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武汉哪家割包皮好武汉检验男子身孕医院PreviewTheme: Building on the Past, Shaping Our FutureHighlights: Seed Cathedral, Wrapping Paper NationalPavilion Day: September 8Location: Within Zone C of the Expo Site展馆主题:传承经典,铸就未来展馆亮点:种子圣殿,包装纸国家馆日:9月8日展馆位置:C片区 /201005/104230武汉新洲区男科医院哪家好 5.Alcohol Doesn#39;t Help You Sleep Better5.喝酒不会让我们睡得更好Alcohol makes a lot of us drowsy, so having a shot or two before you go to bed seems like a logical, tried-and-true way of falling asleep fast. Unfortunately, you actually end up making yourself worse off than you would have been without a drink. Studies that have examined the effects of alcohol on the sleep habits of more than 500 people came up with some disturbing news for those of us who swear by our hot toddies.喝酒会让我们昏昏欲睡,所以在睡觉前喝一两杯似乎是一种符合逻辑又靠得住的让人更快入睡的办法。但很不幸,相比不喝酒而言,喝了酒之后你的睡眠会更加糟糕。科学家们对500多名志愿者进行研究,以调查酒对睡眠习惯产生的影响。结果对于那些极度相信香甜热酒的人来说是非常不安的消息。Alcohol will, indeed, make you fall asleep faster and will make your initial sleep much deeper, but the difficulties that come later in the night negate any positive effects you might get from this. REM sleep is greatly reduced with as few as just two drinks. In addition to a greater tendency to wake up more often, those sleepers that do manage to fall into REM sleep are more likely to suffer from nightmares. They are also more likely to keep waking up in the middle of these nightmares. This increases the likelihood of the later part of the night being broken up by some pretty uncomfortable feelings. Women feel this more than men, as their bodies tend to process alcohol faster. Even a drink or two is likely to make you get up and hit the bathroom in the middle of the night. It can also worsen any preexisting conditions like acid reflux, insomnia, and sleep apnea.喝酒确实能够让你更快入睡,让你在睡眠初级状态时睡得更加深沉,但是之后喝酒带来的困难会把之前你所得到的所有积极效果都统统抵消掉。一两杯酒虽少却会大大减少快速眼动睡眠。除了更有可能时常醒来以外,快速眼动睡眠受损的人还更容易做噩梦。很可能,噩梦之后会常常惊醒,这样后半夜里的宁静就会被这种不安的情绪所打破。女人的反应会比男人更强烈,因为酒精在女人体内吸收得更快。甚至一两杯酒也有可能让你在三更半夜起床上厕所。不仅如此,它还会加重之前的病情,比如胃酸反流,失眠和睡眠呼吸暂停。4.First Theories Of Sleep4.睡眠的最早理论Sleep really is a pretty weird thing. We spend a third of our lives asleep. That#39;s a huge amount of valuable time we could be devoting to other things, like learning, ing, or generally making the world a better place. At a glance, it doesn#39;t seem to have any usefulness, so it#39;s not surprising that early scientists, physicians, and psychologists had a tough time trying to explain just why we fall asleep.睡眠的确是件怪异的事情。人的一生大约有1/3的时间是在睡眠中度过的。这段大量的宝贵时间我们可以致力于其他事情,比如学习、阅读或者宽泛地说就是让世界变得更好。乍一看,睡眠似乎没有什么用处,所以理所当然早期的科学家、物理学家和心理学家想要解释“为什么我们会睡觉”都感到困难重重。One of the first theories of sleep comes from the Greek writer Alcmaeon. His theory stated that sleep happened with the flow of blood through the body. As vessels carried blood away from the skin and toward our core, we fell asleep until the flow was reversed. About 100 years after Alcmaeon, Aristotle also took on the question of sleep. He determined that it was the opposite of waking, that it was centered around a person#39;s heart (as this was the center of other types of perceptions), and that it was tied closely to digestion. He hypothesized that the act of digestion would put a person to sleep, and that when it was finished, they would wake. The Greeks had a mythological explanation for sleep, in the form of Hypnos, god of sleep; he lived in Erebos (eternal darkness). Every night, he traveled the land in the company of Nyx (Night) and his brother Thanatos, who was the spirit of peaceful death. In ancient Egypt, sleep was something that people had little control over. When they fell asleep, they were entering a place between the lands of the living and the dead. Dreams and nightmares were the work of spirits, and sometimes sleep was a way for the dead to communicate with the living.