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宜昌市第一人民医院男科医生武汉男性阳痿治疗费用武汉男人怎么才算包皮 武汉包皮手术总费用

武汉龟头有红点At first, the Europeans relied heavily on local food supply by native people. But as they settled in, their farming practices began to shape the landscape of North America.期初,欧洲人十分依赖当地居民提供的本土食物。但是随着他们逐渐融入美洲大陆,他们的农业活动也开始改变着北美大陆的面貌。The plow allowed them to farm larger areas of land, helping to feed the expanding population. 使用犁,他们可以耕作大面积的土地,这样就能喂养迅速膨胀的人口。While this new type of agriculture robbed many animals of their habitat, others were to reap the benefits. 然而这样一种新型农业掠夺了很多动物的栖息地,而也有些动物成为这种农业的受益者。Birds such as grackles, cowbirds and red-winged blackbirds exploded in numbers, feeding off the waste remains of farming. These pest birds were aly common around small native farms in the east. Now large scale farming of crops such as corn, wheat and barley fuel(s) their numbers to epidemic proportions. 一些鸟儿的数量大范围增长,例如白头翁、燕八哥和红翅黑鹂,它们以一些剩余的、废弃的农作物为食。这些益鸟在东部当地人的农场中随处可见。目前,由于大面积种植玉米、小麦、大麦等粮食,这些鸟儿的数量更加大幅上涨。Despite these pests, North Americas agricultural kept on booming, becoming big business. Great sways of a once wild landscape have been turned over to farming. 不管这些动物,北美的农业都继续蓬勃发展着,并正逐渐成为最大的商业。大部分荒地被开垦以用于农耕。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201312/267213武汉医保卡治疗前列腺能报销吗 武汉如何判断早泄严重

武汉包皮过长医院哪里比较好Finance and economics财经商业Japans pension giant日本的巨额养老金Risk on追逐风险The worlds largest pension fund is changing the way it invests, with big consequences for the market.这个世界上最大的养老金基金正在改变它的投资方式,并在市场上引起重大改变。WHEN George Soros, a billionaire investor, met Shinzo Abe, the prime minister of Japan, at Davos in January, he hectored him about asset management.当亿万富翁及投资人乔治?索罗斯于一月份在达沃斯遇到日本首相安倍晋三时,他拿资产管理吓唬了安倍一番。Japans massive public pension fund needed to take more risk, he reportedly told Mr Abe.据报道,他告诉安倍说,日本的大型公共养老金基金需要敢于承担风险。With 128.6 trillion of assets, the Government Pension Investment Fund is the worlds biggest public-sector investor,拥有128.6万亿日元的日本政府养老金投资基金是世界上最大的公共部门投资机构,outgunning both foreign rivals and Arab sovereign-wealth funds.超过了国外的类似机构以及阿拉伯主权基金。Yet its mountain of money is run by risk-averse bureaucrats using an investment strategy not much more adventurous than stuffing bundles of yen under a futon.然而这座钱山却由小心翼翼的官僚们经营,他们的投资策略不会比把整捆的日圆放在蒲团下面更冒险。It keeps around two-thirds of assets in bonds, mostly of the local variety.其资产的三分之二是债券,而且主要是国内债券。Like an investing novice, it mostly follows indices passively, and hardly ventures abroad.它跟个投资新手一样,只是消极地跟着指数走,并且极少到国外去冒险。The government would dearly love to oblige Mr Soros.日本政府可是迫不及待地想满足索罗斯的一番要求。Mr Abe is now taking steps to overhaul the fund.安倍现在正着手改革养老基金。In November last year an official panel laid out a plan of far-reaching reform,去年十一月,一个官方顾问团提交了一份大范围的改革计划,some of which could take effect as soon as this year.其中一些甚至在今年就会产生效果。To boost returns to future pensioners, it concluded,计划中总结到,为大幅度提高未来养老金领取者的收益,the GPIF should reduce its reliance on bonds, head into stocks and also invest in different asset classes including infrastructure and venture capital.GPIF应当减少对债券的依赖,投入股票市场并投资其他类型的资产,比如基础设施和风险投资。Most radically, the government wants to break the ties that bind the GPIF to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.政府最为激进的想法莫过于准备解除厚生劳动省对政府养老金投资基金的约束。It is the ministrys cautious bureaucrats that keep the fund so averse to risk-taking.正是小心翼翼的官僚作风使得该基金对风险敬而远之。