原标题: 武汉阿波罗医院泌尿外科怎么样飞度排名好医生
In 1900 Albert Einstein was a 21-year-old undergraduate at Swiss Federal Polytechnic that this young man will one day be synonymous with genius with something none of his professors would have predicted. 1900年,阿尔伯特;爱因斯坦年仅21岁,他是瑞士联邦理工学院的大学生,这位年轻人总有一天会有一些诸如天才的代名词笼罩在身,他的任何教授都没有预测到。It K class the professors thought he was goof-off as the consequence Einstein could not get a single chart after graduction.K班教授认为他偷懒,爱因斯坦在毕业后甚至不可能得到一份像样的工作。He even thought about switching field and selling insurance.他甚至想到转换行业跑去销售保险。Can you imagine opening the door one day and there was Albert Einstein selling you life insurance ? 你能想象有一天打开门,看见爱因斯坦在对你兜售生命保险吗?What a waste .Einstein thought he was such a loser.这就像是废物一样。爱因斯坦认为自己是一个失败者。He wrote a letter to his family saying that it would be better if perhaps he was never born. 他写了一封信给他的家人称如果自己从来没有出生,或许会更好。Nobody was talking about the young Albert Einstein.没有人谈论年轻的阿尔伯特;爱因斯坦。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/174728

Freundlich is in the early 20s.弗雷德里希是在20年代早期。He wanted to make a influence himself.他想要对自己产生影响。He got a sense that here is my chance.他有一种感觉,这是我的机会。This is new stuff.这是新的东西。Its important stuff.这是无比重要的东西。And I could be part of it.我可以成为其中的一部分。I have seen the letter that goes the other direction from Einstein to Freundlich.我看过爱因斯坦给弗雷德里希的信的另一个版本 。Its all filled with the excitement: you astronomers can do a great help to me by finding proof of the relativity theory.信中充满了兴奋:你这个天文学家可以明相对论,而这对我会有很大帮助。And thats Einstein, the human being who is trying to get somebody to do things for him. Because he needs him.这就是爱因斯坦,想要找人来为他做事的一个人。因为他很需要他。He finds from Freundlich that he is getting married to his girlfriend, Kate.他发现弗雷德里希与他的女朋友凯特刚结婚。And they are going to a honeymoon in the Alps.他们正准备去阿尔卑斯山蜜月旅行。So Einstein says come to Zurich and lets meet.所以爱因斯坦称到苏黎世来吧,我们见见面。Freundlich is on his honeymoon with his bride and he goes to meet Einstein.弗雷德里希在和他的新娘在蜜月中满足了爱因斯坦的这个要求。Hes looking for him out the window and there is Einstein.他正在从窗户向外望去寻找他,而爱因斯坦碰巧就在那里。He can recognise him because he is wearing the straw hat and hes standing out like a sort of some.他能认出他,因为他戴着那顶草帽,而他站在那里好像就能被认出来。This is the famous Einstein.这就是著名的爱因斯坦。He is corresponding with his prediction.他与自己的预测相一致。And this is a great opportunity.这是一个很好的机会。And he is going to get to meet him.他将要去见他。So he gets off the train, and he shakes his hand and they are all animated before they can talk.他下了火车,他握着他的手,在进入正题前两个人都充满活力。注:听力文本来源于普特201204/177463