睡眠的最早理论之一出自古希腊作家阿尔克迈翁。他的理论阐明了人在睡觉的时候身体内的血液在流动。血管将血液带离皮肤然后流向身体的核心,直到血液流向逆转我们才陷入沉睡。阿尔克迈翁之后过了100年,亚里士多德开始研究睡眠的问题。他坚持认为睡眠是清醒的相反状态,它集中于人的心脏(因为心脏是人的感觉中心)而且与消化紧密相关。他设想消化的过程可以让人入睡,消化结束之后,人便会醒来。古希腊人对睡眠有一个神学的解释:许普诺斯(睡眠之神)居住在俄瑞波斯(终极的黑暗地狱),每晚,他会在尼克斯(司夜女神)和他的孪生兄弟桑纳托斯(死亡之神)的陪伴下一起旅行。在古埃及,睡眠是人们无法控制的事情。当人们进入梦乡的时候,他们就进入了生死之间的地域。美梦和噩梦都是鬼神的杰作,有时候睡眠也是死人与活人沟通的一种方式。3.We#39;re Programmed For Two Sleeps3.我们被设定为两段式睡眠If you#39;re one of those people that just can#39;t sleep through the night, don#39;t worry; not only are you not alone, but you#39;re actually sleeping more correctly than those who insist on uninterrupted eight hours. Up until the 17th century, our sleep pattern as a species looked pretty different: We practiced two sleeps. Between the first (or dead) sleep and the second sleep was a period that we used for some downtime—ing, prayer, even visiting family or neighbors. According to some medieval texts, couples who were trying to conceive had the most luck in between the two sleeps.如果你是那种不能一觉睡到天亮的人,别担心;你并不孤单,而且事实上你比那些坚持不被打扰睡足八小时的人,睡眠方式更加正确。直到17世纪,作为一个物种,人类的睡眠模式看起来就非常与众不同:我们会有两段式睡眠(在黄昏后先睡两个小时,然后醒来1到2小时,接着再开始第二段睡眠)。在第一次睡眠和第二次睡眠之间是一段我们用以修整的时间——读书、祈祷,甚至是拜访家人或者去邻居家串门。根据一些中世纪的文字资料,在两段睡眠的中间一段时间受命中率最高。Studies have shown that the idea of two sleeps is much more in tune with what our bodies actually want us to do. That#39;s why many of us still wake up in the middle of the night. Other studies have proven that our bodies will, in fact, default to two sleeps. Psychiatrist Thomas Wehr regulated the amount of darkness people were exposed to for a whole month. As a result, the people#39;s natural sleep patterns more closely reflected the two-sleep sequence. So why have we moved away from this more natural way of sleeping? With the advent of electric lights, the amount of light we#39;re exposed to has changed. Also, during the Reformation, the darkest hours of the night became associated with holding secret—and illegal—religious ceremonies. Suddenly, the idea of ing, prayer, and visiting others in the middle of the night turned into something scandalous.研究显示两段式睡眠更加符合我们身体的节奏。这就是为什么我们很多人半夜还醒着的原因。其他研究明事实上我们的身体默认为两段式睡眠。心理学家托马斯·维尔进行了一项实验,该实验让一群人连续一个月每天14小时置身于黑暗之中。结果表明,人类的正常睡眠模式更加接近两段式睡眠。那么,为什么我们又舍弃了这个更自然健康的睡眠模式呢?随着电灯的出现,我们暴露在光线下的时间就发生了改变。而且在宗教改革期间,夜晚就和保守秘密——不合法的事件——宗教仪式联系起来。突然之间,在黄昏到夜晚之间读书、祈祷、串门就变成了丑闻。2.The Moon Can Keep You Awake2.月亮会让你醒着There#39;s all sorts of folklore around the moon, and most of it is just that. However, new studies have shown that while the moon might not make you go crazy, it can make you lose some sleep.关于月亮各种各样的民间传说不计其数,大多数也就那样。然而,新的研究表明月亮不会让你发疯,但是你会损失一些睡眠。In a study at the University of Basel, Switzerland, researchers looked at just how soundly volunteers slept during different phases of the moon. It was found that, on average, it took people about five minutes longer to fall asleep during a full moon, and their sleep cycle was shortened by about 20 minutes. There were several controls that had been built into the study. In fact, the participating didn#39;t even know that their sleep patterns were going to be studied. The volunteers were originally part of a different, unrelated study, lasting three years. They have spent periods of between three and five days in a lab, where their sleep patterns were monitored. The collected data was only compared to the moon phases long after the study was complete. Volunteers were also monitored in a closed, laboratory environment and couldn#39;t see the moon. This helps rule out the possibility of brightness keeping them awake longer, and supports the idea that there#39;s something else working on our bodies during the full moon.在瑞士巴塞尔大学的一项研究中,研究人员在观察不同的月相下志愿者们的酣睡程度。他们发现,一般来说在满月的时候人要多花五分钟的时间才能睡着而且睡眠周期被缩短了二十分钟。研究中对多个环节都进行了控制。