Even with a low return, of an annualised 1.54% over the past 12 years,虽然过去12年间的年化利率低达1.54%,the GPIF has met its own targets cheaply.政府养老金投资基金还是达到了自己的既定目标。The ministry is frugal to the point of meanness.劳动省的作风与其说是节俭还不如说是吝啬。The funds 80-strong staff are often unable to buy the market data they need.基金的80名员工甚至经常不能购买需要的市场资料。It is one thing to keep costs low,减少开是一回事,quite another to forgo receptionists, as the GPIF does at its non-descript office in Tokyo.可连前台咨询员都没有就太过了,而政府养老金投资基金在东京简陋的办事处就是如此。For Mr Abe, geeing up the fund is part of his plan to revive Japans economy,对安倍来说,带动养老基金发展就如同日本中央在2013年4月大力推行的超宽松货币政策一样,alongside a radical monetary easing which the Bank of Japan began in earnest in April 2013.是他日本经济振兴计划的一部分。As well as defeating deflation, Mr Abe seeks to boost risk-taking in the economy.除了对付通货紧缩,安倍还在寻求方法来鼓励日本经济承担更多风险。The planned changes to the fund also include demanding better corporate governance from Japans large companies.养老基金改革计划中还包括要求日本大型企业实现更好的公司治理。Aly, the markets are anticipating the effect of the slow shift in direction.市场已经预见到了这次缓慢的方向性转变可能带来的影响。GPIFs influence is amplified by other public pension investors following its lead.GPIF造成的影响随着其他公共养老金投资机构的跟风而进一步扩大。The fund lowered the weight of Japanese government bonds from 62% in its portfolio in March 2013 to 55% at the close of the year,该基金已经将投资组合中日本国债的比重从2013年3月的62%降低到了年底时的55%,putting most of the money—roughly 8 trillion—into local and foreign shares instead.并把这些资金中的大部分资金,约有8万亿日元,投入到了国内外股票中。The GPIFs shift may have contributed to the giddy rise of Japans stockmarket,GPIF的转型可能导致了日本股票市场的突然上涨,which was one of the best-performing rich-country bourses in 2013.使其成为2013年度富有国家中表现最好的股票交易所。For investors, the likelihood that the GPIF will continue shifting towards equities is a convincing reason to buy Japanese shares.GPIF继续转向股票市场的趋势使得投资者大胆地买入股票。That in turn reinforces Mr Abes will to enact the reform.这也反过来实现了安倍推动改革的愿望。So far this year the Nikkeis rise,日经指数的上涨是本届政府受到广泛欢迎的原因之一,an important contributor to the governments broad popularity, has stalled.不过目前,这股增长势头已经停止。But for every equity punter cheering on the reform,和股票持有者一致对改革拍手称快不同,there is a JGB holder fretful about the eventual impact on prices if the asset classs biggest backer continues to sell off.一位国债持有者对于国债最大持有者的持续抛售对于其价格的影响感到非常担忧。Investors have long predicted a meltdown in the Japanese bond market, given that its public debt stands at nearly 240% of GDP.一直以来,投资者们都预测日本债券市场可能暴跌,因为日本的国债达到了GDP的240%之巨。One explanation of why the cost of borrowing for the government has remained low is that JGBs are chiefly held by loyal local banks and by public pension funds,而国债利率一直维持在低水平是由于日本国债的持有者主要是忠诚的国内以及公共养老金基金,rather than by foreigners who would demand a higher risk premium.而非要求风险收益的国外机构。Yet the landscape is changing as retirees draw down their savings, meaning that institutional holders will become still more important.然而随着退休人员减少了他们的储蓄,形势将发生改变,这些机构持有者变得更为重要了。Ominously, Japans current account has moved into deficit.一个不详的预兆是,日本的财政已经出现了赤字。For the time being, the monetary easing undertaken by the Bank of Japan will more than offset the effect of any bond sales by the GPIF.目前,日本中央实行的货币宽松政策能够轻松抵消GPIF出售国债带来的影响。So now is exactly the right moment for the fund to sell with no fear of triggering a broader sell-off, argues Takatoshi Ito,眼下正是基金卖出国债的大好时机,而不用担心引起大量卖出。the chairman of the government-backed panel on the GPIF.所以GPIF的政府顾问团主席伊藤隆敏认为。