/早泄的治疗费用大概是多少



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