事实上,参与者们甚至还不知道人们在研究他们的睡眠模式。志愿者们原本参与的是另外一门不同的、长达三年的、与此毫不相干的研究。他们会在实验室里待上三天到五天的时间,在那里他们的睡眠模式会受到监测。在研究完成很久之后实验收集的数据才会和月相进行对比。不仅如此,研究者们还会把志愿者们放在一个封闭的、看不到月亮的实验环境里进行监控。这样就能排除因为亮光他们才醒得更久的可能性并且进一步持了在满月的时候有什么东西在我们的身体里起了作用。1.We#39;re Not Sure Why We Sleep1.我们还不能断定我们为什么睡觉Seems unlikely, right? Yet it#39;s true: We#39;re not all that much closer to discovering exactly why we have to sleep than Alcmaeon and Aristotle were. There are certainly plenty of theories that can be pieced together, but there#39;s no confirmed, big picture of why we sleep. Much of the problem comes from the fact that sleep just isn#39;t practical. Sleep is considered a primal need that our bodies get pretty vocal about when they#39;re missing it. We get hungry when we don#39;t eat, thirsty when we don#39;t drink, and tired when we don#39;t sleep. But what does sleep do for us, aside from make us not tired?看起来似乎不大可能,对吧?但是这是真的:现在我们对睡眠的研究和探索其实与阿尔克迈翁和亚里士多德差不了多少。当然我们可以把许多理论都拼凑起来,但是没有一个准确、完整的观点来说明为什么我们要睡觉。很多问题都来源于睡眠不具有实用性的事实。人们认为睡眠只是一项基本需求,当身体缺少它的时候就会发出“声音”。我们不吃饭我们就会感到饥饿,我们不喝水我们就会口渴,我们不睡觉我们就会感到疲倦。但是除了消除我们的疲劳之外,睡眠又对我们有什么好处呢?The inactivity theory and the closely related energy conservation theory state that during the night, it#39;s in our best interest to stay pretty stationary; there are other, bigger things out there that want to eat us, and sleeping means we can conserve our energy. But that also brings up the question of whether or not being completely unaware of our surroundings is the best way to stay safe. Other theories run into the problem of being hard to prove. It#39;s been a long-standing guess that our brains use sleep as a way to reorganize information, to synthesize hormones, or to perform something of a system wipe.One of the most recent theories states that while we sleep, the flow of fluid around our brains increases. This literally performs a physical cleanup of all the debris left behind by the day#39;s thoughts. That doesn#39;t explain the idea of dreams, though; one theory that does explain them is that we need to sleep to give our brains a chance to refresh memories and reinforce what we#39;ve learned during the day without using up the brain power we need to run our waking moments. Interestingly, some researchers think that we#39;re asking the question backward. While we#39;re sleeping, we#39;re stationary, we#39;re conserving energy, we#39;re out of harm#39;s way, and we#39;re not likely to hurt ourselves. These researchers argue that a better question to explore is what biological, evolutionary good comes from us being awake.静止理论和与此紧密相关的能量储存理论阐明了在夜晚的时候我们最好能够保持静止的状态;外面有其他一些更大的存在想要吃掉我们,而睡眠意味着我们能够储蓄能量。但是这又引出了一个新问题:最好的保持安全的方式是完全了解我们的外在环境好呢,还是不完全了解为妙。其他理论则遇到了难以明的问题。人们常常猜测我们的大脑配着睡眠,让其成为一种识别信息,合成荷尔蒙或者对系统进行重新组装的方式。最近的一种理论阐明在我们睡觉的时候,我们大脑里的液体流动不断加强。这实际上是对白天信息留下的残骸进行一次身体上的清理。尽管如此,这还是不能解释人为什么会作梦;有一个理论却解释了这一点:我们需要睡觉是因为睡眠可以在不耗尽清醒时所需脑力的前提下,让大脑再次回顾我们的记忆并且巩固我们在白天所学到的东西。有趣的是,一些研究者们认为我们把问题绕回到了原点。我们睡觉的时候,我们是静止的,我们在保存能量,我们远离伤害,我们不可能伤害自己。他们认为值得探索的更好的问题是我们醒来之后会获得什么生理上的、具有革新意义的好处。翻译:高陈影 来源:前十网 /201508/394398武汉早泄最好的医院

武汉韩式割包皮价格A Japanese regulatory crackdown on insider trading suggests that stockbrokers here have leaked confidential information more as a service to good clients than for direct profit. 日本监管机构对国内内幕交易的一场打击活动表明,日本的股票经纪人泄露机密信息更多是为了务优质客户,而不是为直接获利。 Financial regulators are examining emails and other records provided by a dozen major brokers-including the Japan arms of Wall Street banks-to check whether they leaked advance information of share offerings, allowing favored clients to profit before the formal announcement. 日本金融监管机构目前正在对12家主要券商(包括华尔街投行的日本分机构)提供的电子邮件和其它记录展开调查,以确定它们是否提前泄露了招股信息,从而让被关照的客户有机会在消息正式发布前获利。 