Yet though the fund may at last escape its duty of holding oodles of government debt,该基金或许最终难免逃避持有大量国家债券的职责,the shift could exacerbate problems once the central bank starts eventually to withdraw from its quantitative easing.不过一旦中央最终停止超宽松货币政策,这种转型将使情况进一步恶化。The partial withdrawal of the GPIF from the market, says Naka Matsuzawa, chief strategist at Nomura Securities in Tokyo, may contribute to a crisis later on.野村券首席策略师Naka Matsuzawa认为,GPIF在市场上部分撤资会引起后续的萧条。When in December Mr Ito called for a radical cut in the GPIFs bond portfolio from 55% down to 35%, yields on JGBs temporarily rose.去年12月,伊藤呼吁GPIF将债券投资比重由55%大幅度减少到35%时,日本国债的收益曾短期上升。The basic arguments for overhauling the fund are persuasive.改革养老基金的基本论点非常有说力。With an ageing population, meaning the fund is aly paying out more in benefits than it receives in contributions,随着老龄化加剧,基金已经开始入不敷出了。it can ill afford to settle for a low-risk, low-returns approach.如果继续采用低风险、低收益的投资策略,基金可能会付不出养老金来。Its strategy stands in contrast to pension pots in Canada and Australia, for example, which are given leeway to be more daring.该基金的策略和诸如加拿大或澳大利亚的养老金机构相反,这些养老基金拥有承担风险的余地。They also regularly badger managers of the firms whose shares they own.同时它们还监督所持股票的公司的经理人们。Obliging the GPIF to insist on more active oversight of firms would be the most useful way to improve Japans corporate governance,帮助GPIF更积极地监管公司会是提高日本公司管理最有效的方法,says Hans-Christoph Hirt of Hermes, a British fund manager.英国投资基金Hermes的经理Hans-Christoph Hirt这样认为。For now the GPIF and the ministry are together resisting Mr Abes initiative.目前,GPIF和厚生劳动省正联手抵制安倍的倡议。The GPIFs purpose is not to lift the stockmarket but to invest the peoples money in a safe and efficient way,GPIF的目的不是抬高股价而是将人民的钱以稳定而有效的方式进行投资。complained its president, Takahiro Mitani, in February.基金主席三谷孝弘在2月份抱怨道。The GPIF will probably seek to reduce its bond portfolio by as little as it can.GPIF可能会尽量保留国债。The labour ministrys bureaucrats are understandably loth to forgo the prestige of managing the planets single-largest pot of money.劳动省不愿放弃管理这全球最大一笔钱的名声也很好理解。Yet the government is determined to overcome opposition, say insiders.但内部人员透露,政府决心要克反对意见。Mr Soros, who reportedly made a cool billion by shorting the yen in 2013, may soon be called in to offer further lessons.他们可能马上又要向据称在2013年通过做空日圆赚了10亿美元的索罗斯求助了。 /201403/281638 Science and technology科学技术Dendrochronology树木年代学Not always the ring of truth年轮不一定反映事实The use of wood to assess past environments needs care通过树木判断过去的环境时要小心了TREE rings are Mother Natures history books.年轮是大自然的史书。Researchers often look at chemicals stored in them when trying to reconstruct past environments.在试图重现过去的环境时,研究人员经常会从年轮中所含的化学物质入手。Like all history books, though, they can be unreliable.然而就和所有的史书一样,年轮也并不怎么靠谱。And in the case of one particular chemical of interest, mercury, Jose Antonio Rodriguez Martin of the National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology, in Madrid, and his colleagues have just shown how unreliable they are.通过其关注的一个特别的化学物质-汞,西班牙国家农业与食物研究及技术学会的何塞·安东尼奥·罗德里格斯·马丁及其同事便刚刚明了年轮多么不靠谱。Dr Rodriguez Martin was studying pines on La Palma, in the Canary Islands.罗德里格斯·马丁士一直在研究拉帕尔马岛上的松树。He knew that Hoyo Negro, one of the islands volcanoes, had erupted violently in 1949, and believed that the clouds of ash and explosive ejections of rock from the eruption had destroyed all of the pines nearby.他知道该岛上的霍约内格罗火山曾于1949年发生过剧烈喷发,并认为喷发产生的火山灰及迸散的岩石摧毁了附近所有的松树。However, as he describes in Naturwissenschaften, when he and his team examined the area, they were stunned to discover a revenant from this cataclysm just 50 metres from the crater.