The Lowest Note in the Universe宇宙中的最低音Its coming from a black hole in the Perseus Cluster, about two hundred fifty million light years away.宇宙中的最低音是由距地球约两亿五千万光年的A black hole? And outer space? That makes sound?英仙座星期群中的一个黑洞发出的。Whats happening out there is that intergalactic gas has concentrated around a cluster of galaxies, forming a cloud.那里的星际气体已集中在星系群周围形成了云层。A massive black hole is sending out jets of particles that crash into the cloud, causing pressure waves to ripple outward.一个巨大的黑洞正在释放粒子喷流,这些粒子喷流又撞向云层,然后就产生了压力波向外界发出潺潺声的情况。Some astronomers interpret these as sound waves.有些天文学家把这种波解释成声波。Of course, even if you call it sound, its too low for anyone to hear.当然,即使你称之为声音,但它也太低了以致没有人能听得到。What note is it? They estimate the note to be a ;B flat;, about fifty-seven octaves lower than middle C.他们估计这种声音属于降B调。比中央C低57个八度音阶。Researchers now think that many black holes may produce such waves, which can affect the way galaxies, and even galaxy clusters, behave.研究者们现在认为很多黑洞都会发出这种可以影响星系甚至是星系群的表现方式。 /201212/212649Science and Technology Prevention of cancer Wonder drug科技 预防癌症 特效药Aspirin continues to amaze阿司匹林让人吃惊的另一面FOR thousands of years aspirin has been humanitys wonder drug.几千年来,阿司匹林就一直是人类的特效药。Extracts from the willow tree have been used for pain relief in folk medicine since the time of the ancient Greeks.从古希腊开始,在民间医药中,人们就用柳树的萃取物缓解疼痛。By 1897 a synthetic derivative (acetyl salicylic acid) of the plants active ingredient (salicin) was created. This allowed aspirin to become the most widely used medicine in the world.1897年,这种植物中的有效成分的人工合成衍生物诞生了,于是阿司匹林变成了世界上应用最广泛的药品。In recent years its benefits as a blood-thinning drug have led to it being prescribed in low doses of around 50mg to reduce deaths from stroke and heart attack.最近几年,由于阿司匹林的防血凝功能,在用其治疗中风和心脏病的时候,剂量很小,维持在50mg的水平左右。There were also hints that aspirin may help prevent some cancers.也有迹象表明阿司匹林可以帮助预防一些癌症。But these were mostly based on observational studies, which can be misleading.不过这些结论大多都是在观察研究的基础上的,因而有可能产生误导。The gold standard of scientific evidence is the randomised controlled trial, preferably one with a lot of people and held over a long time.国际上科学据的标准是由随机对照实验得出的结果,尤其是那些有很多人参与又经过很长时间的实验。The results of just such a trial, published in the Lancet, suggest that aspirin is indeed an astonishing drug.而就是这样一份发表在《柳叶刀》上的论文表示阿司匹林的确是一种让人吃惊的药物。Peter Rothwell at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford and his colleagues looked at deaths due to cancers during and after randomised trials of daily aspirin.来自牛津的约翰·拉德克里夫医院的彼得·罗思韦尔(Peter Rothwell)和他的同事们研究了在每日用阿司匹林的随机对照实验期间或者之后因癌症而死亡的病例。The trials had actually been started to look at how useful aspirin was for preventing heart attacks and strokes. Nevertheless, the data from the 25,570 patients enrolled in eight trials was also revealing about cancer.这一实验本是为了研究阿司匹林在防止心脏病和中风方面的疗效的,然而八项试验25570名患者的数据也揭示了阿司匹林对于癌症的疗效。In trials lasting between four and eight years, the patients who had been given aspirin were 21% less likely to die from cancer than those who had been given a placebo.在那些历时4到8年之间的实验中,用阿司匹林的患者因癌症而死亡的概率比那些用安慰剂的患者小了21%。These results were based on 674 cancer deaths, so are unlikely to represent the kind of statistical oddity that can beset studies on cancer risks that sometimes create headlines.这些结果是在674例癌症死亡病例的基础上得出的,所以不大可能是所谓的统计学上的例外。对癌症风险的研究会因这种例外而受挫,有时甚至会闹成大新闻。