Regulators this year have publicly identified five cases where they found such behavior. Japan#39;s two largest brokers, Nomura Holdings Inc. 8604.TO +1.43% and Daiwa Securities Group Inc., 8601.TO +0.66% have admitted that employees were responsible for leaks, and Nomura#39;s top executives stepped down to take responsibility. Nomura salespeople likely leaked information in several more cases, the broker and regulators said, but the investigation has ended on a lack of evidence that anyone profited. 日本监管机构今年公开确认了五桩他们认为存在泄密行为的内幕交易案。日本两家规模最大的券商野村控股(Nomura Holdings Inc.)和大和券(Daiwa Securities Group Inc.)已承认,其员工应为泄密行为负责,野村已有多名高管引咎辞职。野村和日本监管方说,野村的销售人员可能在其它几个案子中也泄露了信息,但由于缺乏有任何人获利的据,所以调查已经结束。 Overall, the five cases have resulted in modest fines for the investors involved and a business-improvement order-a relatively light sanction-for Nomura, which was involved in three of the cases. 这五个案子最终都对涉案投资者处以了适度罚款,野村也被勒令改进自身业务(这是个较轻的制裁)。这五个案子中有三个都涉及野村。 The backdrop to the Japanese investigation is far different than that of the U.S., where 66 traders, analysts and corporate executives have been convicted or pleaded guilty to insider trading in the past three years. In the U.S., many of the defendants were found to have generated significant sums of illicit profit. The Japan cases have involved largely lower-level employees, often salespeople, who appear to have used the inside data to curry favor with top clients, rather than to directly enrich themselves or their firms. 日本此次调查内幕交易的背景与美国的调查背景大不相同。过去三年,美国有交易员、分析师和公司高管总计66人因内幕交易被定罪或认罪。在美国,很多内幕交易案的被告都被发现通过内幕交易创造了大量非法利得。日本内幕交易案牵涉的大多是较低层员工(常为销售员),这些员工似乎都是利用内部数据来与高端客户套近乎,而不是直接为自己或所属公司谋私利。 Interviews with more than 30 brokers, institutional investors, hedge funds, regulators, legislators and lawyers suggest an environment in which securities salespeople regularly fed customers gossip and analysis, mixed with scraps of confidential information, in return for business. 记者对日本30多名经纪人、机构投资者、对冲基金、监管者、议员和律师进行采访后发现,日本存在这样一种风气,即券销售人员经常通过向客户爆料来换取业务,其中不乏一些机密信息。 Market players say the pursuit and offer of market-moving information was allowed to sp partly because of widesp ignorance among brokers and investors on just what insider information is and the lack of penalties to punish leakers. Unlike in the U.S., Japanese insider-trading laws apply only to those who directly profit from nonpublic information, not those who leak it. Regulators can impose a sanction on brokers for lax controls, as happened with Nomura. 市场参与者说,以前之所以允许人们寻求并提供影响市场走势的信息,部分原因一是经纪人和投资者对于内幕交易的定义普遍都不了解,二是日本对泄密者缺乏惩处措施。跟美国不一样,日本内幕交易法仅适用于那些直接从非公开信息中获利的人,而不适用于泄密的人。监管者可对券商管制松懈施以制裁,野村即是一例。 #39;It seems to have become common practice for securities companies to leak information as part of their business model,#39; said Tsutomu Okubo, an influential legislator and former Japan managing director of a major U.S. brokerage who is leading a push to tighten insider-trading laws through, for example, establishing penalties for those who leak. 大久保勉(Tsutomu Okubo)是日本一位有影响力的议员,他曾担任过美国某大型经纪公司日本业务的董事总经理。他说,对于券公司而言,泄密似乎是其业务模式的组成部分,已经成了家常便饭的事。大久保勉目前正在领导一场使日本内幕交易法更为严格的运动,而其中一个具体措施就是制定对泄密者的处罚措施。 /201208/195697武汉市治疗前列腺囊肿最好的医院 When the call came from New Delhi, Punita Devi braced herself for the worst. Her husband, she learned, had been sentenced to death by hanging. 电话从新德里打来时,普尼塔#12539;德维(Punita Devi)做好了最坏的准备。她从电话中得知,丈夫被判绞刑。 Akshay Kumar Singh and three other men were convicted this month of a crime that focused the world#39;s attention on violence against women in India: the gang rape and killing of a 23-year-old physiotherapy student on a bus in December. 阿克沙伊#12539;库马尔#12539;辛格(Akshay Kumar Singh)和其他三名男子本月被定罪,他们所犯的罪行引发全球开始关注印度女性在国内受到的暴力。去年12月,一名23岁的理疗专业学生在巴士上惨遭轮奸后被杀害。 For the parents of the woman who died, the sentencing brought a measure of closure. For Ms. Devi, who is in her 20s, and her 2-year-old son, her husband#39;s crime and punishment have opened up a chapter of profound uncertainty. 