2018年01月21日 20:21:52|来源:国际在线|编辑:指导知乎
Science and Technolgy.科技。Pilotless aircraft.无人机。Giving drones a thumbs up.向无人机打手势。How to integrate the control of piloted and pilotless aircraft.如何让指挥有人机的方法适用于无人机。DECK officers on American aircraft carriers use hand gestures to guide planes around their vessels. These signals are fast, efficient and perfect for a noisy environment. Unfortunately, they work only with people. They are utterly lost on robotic drones-and even if a drone is under the control of a remote pilot deep in the bowels of the ship, that pilot often has difficulty ing them. Since drones are becoming more and more important in modern warfare, this is a nuisance. Life would be easier for all if drones were smart enough to respond directly to a deck officer’s gesticulations.在美国的航空母舰上,甲板指挥员会用手势指挥母舰附近的飞机。这种信号快速、高效,而且十分适用于嘈杂的环境。但遗憾的是,只有人才能读懂这些手势。在无人机上,这一套完全失效;而即便有飞行员在船舱深处远程操控这架飞机,他往往也很难识别那些手势。这是个麻烦,因为无人机在现代战争里变得越来越重要了。若无人机的智能达到了足以直接响应甲板指挥员手势的程度,那一切都会好很多。Making them that smart is the goal of Yale Song, a computer scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is not there yet but, as he reports in ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems, he and his colleagues David Demirdjian and Randall Davis have developed a promising prototype.让无人机具备这样的智能是麻省理工学院计算机科学家Yale Song的目标。这个目标虽尚未达成,不过正如他在《美国计算机学会交互式智能系统学报》所报告的,他和他的同事David Demirdjian和Randall Davis已开发了一个很有前景的原型系统。To try teaching drones the language of hand signals Mr Song and his colleagues made a series of s in which various deck officers performed to camera a set of 24 commonly used gestures. They then fed these s into an algorithm of their own devising that was designed to analyse the position and movement of a human body, and told the algorithm what each gesture represented. The idea was that the algorithm would learn the association and, having seen the same gesture performed by different people, would be able to generalise what was going on and thus recognise gestures performed by strangers.为了让无人机读懂手语,Yale Song和他的同事制作了一系列视频,视频记录了多位甲板指挥员对着摄象机摆出的24个常用手势。然后他们用一个自己设计的算法(用于分析人体的位置和动作)来处理这些视频,并让算法知道每个手势的意义。他们的设想是,该算法会记住每个手势所对应的意义,而在对不同人摆出的相同手势进行处理后能够概括出手势本身的意义,从而识别任何人摆出的手势。Unfortunately, it did not quite work out like that. In much the same way that spoken language is actually a continuous stream of sound (perceived gaps between words are, in most cases, an audio illusion), so the language of gestures to pilots is also continuous, with one flowing seamlessly into the next. And the algorithm could not cope with that.很遗憾,实际与预想的不太一样。其实指挥飞行员所用的手语和人说的话差不多。后者实际上是一串连续的声音(人耳能察觉到的词与词之间的停顿在多数情况下只是听觉上的错觉),而手语同样也是连续的,因为两个动作之间是连贯的。但该算法无法处理这种连续的信息。To overcome this difficulty Mr Song imposed gaps by chopping the s up into three-second blocks. That allowed the computer time for reflection. Its accuracy was also increased by interpreting each block in light of those immediately before and after it, to see if the result was a coherent message of the sort a deck officer might actually wish to impart.为了解决这个问题,Yale Song以3秒为一段将视频截开,在各段之间插入时间间隔。这样就给计算机留出了响应时间。同时识别的准确率也有所提高。因为这样计算机就能根据前一段及后一段的视频来理解当前这一段,看看结果是不是那种甲板指挥员可能真的想摆出的有特定意义的手势。The result is a system that gets it right three-quarters of the time. Obviously that is not enough: you would not entrust the fate of a multi-million-dollar drone to such a system. But it is a good start. If Mr Song can push the accuracy up to that displayed by a human pilot, then the task of controlling activity on deck should become a lot easier.他们最终做出了一个正确率为75%的系统。显然,那样是不够的:你不会将一架价值数百万美元的无人机交给这样的系统。但这是个好的开始。若Yale Song能将无人机识别手势的正确率提高至与真人飞行员相当,那么在甲板指挥无人机会容易得多。 /201209/202059

