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武汉包皮手术尿分叉飞度医院排行

2018年02月21日 21:20:50来源:飞度好专家

  • So heres our little solar system, as we pull away from our melted planet here.我们把视线从融化了的行星里拉远,来到我们的小小太阳系。We actually have a couple of other planets in this solar system.原来在这个太阳系里,我们其实还有好多其他的行星。Lets fly to another one.让我们跳到另外一个上来。So in fact, were going to have this unlimited number of worlds you can kind of explore here.其实,我们将会有无限多的世界供你去探险。Now, as we move into the future,现在我们进入未来,and we start going out in this space and doing stuff,我们可以开始进入这个空间做点事情,were drawing a lot from things like science fiction.我们描绘出许多科幻小说里的东西。And all my favorite science fiction movies都是我喜欢的科幻电影里的。I want to basically play out here as different dynamics.我想在这里制造一些不同的变化。So this planet actually has some life on it.这个星球上其实有一些生物。Here it is, some indigenous life down here.看,有些土生土长的生物。Now one of the tools I can eventually earn for my UFO is a monolith that I can drop down.现在我终于可以从我的飞行器上扔下一个巨大的石碑。Now as you can see, these guys are actually starting to go up现在你可以看见,这些生物开始走过来and bow to it, and over time, once they touch it, they will become intelligent.向它鞠躬,渐渐地,一旦它们碰到它,它们就会变得有智慧。So I can actually pick a species on a planet and then make them sentient.所以我可以挑一种生物,使它们变得有知觉。You see, now theyve actually gone to tribal dynamics.瞧,现在它们开始组成部落。And now, because Im actually the one here, I can, if I want to, get out of the UFO所以现在,因为我是唯一的操纵者,只要我愿意,我就可以从飞行器里出来,and walk up, and they should be worshipping me at this point as a god.走近它们,然后它们现在应该会把我当做上帝来崇拜。At first theyre a little freaked out.一开始,它们有点吓坏了。OK, well maybe theyre not worshipping me.好吧,它们可能没有崇拜我。I think Ill leave before they get hostile.我想我应该在它们对我产生敌意前离开。But we basically want a diversity of activities the players can play through this.我们希望玩家可以经历不同的活动。Basically, I want to be able to play,我希望这个游戏能变成;The Day the Earth Stood Still,; ;2001: A Space Odyssey,; ;Star Trek,; ;War Of the Worlds.;《地球停转之日》、《2001太空漫游》、《星际迷航》、《世界之战》。201601/420023。
  • So how can a hormone ultimately affect the rate of aging?那么,激素到底是怎样影响衰老的速度呢?How could that work?原理是什么呢?Well it turns out that in the daf-2 mutants,原来在daf-2变异体中a whole lot of genes are switched on in the DNA有大量的基因被转变到DNA里面that encode proteins that protect the cells and the tissues,蛋白质编码保护细胞和组织and repair damage.和修复损坏基因的功能And the way that theyre switched on同时基因被转变的途径is by a gene regulator protein called FOXO.是被一个基因调节器的蛋白质叫FOXOSo in a daf-2 mutant --所以在daf 2的变异体中you see that I have the X drawn here through the receptor.你可以看到这个X型绘制图的受体The receptor isnt working as well.这个受体也运转得不怎么好Under those conditions, the FOXO protein in blue在这些条件下,蓝颜色的FOXO蛋白质has gone into the nucleus --已经转移到核心里面了that little compartment there in the middle of the cell --这个小小的隔室在细胞的最中间and its sitting down on a gene binding to it.同时也坐落在基因的粘合物上You see one gene. There are lots of genes actually that bind on FOXO.你看到一个基因。这里有大量的基因实际上捆绑在FOXO上And its just sitting on one of them.并且坐落在它们其中的一个上面So FOXO turns on a lot of genes.所以FOXO开启着大量的基因And the genes it turns on includes antioxidant genes,同时这些基因也开启着抗氧化的基因genes I call carrot-giver genes,这些基因我称呼它为胡萝卜者基因whose protein products这些蛋白质产物actually help other proteins to function well --实际上帮助其他的蛋白质的机能运转顺畅to fold correctly and function correctly.同时也帮助蛋白质融合和运转准确And it can also escort them to the garbage cans of the cell同时也给它们护航到细胞中的垃圾场and recycle them if theyre damaged.并且回收被损坏的蛋白质DNA repair genesDNA修复基因are more active in these animals.在这些动物身上更活跃And the immune system is more active.免疫系统也更活跃And many of these different genes, weve shown,我们展示的许多这些不同基因actually contribute to the long lifespan of the daf-2 mutant.实际上都作用于daf 2变异体的延长寿命So its really interesting.所以这是很有趣的These animals have within them带有这些基因的动物the latent capacity to live much longer than they normally do.比起普通的有活得更久的潜力They have the ability它们有能力to protect themselves from many kinds of damage,保护自身免于很多的伤害which we think makes them live longer.我们认为这使得它们活得更长So what about the normal worm?那关于正常线虫呢Well when the daf-2 receptor is active,当daf-2受体是活跃的then it triggers a series of events它引发了一系列that prevent FOXO来阻止FOXOfrom getting into the nucleus where the DNA is.进入到DNA所处的中心So it cant turn the genes on.所以基因不能激活Thats how it works. Thats why we dont see the long lifespan,这就是运作的方式。也就是我们看不到延长寿命的原因until we have the daf-2 mutant.除非有daf 2变异体But what good is this for the worm?