对于受害女子的父母来说,这个判决可谓是此事的一个了结。对20多岁的普尼塔及其两岁的儿子来说,丈夫的犯罪行为和受到的惩罚却为这对母子揭开了充满严重不确定性的一页。 Ms. Devi expects to be cast out by her in-laws and face ostracism and destitution here in India#39;s conservative hinterland-not because she is married to a convicted murderer, but because she is a woman without a husband. #39;As a widow, my honor will be lost forever,#39; she says. 普尼塔预计自己会被自己的婆家赶出家门,然后在印度这个保守的内陆小镇处处遭排斥,并陷入赤贫状态,而造成这个下场的不是因为她的丈夫是个被定罪的杀人犯,而是因为她是一个没有丈夫的女子。普尼塔说,我成了一个寡妇,我的名誉就永久地丧失了。 Her husband#39;s relatives say they can#39;t afford to feed her. Her parents say they are too poor to take her back. The customs of purdah practiced in the region make it almost impossible for her to work outside the home. 她丈夫的亲戚说,他们无法养活她。普尼塔的父母说自己家太穷了,不让她回去。这个地区遵循的妇女闭门不出的风俗习惯让她几乎不可能出外工作。 #39;I am not educated. Our traditions are such that I cannot even step out of the house,#39; Ms. Devi said. #39;Who will earn money to feed me and my son?#39; 普尼塔说,我没有受过太多教育,我们的传统就是这样,我甚至都不能跨出家门,谁来赚钱养活我和儿子? In the village where Ms. Devi lives in eastern Bihar state with her husband#39;s family, women are kept veiled and largely secluded. They can#39;t leave home without a male relative. Ms. Devi must wait until dark simply to go into the field behind her house to defecate. 在普尼塔与丈夫家人居住的这个比哈尔邦(Bihar)东部的小村子里,妇女都要蒙面,且大都足不出户。她们不能在没有男性亲属的陪伴下离家。普尼塔必须等到天黑后,才能到家后面的地里去解手。 #39;A woman going out for work is not in our tradition,#39; says Vinay Singh, Mr. Singh#39;s older brother. Ms. Devi#39;s mother-in-law, Malati Devi, is blunter. #39;In our family, women die at home. They never venture outside,#39; she says. 阿克沙伊的哥哥维纳伊#12539;辛格(Vinay Singh)说,妇女出去工作不是我们的传统。普尼塔的婆婆玛拉蒂#12539;德维(Malati Devi)说话更不客气:在我们家,女人死也要死在家里,绝不可抛头露面。 Such attitudes may seem out of character in a country that had its first female prime minister, Indira Gandhi, in the 1960s, and that today boasts high-profile women politicians and executives. But India#39;s countryside, home to nearly 70% of its 1.2 billion people, can be a stifling place, where women live highly circumscribed lives and lack freedoms their urban, middle-class counterparts are starting to enjoy. 这类态度似乎与印度给外界留下的印象并不相符。上世纪60年代,印度迎来历史上首位女总理英迪拉#12539;甘地(Indira Gandhi)。如今,该国也有多位引人注目的女政治人物和企业高管。但印度乡下对妇女的态度却可能令人窒息。印度有12亿人口,其中近70%都生活在乡下。在那里,妇女的生活高度受限,没有城市中产阶级妇女目前开始享受的那种自由。 It can also be a hostile place. In villages crimes against women often aren#39;t reported to police, and cases are settled by elders enforcing custom rather than law. 此外,印度乡下还可能是个充满敌意的地方。村子里发生针对妇女的犯罪一般不会有人报警,事情一般是由那些践行传统的长老们来解决,而不是依法行事。 Ms. Devi#39;s misfortune to be married to a notorious convict makes her situation seem extraordinary. But in fact, the basic difficulties she now faces are a reality of life in the Indian countryside. For the poorest, a single setback-loss of a bwinner, lackluster crop, illness-can propel a family into crisis. For rural women, it can be especially dire. 嫁给一个个声名狼藉的罪犯这种不幸让普尼塔的情况看起来不同寻常。但实际上,她现在面临的基本困难是如何在印度农村活下去的现实。对贫民来说,家里的顶梁柱倒下、农作物收成不好或生病,随便一个挫折就可让整个家庭陷入危机。对乡下的妇女而言,情况可能尤其可怕。 Ms. Devi grew up in a small village about 80 miles from Karmalahang. Her family farms a one-acre plot in a perennially drought-stricken district of Jharkhand state. Ms. Devi says she is 21 years old, although school records in her home village give her age as 24. 普尼塔在距离Karmalahang约128公里的一个小村庄里长大。她的家人以种地为生,地差不多有六亩,位于恰尔肯德邦(Jharkhand)终年干旱的一个地区。普尼塔说,自己现在21岁。不过其家乡村庄里的校方档案显示,普尼塔今年24岁。 She has three older sisters and a younger brother. She was pulled out of school after the sixth grade by her parents so she could cook and clean after her mother became ill. Her sisters all had either left home or were about to, and her parents decided it was more important for their son to be educated than a daughter. 普尼塔有三个和一个弟弟。