The benefits of aspirin were also apparent many years after the trials had ended.试验结束后的很多年后,阿司匹林的效果也仍旧明显。After five years, death rates for all cancers fell by 35% and for gastrointestinal cancers by 54%.五年后,所有癌症的死亡率下降了35%,而胃肠道癌症的死亡率则下降了54%。A long-term follow-up of patients showed that the 20-year risk of cancer death remained 20% lower in those who had taken aspirin.一项长期的病情跟踪报告显示,那些用阿司匹林的患者的20年内的癌症死亡风险比那些不用的低了20%。The study revealed that the effect takes time to accrue, so aspirin must be taken over a long period.这项研究揭示了阿司匹林的效果是随着时间而递增的,所以必须长期用才行。The latent period for improving oesophageal, pancreatic, brain and lung cancer was about five years of aspirin taking on a daily basis.For stomach and colorectal cancer the effects took ten years and for prostate cancer about 15 years.每日用阿司匹林对改善食管癌,胰腺癌,脑癌和肺癌的潜伏期为5年,对胃癌和结直肠癌则要花10年才能起作用,而前列腺癌则要15年。The means by which aspirin prevents cancer is not well understood.这意味着目前还不清楚阿司匹林到底是怎么预防癌症的。It is believed that it inhibits an enzyme that promotes cell proliferation in tumours.研究人员认为阿司匹林阻碍了一种在肿瘤内部促进细胞增殖的酶的活动。The researchers also found that small daily doses of aspirin were enough, and that taking more than 75mg conferred no additional benefits.研究者还发现,每天用小剂量的阿司匹林就已足够,剂量超过75mg后不会再增加效果。Those starting on aspirin in their late 40s or 50s benefit most.那些从四五十岁末就开始用阿司匹林的人得到的效果最好。Current guidelines on using aspirin for reducing the chances of a stroke or heart attack rightly warn of the small risk of ulcers and of dangerous bleeding in the stomach.目前在用阿司匹林治疗中风或者心脏病时,用药说明上会明确提醒有可能出现溃疡和危险性胃出血。These guidelines will probably have to be revised given the new findings.而鉴于这些新发现,这些说明很可能将要被修改了。However, it remains unlikely that popping aspirin will be recommended for everyone like a vitamin supplement.不过阿司匹林泡腾片不大可能像维生素补充剂一样被推广至每一个人。Aspirin is a highly cost-effective treatment: taking it for five to ten years easily beats initiatives to screen for breast and prostate cancers.用阿司匹林是一种非常划算的治疗:只要吃五到十年,就能打败那些让你做乳腺癌或者前列腺癌扫描的建议。To put it another way, ask yourself what a pharmaceuticals firm might charge for a drug that would reduce the chance of death by cancer by 20%—and then note that 100 days supply of low-dose aspirin can cost less than a dollar.换种说法,问问你自己,什么样的医药公司在看到100天的小剂量阿司匹林供应量还值不到一美元时,会对这种能够减少20%癌症死亡几率的药品开价呢?By anyones measure, that is a bargain.不管按照哪一方的标准,这都是一笔非常划算的交易。 /201301/220406

Books and Arts; Book Review;Meditations on love;Truly, madly, deeply;文艺;书评;爱的沉思;爱得真挚,疯狂,深刻;Plato described love as a serious mental disease. Aristotle saw it as a single soul inhabiting two bodies. Tina Turner dismissed the feeling as a second-hand emotion. The nature of love—how and when and why and with whom humans fall for each other—has preoccupied thinkers through the ages. Now a philosopher and a scientist have a go in two new and markedly different books.柏拉图曾经将爱描述为严重的心理疾病。亚里士多德认为爱是一灵栖两躯。蒂娜·特纳并不认为这种感觉是种二手情感。爱的本质便是人们怎样,何时,为何,与谁共浴爱河,而这种本质已让思想家们研究了好几个世纪。如今,一位哲学家和一位科学家在其两本截然不同的新书中尝试着探求爱的本质。