Business Branding Japan as ;cool; No limits, no laws商业 日本贴上;酷;标签 日本文化要大展拳脚The beautiful people join hands with the bureaucrats潮人联手官员共同推进;酷日本;THE Tokyo headquarters of Japans Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) was the cockpit for the countrys post-war economic miracle.坐落于东京本部的日本经济产业省(METI)在战后的经济奇迹中扮演了急先锋的角色,如今却墨守成规,不复当年勇。But these days it is a stodgy place. The decor barely brightens even when you enter the offices of ;The Cool Japan Promotion Strategy Programme;.即使走进;酷日本推广战略项目;办公室,室内装饰也让人打不起精神。There is not an Apple MacBook in sight, and demure ;office ladies; still serve the tea.屋里看不到苹果笔记本电脑,看到的是死气沉沉的白领丽人们依旧在端茶倒水。But METI wants to let its hair down.可METI想一改严肃的面孔。With the former bastions of Japans economy, such as cars and electronics, facing stiff competition from South Korea, China and elsewhere,像汽车,电子这些一度是日本经济堡垒的产业,正面对韩国,中国等国的激烈竞争。it is looking for alternative sources of growth in so-called creative industries, such as fashion, music, food and anime (cartoons).日本把目光转向了所谓的创意产业,比如时尚,音乐,食物和卡通,以此作为经济增长的另一个来源。The search has become more intense since March 11th when a nuclear accident battered Japans image abroad.自从3月11日的核事故发生之后,日本在海外的形象大打折扣,(So blanket was the repudiation, according to Interbrand, a consultancy, that it hurt even Hyundai, a South Korean car firm sometimes mistakenly thought to be Japanese.)(咨询公司Interbrand称,日本的声誉受到的损害如此之大,连有时被误认为日本公司的韩国汽车制造商现代公司都受其拖累);We have to rebrand Japan,; says METIs Tetsuya Watanabe.因此对;酷日本;的探索也紧锣密鼓起来,;我们要重塑日本,;He describes March 11th as a ;boiling-frog; moment—when Japan suddenly woke up to its industrial decline.来自METI的澈夜渡边如是说,他把3.11当作;沸水青蛙;,从这个转折点——日本猛然意识到自己日渐衰落的工业。The aim is to spur a nearly fivefold increase in cultural exports by 2020, to ¥11 trillion (0 billion)—almost as much as Japan earns from car exports.此项目旨在到2020年,刺激文化出口达11万亿(1400亿美元),相当于现在的5倍——与日本汽车出口相差无几。In the hands of civil servants, the plans for this are not exactly zinging.在官员的监督下,这个项目并非那么随心所欲。One milestone in the Cool Japan campaign is, bewilderingly, a gathering of the IMF and World Bank in Tokyo next year.;酷日本;活动一个里程碑事件是明年是IMF和World Bank 将聚首东京,此举让人摸不着头脑。Yet young Japanese designers, artists, chefs and pop stars have flocked to it—not despite METIs involvement, but because of it. Takashi Koyama, a fashion designer, says Japans hottest trendsetters are too niche to expand abroad on their own.目前年轻的日本设计师,艺术家,厨师以及流行明星们对;酷日本;项目可谓蜂拥而至——不是为了响应METI的号召,而是一心为了提高日本的知名度。Without METIs clout, he says, they would be copied by cheaper South Korean rivals, who have expanded abroad more aggressively in recent years.设计师高司木山说,日本最潮的东西都过于小众化,仅凭一己之力难以扩散到国外。He says that March 11th was a wake-up call to Japans creative industries, too.要是没有METI的持,潮流产品就会被近年来文化输出势头迅猛的对手韩国;山寨;。;If we dont go abroad, we will perish,; he says.他还说3?11对日本的创意工业也是个警醒,如果不走出岛外,这个产业就将消亡。On October 7th 14 small Japanese labels, supported by METI, kicked off the Cool Japan campaign by opening a temporary store in Singapore called Harajuku Street Style, named after Tokyos edgy fashion district (pictured).10月7日,由METI扶持的14家日本小品牌,在新加坡开了一家试营店,名叫;原宿街风情;,以东京的潮流时尚聚集地命名。The aim was not just to promote Japanese brands, says Mr Koyama.(见图);酷日本;活动也由此拉开序幕。It was to promote the ;atmosphere; of fashion in Japan, a what-the-heck attitude to mixing items and styles of clothing.木山说这不仅是为了提升日本品牌的知名度,也是为了宣扬日本时尚的氛围,对衣搭配随心所欲的一种怡然自得的态度。;No rules, no regulations,; is how he describes this.;没有规矩,没有限制,;木山这样描述到。If only Japans economic policymakers would apply that dictum more widely要是日本的经济决策者在制定决策时能;没有规矩,没有限制;,少一些条条框框就好了。 /201212/216354