上到六年级后,父母让普尼塔辍学,这样母亲生了病,她就可以烧饭、收拾屋子。们那时要么已经离开家,要么即将离家。父母认为,让儿子上学比让女儿上学更重要。 Across India, literacy among women lags that of men. In rural areas, less than 60% of women can , according to Indian census data, compared with 80% of men. 在印度,女性的读写能力落后于男性。据印度人口普查数据显示,农村地区识字女性的比例不到60%,男性为80%。 Ms. Devi says she can write her name and a few Hindi words, and a bit. She knew from an early age, she says, what was expected of a woman: to raise children and take care of household tasks. 普尼塔说,她会写自己的名字和几个印地语词汇,能识一些字。她说,很小自己就知道女人应该做什么:带孩子和做家务。 #39;I learned how I had to behave when I got married and went to my in-laws#39; house just by watching my mother,#39; says Ms. Devi. 普尼塔说:从母亲身上我就学到了,结婚住进婆家后,自己要怎么做。 Her mother, Lilavati Devi, says she was a child when she was married to her husband, Raj Mohan Singh, who was a few years older. Now 60, Lilavati Devi has spent most of her adult life within the confines of her small, mud-walled home. 她母亲里拉瓦蒂#8226;德维(Lilavati Devi)说,自己与丈夫拉吉#8226;莫罕#8226;辛格(Raj Mohan Singh)结婚时还是个孩子,丈夫比她大了几岁。现年60岁的里拉瓦蒂成年后的生活大多局限在自己那个泥 小家之内。 Many women in this part of India use Devi as their last name. The word means #39;goddess#39; in Hindi. But it isn#39;t a sign of the relative status of women. #39;To us, husbands are our gods,#39; says Sudha Devi, a government health worker in Karmalahang and no relation to Punita Devi. #39;We can#39;t think of being equal.#39; 印度这一地区的许多妇女以德维为姓。这个词在印地语中的意思是“女神”。但它并非女性相对地位的象征。Karmalahang的政府医疗工作者苏达#8226;德维(Sudha Devi)说,对我们来说,丈夫就是神,我们想都没想过平等。她与普尼塔并无亲属关系。 Ms. Devi#39;s parents arranged her marriage to Mr. Singh in 2010. The connection was made through a woman from a neighboring village who was married to one of Mr. Singh#39;s older brothers. 普尼塔的父母在2010年将她嫁给了阿克沙伊。做媒的是邻村的一名妇女,她嫁给了阿克沙伊的一个哥哥。 #39;I wasn#39;t forced into it, but it was a decision taken by my parents. This is how it works here in the countryside,#39; Ms. Devi says. #39;In a woman#39;s life, marriage and her husband are everything.#39; 普尼塔说,我并不是被逼的,但那是我父母做的决定;在乡下就是这样的,在一个女人一生中,婚姻和丈夫就是一切。 Both families belong to the relatively high-ranking Rajput caste and are farmers. #39;It was a fine match,#39; says Lilavati Devi. In May 2010 she sent her daughter off with a simple dowry: a wooden bed and some kitchen utensils. 两家人都属于等级相对较高的拉其普特(Rajput)种姓,也都是农民。里拉瓦蒂说,这是桩门当户对的婚事。2010年5月,她送走了女儿,陪了简单的嫁妆:一张木床和一些厨房用具。 #39;I told her to live well and peacefully with her family-her new family,#39; Lilavati Devi says. 里拉瓦蒂说,我跟她说要好好地安心跟家人过日子――她的新家人。 The first two years of marriage went smoothly. Her husband Mr. Singh, 28, is the youngest of three brothers. So Ms. Devi settled into a household that included not just her parents-in-law, but also Mr. Singh#39;s siblings and their wives and children. 结婚头两年顺利度过。她的丈夫、28岁的阿克沙伊是三兄弟中最小的。因此普尼塔来到的是个大家庭,不光包括公婆,还有阿克沙伊的兄弟以及他们的妻儿。 Her new village, Karmalahang, is about 18 miles from the Grand Trunk Road, a commercial route since ancient times that connects Kolkata in eastern India to the Afghan capital of Kabul, and sits at the foot of the Kaimur Hills. 她的新家所在的村庄Karmalahang离主道公路(Grand Trunk Road)约18英里(合29公里)。这条路自古就是商业路线,连接印度东部的加尔各答与阿富汗首都喀布尔,位于盖穆尔山(Kaimur Hills)脚下。 The mountains block water-laden air and create what is known as a rain shadow over Karmalahang, making farming for the 1,500 people here a precarious existence. That, combined with a lack of industry, drives many young men from the area to head to cities for jobs. 山岭阻碍了富含水分的空气,并在Karmalahang上方造成了所谓的雨影区,从而令此地的1,500人从事的农业活动成为危险的生计。这种情况加上缺乏工业,导致这个地区的许多年轻男子前往城市打工。 Mr. Singh and his brothers, none of whom finished high school, were no exception. From their earnings, each would send about to a month to support the extended family. 阿克沙伊和他的兄弟们也不例外,他们全都没有念完中学。凭借他们的收入,他们每人每个月可以寄回大约30美元至45美元供养整个大家庭。 #39;I never asked him where he was or what he was doing,#39; says Ms. Devi. #39;I knew he went to earn money.