但对线虫来说有什么好处吗Well we think that insulin and IGF-1 hormones胰岛素和IGF-1激素are hormones that are particularly active是特别活跃under favorable conditions -- in the good times --在有利条件下--好的时机下--when food is plentiful and theres not a lot of stress in the environment.当食物是充足的,没有很多压力的环境下Then they promote the uptake of nutrients.然后它们促使营养品的产生You can store the food, use it for energy,可以储存食物,用它来补能量grow, etc.成长等But what we think is that, under conditions of stress,但我们认为在压力条件下the levels of these hormones drop --这些激素水平会下降for example, having limited food supply.例如在有限的食物供给时And that, we think,我们认为那is registered by the animal as a danger signal,对于动物而言是个危险信号a signal that things are not okay预示什么不对头and that it should roll out its protective capacity.它们的保护功能就开启了So it activates FOXO, FOXO goes to the DNA,所以它激活了FOXO,FOXO进入DNAand that triggers the expression of these genes引发这些基因显现that improves the ability of the cell来带动细胞能力to protect itself and repair itself.从而保护和修复自身And thats why we think the animals live longer.这是我们认为动物活长久的原因So you can think of FOXO你可以想象FOXOas being like a building superintendent.为一个大楼的看门人So maybe hes a little bit lazy,或许他有点懒but hes there, hes taking care of the building.但他在那儿掌管着大楼But its deteriorating.但这是不好的And then suddenly, he learns that theres going to be a hurricane.突然,他了解到将有一场飓风So he doesnt actually do anything himself.所以他自己实际不做任何事He gets on the telephone --但他打起电话--just like FOXO gets on the DNA --就像FOXO进入到DNA--and he calls up他打电话给the roofer, the window person,修屋顶的人,修窗户的人the painter, the floor person.油漆工,修地板的人And they all come and they fortify the house.他们都来了,加固了房屋。And then the hurricane comes through,然后飓风穿过and the house is in much better condition than it would normally have been in.房屋比起它原本的要更加稳固And not only that, it can also just last longer,不但如此,它也可以很久矗立不倒even if there isnt a hurricane.甚至不是飓风来临So thats the concept here所以这的概念for how we think this life extension ability exists.就类似我们认为生命延长力的发生情形Now the really cool thing about FOXO关于FOXO真正有趣的is that there are different forms of it.是有不同种的FOXOWe all have FOXO genes,我们大家都有FOXO基因but we dont all have exactly the same form of the FOXO gene.但我们不是完全拥有同一种FOXO基因Just like we all have eyes,如同我们都有眼睛but some of us have blue eyes and some of us have brown eyes.但有些人是蓝色的眼睛,有些是棕色的201508/390792。
  • Your Excellency Mr. Fran#231;ois Hollande, President of France, Distinguished Heads of State and Government, Your Excellency Mr. Laurent Fabius, President of COP21, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,You are here today to write the script for a new future, a future of hope and promise, of increased prosperity, security and dignity for all.In September, at the ed Nations, you adopted an inspiring, new sustainable development agenda with 17 sustainable development goals, endorsed by all the people of the world.You showed your commitment to act for the common good.It is now time to do so again.More than 150 world leaders have come to Paris and are here together in one place, at the same time, with one purpose.We have never faced such a test. A political moment like this may not come again.But neither have we encountered such a great opportunity at this time.You have the power to secure the well-being of this and succeeding generations.I urge you, distinguished leaders, to instruct your ministers and negotiators to choose the path of compromise and consensus and if necessary, flexibility. Bold climate action is in the national interest of every single country represented at this conference.The time for brinksmanship is over.Let us build a durable climate regime with a clear rule of the roads that all countries can agree to follow.Paris must mark a decisively turning point.We need the world to know that we are headed to a low-emissions, climate-resilient future, and that there is no going back.The national climate plans submitted by more than 180 countries as ours today, cover close to 100 percent of global emissions.This is a very good start. But we need to go much faster, much farther if we are to limit the global temperature rise to below 2 degrees Celsius.The science has made it plainly clear.Even a 2-degree Celsius rise will have serious consequences for food and water security, economic stability and international peace and security.That is why we need a universal, meaningful and robust agreement here in Paris.I see four criteria for success.201512/416913。
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