When we are warned about the dangers of food, it usually relates to food allergies or food poisoning. The image of killer biscuits has never quite come in to peoples minds. Millions of people reach for a biccy whenever they pour a cup of tea and it seems that this simple action is an activity packed with hidden danger.当我们警惕食物的危险时,我们通常指的是食物过敏或食物中毒。人们通常不会想到饼干的杀伤力。 数百万人在泡茶时会顺手拿一些饼干。似乎这个简单的动作充满了潜在的危险。Almost half of all Britons have been injured while eating a crunchy biscuit with their tea or coffee, according to figures released by a new survey. The research conducted by Mindlab International shows a staggering 500 people each year need hospital treatment after a biscuit-related injury.一项最新调查数据显示,大约一半的英国人在边喝茶或咖啡边吃香脆的饼干时受过伤。这项由国际思维进行的调查发现,每年因食用饼干受伤到医院就诊的人数高达500人,数量非常惊人。And its estimated that millions of Brits have become cookie casualties at some point. It also found that almost a third of adults said they had been splashed or scalded by hot drinks while dunking or trying to fish out the remnants of a collapsed digestive. It also revealed that 28 percent had choked on crumbs, while one in ten had broken a tooth or filling biting a biscuit.据估计,大约有数百万英国人曾经因食用饼干受伤。调查还发现,几乎三分之一的成年人在试图用热水浸泡或勾起散开的饼干时被开水烫到或溅到。调查还披露,大约28%的人曾被饼干渣噎到,同时有十分之一的人曾在咬饼干时损坏牙齿或牙齿填充物。More unusually, three percent had poked themselves in the eye with a biscuit and seven percent bitten by a pet or other wild animal trying to get their biscuit. One man even ended up stuck in wet concrete after wading in to pick up a stray biscuit. And the title of the most dangerous biscuit belongs to the humble custard cream. It poses the most risk to innocent dunkers with a Biscuit Injury Threat Evaluation, or B.I.T.E rating of 5.63. This compares to just 1.16 for soft and safe Jaffa Cakes.更为异常的是,3%的人曾经被饼干戳到眼睛,还有7%的人因其宠物或其他野生动物试图抢他们的饼干,不慎被咬伤。更有甚者,一名男子因费力地捡起一片散落的饼干而被困在混凝土中。最危险饼干的头衔属于双层奶油饼干。奶油饼干的伤害威胁评估指数是5.63,而风险最低的佳发饼的指数只有1.16。201301/221660

Here we go. McKey holding, looking. Here comes Miller to the top. Miller, a catch. Miller, a look...he hit it! Reggie Miller. knocked it down. Four-tenths of a second left.现在好戏开场了。迈克尔在防守,他在密切注视着米勒的一举一动。米勒看似不妙。他拿着球,瞄了下篮筐;投篮了!雷杰;米勒得分。时间几乎所剩无几。Reggie, Reggie, Reggie!雷杰, 雷杰, 雷杰!欢呼声在场内此起彼伏。Toni, out near the time line.托尼几乎赶不上时间了。Looking, looking, looking, looking, looking, looking. Got it to Michael. And it went in and out! Hit the board and spun out, and Indiana wins the game.看看。球到了迈克尔手上。无奈球没有投进!打板后被弹开,印地安那州赢得了比赛。With the series tied at two, fatigue was taking its toll on the Bulls. And meanwhile, out West, the Utah Jazz were rolling towards the finals. Led by future Hall of Famers Karl Malone and John Stockton, the Jazz dominated the Western Conference playoffs, and would have ten days rest while the Bulls and Pacers continued to battle in the East.随着赛季的比赛日益增多,疲劳是影响公牛队的主要因素。与此同时,在西部的犹他爵士正向决赛挺进。未来的名人堂成员卡尔;马龙和约翰;斯托克顿领衔,爵士队统治了西部季后赛,现在将有10天的休息,而公牛与步行者队继续在东部争夺。注:听力文本来源于普特201201/168600

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