#39; 普尼塔说,我从未问过他在什么地方、做些什么,我知道他去赚钱了。 In June 2011, Ms. Devi gave birth to a son. The child was prone to lung infections, but Mr. Singh#39;s earnings were enough to pay for monthly doctor#39;s visits and medicine. 2011年6月,普尼塔生了个儿子。这个孩子总是出现肺部感染,但阿克沙伊的收入足以付每个月看医生和吃药的费用。 Since Mr. Singh#39;s December arrest, his family has been thrown into upheaval. His brothers, Vinay and Abhay, who had also been working around Delhi, left their jobs for three months to help out at home, straining household finances. The family#39;s reputation has been damaged. 自阿克沙伊去年12月被捕后,他的家庭遭遇剧变。他的两个哥哥、曾经在德里附近打工的维纳伊和阿布依(Abhay)离开工作三个月帮助家里,因而加剧了家里的财务紧张。这家人的名声已经受损。 In April, Ms. Devi took an overnight train trip to New Delhi, her first visit to the capital, to see her husband in jail. When she caught her first glimpse of him through the glass partition in the visitors#39; area, she says, she started to cry. 今年4月,普尼塔坐了一整夜的火车赶往新德里看望狱中的丈夫,那是她第一次去首都。她说,在探视区透过玻璃隔板第一眼看到丈夫时,她就哭了起来。 #39;Keep yourself and the child well,#39; Mr. Singh told her, according to Ms. Devi. She says he told her: #39;I will come home. I am innocent.#39; 据普尼塔说,阿克沙伊告诉她要好好照片自己和孩子。她说,阿克沙伊对她说自己会回家的,他是无辜的。 But without her husband#39;s wages, Ms. Devi says, she hasn#39;t been able to get medical treatment for her son. The child#39;s diet is also suffering, as mother and child subsist on handouts from Mr. Singh#39;s brothers and their wives. 但普尼塔说,没有丈夫的薪水,她无法让儿子得到医治。孩子的饮食也成了问题,因为母子俩都靠阿克沙伊哥嫂的救济过活。 #39;I feel weak,#39; says Ms. Devi. #39;Nobody thinks well of a woman whose husband isn#39;t with her for support.#39; 普尼塔说,我觉得很虚弱,没人看得起一个没有丈夫持的女人。 Ms. Devi#39;s father, Raj Mohan Singh, says his daughter can#39;t return to the home he and his wife share with their son#39;s family. #39;We won#39;t be able to look after her,#39; he says. #39;Her brother can#39;t support her, either. He isn#39;t able to look after himself. How can he look after Punita?#39; 普尼塔的父亲拉吉#8226;莫罕#8226;辛格说,女儿不能回到他与妻子和儿子一家同住的家里。他说,我们无力照顾她,她的弟弟也没法供养她,他连自己都照顾不了,还怎么照顾普尼塔? Ms. Devi doesn#39;t know where to turn. #39;Is there anyone who is thinking of me?#39; she asked, crying after learning of the death sentence. #39;I am alive and I have a small child who is still breathing.#39; 普尼塔不知道该去哪里。她在得知死刑判决后哭着问道:有人想到我吗?我还活着,还有个喘气的小孩子。 /201309/258341黄冈黄州县看男科医院

武汉阿波罗是正规医院吗? IT IS South-East Asia#39;s fastest-growing vehicle market, but investors, analysts and especially carmakers were awaiting Indonesia#39;s July sales figures with trepidation. Spooked by fears of a credit bubble in a booming economy, on June 15th the government had introduced a rule requiring buyers to fork out a minimum down-payment of 30% when borrowing from banks to buy new cars. Loans account for 70% of all new-car purchases, and it was hoped that this would dampen demand.印尼是东南亚地区成长最迅速的汽车市场,但投资者、分析师尤其是汽车生产厂商都在诚惶诚恐的等待印尼市场7月份的销售数据。对繁荣经济产生信贷泡沫的担忧使得政府如惊弓之鸟,于6月15日颁布一条规定,要求消费者在贷款购买新车时,付最少30%的定金。贷款占到所有新车购买比重的70%,因此政府希望此举可以抑制购买需求。In the end, however, spendthrift consumers defied the government. Relieved car bosses saw July#39;s sales rise by 0.8% from June#39;s figure, setting a monthly record of 102,512 cars. Indonesia could be back on track to breach the 1m barrier this year, compared with 900,000 in 2011. Motorcycle sales-8m last year-also continue to resist gravity, or at least the government. Bikers now have to make down-payments of 25%, yet sales for July still hit a new high of 579,077, up from 541,918 in June.然而,结果是挥霍无度的消费者公然和政府作对。如释重负的汽车大亨们看到7月的销售额环比增涨0.8%,月销售记录为102512辆。与去年900000辆的销量相比,印尼今年可能回到正轨,打破1百万辆的销售瓶颈。托车的销量(去年销量为8百万辆)也继续一反常态,至少是不如政府所愿。自行车购买者现在不得不付25%的定金,但7月自行车的销售量比起6月541,918辆的业绩,还是创下579077辆的新高。