In his latest work, “In Praise of Love”, Alain Badiou, a French philosopher, identifies three prevailing philosophical views of love. It can be an ecstatic encounter; an unsentimental contract; or an illusion, best treated with scepticism. He rejects all three. For Mr Badiou, love is the decision to live life through two perspectives, that of both the lover and the beloved. As such, it is more than the sum of its parts. Love “is a construction,” he writes, “a life that is being made, no longer from the perspective of One but from the perspective of Two.”法国哲学家阿兰·巴迪欧在其新作《爱的礼赞》中指出,关于爱,有3种被普遍认同的哲学观点:爱是一种令人欣喜的邂逅;一种理性的维系;一种与怀疑主义共存的幻觉。不过,这三种观点都被巴迪欧否定了。对他而言,爱是决定在以后的生命中,同时拥有两个人的思想。因此,爱,不止于是部分的叠加而已。“爱是建造,”他写道,“爱不再是一个人的思想能够育出的生命,它需要两个人。”Mr Badiou sees risk as central to love. A loving relationship demands multiple and shared perspectives, which always give rise to incongruences and tensions. He reserves special scorn for dabblers in internet dating, who evidently believe that the search for “a photo, details of his or her tastes, date of birth, horoscope sign, etc” will ultimately net “a risk-free option”. This is to neglect the very essence of love, according to Mr Badiou, which involves the presence of risk, the possibility of failure and the need for vulnerability.巴迪欧认为爱的核心便是风险。一段恋爱关系讲求既多样又相同的思想,这便总会让两人感觉不合适,导致关系紧张。他一直都鄙视婚恋网上马虎配对的人。显然,这些人相信只需搜集未来另一半的“照片,喜好,生日,星座之类的”,终会成功地筛选出一个“零风险的选项”。他认为,这样做忽视了爱的本质——爱中存在着风险,有可能以分手告终,它也需要其中一方的示弱。The books chatty style (it is based on a conversation with Nicolas Truong, a French journalist) lends a deceptive simplicity to the ideas within. Get to work unpicking these concepts and it soon becomes plain that, like many French philosophers, Mr Badiou sacrifices clarity for linguistic zip and sparkle. Nonetheless, he leaves the er with an incisive overview of philosophical thinking on love, from Plato to Kierkegaard to Lacan.该书的闲谈式风格(它以作者与一位法国记者尼古拉斯·特罗翁的谈话为基础)会让人误以为:书中的思想都很简单。先得摒弃掉这些观点,之后,明显可以看到,巴迪欧与许多法国哲学家一样,追求的不是清晰明确,而是语言上的表现力与闪光点。不过,对于从柏拉图到克尔凯郭尔再到拉康关于爱的哲学思想,他的概述可谓鞭辟入里。Robin Dunbars book, “The Science of Love and Betrayal”, is—perhaps surprisingly—easier to get to grips with. Dr Dunbar, a professor of evolutionary anthropology with a study in this weeks science section (see article), is best known for “Dunbars number”, the limit to the number of people with whom one can maintain stable social relationships. He laments that scientists have largely ignored the concept of love. In this book he bridges the gap between the biological explanations for humans romantic behaviour and the psychological, historical, social and evolu- tionary contexts that help to shape it.罗宾·邓巴的新书《爱与背叛的科学》更容易理解,或许这有点令人惊讶。邓巴士是进化人类学的教授,本期科学专栏刊登了一篇他的研究。令他广为人知的是“邓巴数字”,即一个人最多可以拥有的稳定社交关系的人数。他感到惋惜的是,科学家几乎忽略了爱的概念。生物学上对人类浪漫行为做出了解释,这与有助于塑造这种行为的心理,历史,社会,及进化因素本毫无关联,但在该书中,他将两者联系了起来。