然而,正如他在《自然科学》杂志上所说,当他和自己的团队对该区域进行调查时,在离火山口仅50米的地方发现了一棵劫后余生的松树,让他们震惊不已。Like a battle-scarred soldier, this now-great pine had many half-healed wounds in its trunk.就像一名身经百战的士兵,这棵现已长成参天大树的松树的树干上疤痕累累。It had survived those. It did not, however, survive Dr Rodriguez Martins axe.这些伤口没让它倒下,但却没有逃过罗德里格斯·马丁士的斧头。He reluctantly felled it and, for comparison, collected a tree of similar age that was growing 400 metres from the eruption site, and another that was 16km away.罗德里格斯·马丁士忍痛将它放倒,并分别从离喷发点400米及16千米处砍倒两棵与其树龄相同的松树进行比较。One unpleasant element often ejected in volcanic eruptions is mercury.火山喷发时经常会喷射出一种不怎么好的元素-汞。That was certainly the case in 1949, as soil-sampling showed.正如土壤采样所示,1949年的火山喷发确实释放出了汞元素。The question was, how much of it had got into the trees·但问题是,有多少进入了树体中?Mercury falling脱落的汞When he analysed the survivors scar tissue Dr Rodriguez Martin found high levels of the metal in it:当罗德里格斯·马丁士分析了这棵幸存的树上的疤痕组织后,他发现其中的汞元素含量很高:more than 22 micrograms per kilogram of wood.每公斤木材中超过22毫克。That was not surprising, given that this tissue would have formed soon after the eruption.这并不出人意料,因为该组织是在火山喷发不久后形成的。What was surprising was that the wood of the survivor trees rings had only 2.3 micrograms of mercury per kilogram in it.出人意料的是这棵幸存的树中年轮的木质中每公斤仅含2.3毫克汞。More surprising still, the rings of the other two trees were mercury-free, despite there being mercury in nearby soil.更让人大跌眼镜的是,其他两棵书的年轮中汞含量为零,尽管其附近的土壤中含有汞。Tree rings are made of tissue called xylem.构成年轮的组织被称为木质部。This is a set of channels that carry water and minerals from the soil to the leaves, so its composition might be expected to reflect what is in the soil.这是从土壤中将水合矿物质输送至叶片的一组通道,所以其组分应该能够反映出土壤中的组分。A second set of channels, the phloem, found just under a trees bark, carries the products of photosynthesis to the roots.第二组通道叫韧皮部,就长在树皮之下,它将光合作用的产物输送到树的根部。This tissue, however, is not preserved from year to year.然而该组织每年都会更新。When Dr Rodriguez Martin sampled the phloem of the trees he had chopped down, he found it much richer in mercury than their xylem.罗德里格斯·马丁士对被他砍倒的树的韧皮部采样后,他发现韧皮部的汞含量比木质部的要高。Phloem from the tree at the eruption site had 9.5 micrograms of the metal per kilogram.位于喷发点的树上的韧皮部中每千克含有9.5毫克汞。The two more distant trees had 2.9 and 2.0 respectively.另外两棵较远的树的韧皮部每千克汞含量分别为2.9及2.0。The explanation for the discrepancy lay in the trees bark.产生这种差异的原因就藏在树皮之中。This had similar mercury levels to the phloem.树皮的汞含量与韧皮部相近。What Dr Rodriguez Martin reckons is going on is that trees are using their bark, which they shed continually, as a waste-disposal system.罗德里格斯·马丁士认为是这么回事:树木将其不断脱落树皮当做一种废物处理系统。Mercury is carried there by the phloem and selectively deposited in it, rather than in the plants more permanent parts.汞通过韧皮部被转运到树皮中,有选择性地在其中沉积,而非在自己不易更新的部位沉积。The metal is then got rid of when the bark is sloughed off.然后当树皮脱落时,其中的汞也随之被除去。That makes it invisible to researchers who come along later. What happens to mercury, moreover, might well happen to other toxic materials.这使随后而来的研究人员无法发现汞的存在。而且,在汞身上出现的情况很可能也会出现在其他有毒物质上。That could throw the calculations of palaeoecologists severely out of kilter.这会让古生态学家的推测严重失准。All of which is a caution to those who the Book of Tree Rings for clues to what happened in the past.对于那些在年轮史书中寻找线索来了解过去发生了什么的人来说,所有这些都是一个警示。Trees, it seems, are as good as rewriting history as people are.树木,似乎和人一样精于改写历史。 /201311/263839武汉市区男L包皮过长武汉看不孕不育哪家好

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