July#39;s strong figures may yet prove anomalous. There is usually a bounce in consumer spending when Indonesia#39;s Muslim majority celebrates the Ramadan fasting period: cars and motorbikes are in particular demand as people travel long distances to visit their families. The market could decelerate now Ramadan is over.7月强劲的业绩可能表现的很反常。在印尼大多数穆斯林庆祝斋月禁食期间,消费者的开销通常会出现反弹:由于人们要长途跋涉拜访亲戚,汽车和托车炙手可热。现在斋月结束了,车市增速可能放缓。Nevertheless, carmakers are still confident enough in Indonesia#39;s potential to forge ahead with big expansion plans. At the moment the car market is dominated by the Japanese manufacturers, with a share of about 95%. Having stuck with Indonesia as other firms bailed out during one or other of the country#39;s periodic meltdowns, the Japanese are being rewarded for their perseverance. Toyota (with its affiliate, Daihatsu) has about 51% of the market and Mitsubishi 15%, followed by Suzuki, Honda and Nissan. All are planning new production lines and new models.无论如何,汽车生产商仍对在印尼市场继续推进宏大扩张计划的潜力满怀信心。现在日本汽车生产商主宰着汽车市场,市场份额约为95%。随着在印尼一次次周期性的经济崩溃中其他企业被淘汰,日本汽车制造商和印尼一同深陷泥潭,现在日本汽车制造商的坚持不懈得到了回馈。丰田及其附属公司大发市场份额为51%,东芝为15%,紧随其后的公司是铃木、本田和尼桑。这些公司均计划推出新生产线和新车型。Others are now trying to muscle in. GM of America will shortly reopen a plant in West Java that it had closed in 2005. BMW of Germany is expanding production. India#39;s Tata Motors is pondering whether to set up shop in Thailand-South-East Asia#39;s established motor workshop-or Indonesia. Ford has less than 2% of the market, but is energetically marketing its high-end models at a growing middle class. Its local boss, Bagus Susanto, says these are “mostly young and techno-savvy, discerning consumers…who want cars that match with their gadgets and lifestyles.”其他公司也在尝试分一杯羹。美国通用将短暂重新开启在西爪哇省2005年关闭的一个工厂。德国宝马正在扩大生产规模。印度的塔塔汽车公司正在考虑是否在泰国(东南亚最负盛名的汽车工厂)或是印尼建立自己的工厂。福特的市场份额不到2%,但正澎湃的将其高端车款向不断壮大的中产阶级营销。福特汽车的当地主管Bagus Susanto称“这些中产阶级大多是懂技术且眼光敏锐的青年消费者,他们想要和他们的小配件及生活方式相称的汽车”。Underlying this optimism is a belief that Indonesia#39;s economy will continue its dizzying ascent. It grew by 6.5% last year; although neighbouring economies may slow this year, Indonesia should come close to maintaining its growth rate. Despite record sales, only 4% of the population has a car, a relatively low figure (see chart). Given the country#39;s 240m-strong population, the potential is obvious. The industry minister forecasts annual sales of 2m cars by the end of the decade, at which point Indonesia will have long since overtaken Thailand as the biggest market in South-East Asia, even if the Thais remain the region#39;s biggest carmakers.这样的乐观心态背后是人们相信印尼经济会继续飞速发展。去年印尼经济增长率上升6.5%,尽管周边国家的经济今年会放缓,但印尼基本上应会保持其增速。尽管创有销售记录,但有车的人口只占印尼总人口的4%,这一相对较低的水平(见表)。考虑到印尼有2亿4千万的广大人口,消费潜力显而易见。工业部长预测到2020年汽车年销售量达2百万辆,届时印尼将早已取代泰国成为东南亚地区最大的汽车市场,即使泰国仍是该地区最大的汽车制造国。If Indonesia has growing numbers of people who can afford cars, what it needs now are some decent roads. Willianto le, an analyst at Nomura, a Japanese bank, says the country#39;s lamentable record on public works may be set to improve. In August President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono finally signed into law the Land Acquisition Bill, which had spent years going through the country#39;s tortuous legislative process. Its approval should make it easier for the government to compel landowners to sell up, allowing it to build much-needed highways across the main islands of Java and Sumatra, among other projects. If the bureaucrats get their act together-never guaranteed in Indonesia-the car market should keep revving up.如果印尼有越来越多的人能买得起车,印尼现在所需的是一些像样的公路。日本野村的分析师Willianto le称印尼糟糕的公共工程状况将会得到改善。8月印尼总统苏西洛#8226;班邦#8226;尤多约诺最终签署了土地征用法案,这一耗费数年通过印尼冗长繁复的立法程序的法律。该法案的通过将使得政府能更容易的促使土地所有者卖掉土地,进而能够在其他项目中,修建贯通爪哇岛、苏门答腊岛间急需的高速公路。如果官员们能协同一致行动(在印尼从未实现),汽车市场会继续欣欣向荣。 /201208/197532黄冈治疗尿道炎多少钱大冶市中医医院男科专家



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