In particular, he is interested in why humans have developed such an affinity for “pairbonding”, despite the fact that strictly monogamous mating and rearing systems are not terribly advantageous in evolutionary terms. Monogamy is not unique to humans. What is unique, however, is the intensity with which the species falls in love. Nearly every human culture in history exhibits this complex sense of longing, Dr Dunbar observes.邓巴士尤为感兴趣的是,虽然就进化角度而言,严格的一夫一妻制及养育制并不占多大优势,但为何人类还如此热衷于“培养两个人的情侣关系”。一夫一妻制并不只是人类特有。不过,人类特有的是这个物种爱火燃烧的炽热。邓巴士观察到,历史上,几乎人类的每种文化都表现出了这种复杂的渴望。To understand this predisposition for monogamy, he takes ers through the myriad feelings of love, from the heady, breathless exhilaration of falling, to the stubborn persistence of familial affection, to the bitterness of betrayal. Throughout the book Dr Dunbar excels at taking obvious and familiar information—men prefer curvy women; women prefer men who dance well; older women rarely reveal their ages in lonely-hearts columns—and explaining the complex and often unexpected evolutionary science that lies behind it all.为了理解一夫一妻制的偏向,邓巴士带领读者体味了爱的各种感觉,从初坠爱河时忘乎所以,呼吸困难的兴奋,到义无反顾地维持家庭关系,再到遭到背叛时的心如刀割。纵观全书,邓巴的高超之处在于利用人们常见且熟悉的信息——男人偏好曲线玲珑的女人;女人喜欢舞技出众的男人;年龄稍大的女人很少在征友专栏揭露自己的年龄——同时解释了这些现象背后复杂且常出人意料的进化科学。Love is a journey, a game, a many-splendoured thing. Though some give it a bad name (if Jon Bon Jovi is to be believed), the rest of us find the subject endlessly fascinating. The struggle to understand such a mystifying phenomenon invariably requires the help of philosophers and scientists, and others besides. Good news for Mr Badiou and Dr Dunbar.爱是一次旅行,一场游戏,一件美妙的事。尽管有人给予爱很低的评价(如果人们愿意相信乔恩·邦·乔维的话),但是其余人都认为爱是一个永恒迷人的主题。当人们竭尽全力理解这迷一样的现象时,总是需要哲学家,科学家,及其他专家的帮助。这对巴迪欧和邓巴来说,是个好消息。 /201211/211180

Huge swarms of stinging jellyfish and similar slimy animals are ruining beaches in Hawaii, the Gulf of Mexico, the Mediterranean, Australia and elsewhere, U.S. researchers reported on Dec.12.研究人员12月12日报告,大群带刺的水母,以及同样黏滑的水生动物正在破坏夏威夷,墨西哥海湾,地中海、澳大利亚和美国沿岸的海滩。The report says 150 million people are exposed to jellyfish globally every year, with 500,000 people stung in the Chesapeake Bay, off the U.S. Atlantic Coast, alone.报告显示全球每年有1.5亿人会接触到水母,其中仅在美国大西洋沿岸的切萨皮克湾就有50万人被水母刺伤。The report says the Black Seas fishing and tourism industries have lost 0 million because of a proliferation of comb jelly fish.报告上还显示:由于冠状水母的大量繁殖,导致黑海的渔业和旅游业每年损失三亿五千万美金。The report says more than 1,000 fist-sized comb jellies can be found in a cubic yard (meter) of Black Sea water during a bloom.报道还涉及到在繁殖旺期,黑海每一立方米的水域中就有一千多拳头大小的栉水母。They eat the eggs of fish and compete with them for food, wiping out the livelihoods of fishermen, according to the report.此外水母吞食鱼卵,和鱼类抢夺食物,彻底断了渔民的生计。Human activities that could be making things nice for jellyfish include pollution, climate change, introductions of non-native species, overfishing and building artificial structures such as oil and gas rigs.人类的某些行为会让水母的生存条件更好,这些行为包括污染,气候变化、引进外来物种、过度以及搭建人工构造物,比如石油和天然气钻井。原文译文属!201206/188667

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