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2018年04月25日 18:15:24来源:国际经验

Parents Worried Children Old Enough To Remember Family Vacation当孩子们足够大去记住旅行中的点点滴滴时,父母开始担忧YOUNGSTOWN, OH-Fearing that their kids#39; impressions of the experience could quite possibly remain with them for the rest of their lives, parents Joel and Bethany Weyandt told reporters Tuesday they are worried their children are old enough to remember the details of their recent family vacation.俄亥俄州扬斯敦---为人父母的Joel和Bethany Weyandt害怕孩子们的经历留下的印象很有可能跟随他们一生,周二他们告诉记者很担心自己的孩子已经足够大去记住他们最近的一次家庭旅行了。The husband and wife said their son, Michael, 6, and daughter, Nora, 5, have both reached an age at which they are capable of forming and retaining distinct memories, stoking the couple#39;s concerns that the kids will be able to recall numerous details of their trip to Hershey, PA, from the oppressive heat, to the numerous barbs the parents uttered at one another, to the hours spent waiting in various lines.这对夫妻表示他们6岁的儿子Micheal以及5岁的女儿Nora已达到足够大的年龄,能够形成并保留那些深刻的记忆。令这对父母感到担忧的是孩子们可能回想起无数不愉快的细节,包括一家人去宾夕法尼亚的旅行,那些闷热的天气,夫妻间无尽的争吵,各种排队等候等等。;It#39;s sad to think that the kids are probably going to remember everything we went through on this trip-the tiny little hotel room, Michael#39;s ear infection, all of it,; said Bethany, noting in particular a heated exchange between her and her husband that occurred after he missed an exit on Interstate 80, as well as the 30 minutes of tense silence in the car that followed the argument, both of which she believed might now be part of her children#39;s lifelong store of memories. ;If Nora and Michael were still toddlers, we probably would have been in the clear. But they#39;re too old now, so there#39;s really no hope that the closed pool and the broken A/C at the hotel aren#39;t going to leave a lasting impression on them.;Bethany表示更令他们难过的是孩子们可能会记住这次旅行的所有事情,包括那间极小的旅馆,Micheal的耳部感染等等。没什么特别的事情,无非就是丈夫在80号州际公路驾驶时错过了出口,由此引发了双发;战火;,双方争吵过后就是30分钟的车内冷战,妻子觉得这些都会成为孩子成长过程中记忆储藏的一部分。如果Micheal和Nora还不懂事,我们可能就不会有什么阻碍。但现在他们已经懂事了,所以那些关闭的泳池和旅馆里坏掉的空调等不好的印象可定会在他们的记忆里长久存在。译文属 /201506/378646。

  • Hooray, Mariah Carey is single and seeking a man online万岁,玛丽亚·凯莉单身,正在线寻人Historically exciting news for straight men, gay men willing to act straight and straight women now prompted to spend whatever it takes on a man costume (me): Mariah Carey is on match.com.对直男来说,这真是历史上激动人心的好消息,男同性恋者现在愿意表现坦率,而女异性恋者花尽一切努力在Mariah Carey is on match.com.网站上选择男人。Mariah, as any regular er of this column will know, is a Proper Celebrity. If you’re unsure how you like to take your celebrities, complete this simple test.任何本专栏的忠实读者都知道,玛丽亚是一个合格的名人。如果你不确定你是否喜欢名人,那么完成这个简单的测试。Do you want them to bang on about stuff such as how dful the NSA spy programme is, like CBE-in-waiting Benedict Cumberbatch? Or do you want them to have legendary rider demands such as “ a basket of puppies and kittens to pet”; a comically grotesque retinue of personal staff, including someone whose job is best summarised as Chief Positioner of the Royal Bendy Drink Straw; and a repository of anecdotes about having once been literally kept in a gilded cage or something? “I hate the bus!” Mariah once hooted, in appalled reply to a question about how in touch with reality she was. “ I’ ve aly been on the bus - I don not need to get back on the bus!”你喜欢和他们没完没了地谈论(那些)话题比如美国国家安全局间谍计划是多么可怕,或者如何崇拜准大英帝国司令本尼迪克特·康伯巴奇吗?还是你希望他们遵从传说中的骑士的要求,如“轻抚篮子里的小猫、小宠物”;抑或是(讨论)一个滑稽怪诞的随从员工,他的主要工作便是(制作)皇家弯曲的吸管定位器;或是与仓库有关的轶事曾经随便放过一个镀金的笼子或什么的?“我讨厌巴士!”玛丽亚在一次回复联系方式时高喊道。“我已经在公共汽车上,我也不需要回到车上!”If you answered (b), stay with this.如果你回答了(b),留在这。The background to it all is that Mariah is single once more. I know, I know - and less than two years after she renewed her marriage vows to then-husband Nick Cannon in a low-key ceremony, which saw her take over the whole of Disneyland for the evening. She proceeded to the re-plighting of troths - which took place in front of Cinderella’s castle - in a glittering pumpkin-style coach, while live-tweeting the entire event with the hashtag #DonthatemebecauseImadiva.玛丽亚的背景简单。我了解到,在她再婚两年里,发誓要当时的丈夫尼克·卡农进行低调的婚礼,在婚礼中她接管了一晚上的迪斯尼乐园。她再次在灰姑娘城堡前发誓————在一个闪闪发光南瓜马车里。而用整个事件推特直播并贴予标签# 因为我是麦迪娃,所以请这样对我。(DonthatemebecauseImadiva)译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,不得转载。 /201507/384519。
  • DENVER — “Choo-choo-wa! Choo-choo-wa! Choo-choo-wa-wa-wah!”丹佛——“噗—噗—哧!噗—噗—哧!噗—噗—哧—哧—哧!”The words — the theme song of a children’s cartoon — were being bellowed by six grown men huddled on a makeshift stage in a hotel banquet room.六个成年男人挤在酒店宴会厅的一个临时舞台上,吼出这些歌词——一部儿童动画片的主题曲。The song leader, an education specialist, held up a baby rattle.领唱是一个教育专家,他举着宝贝摇铃。“What can we do to encourage play?” he asked the all-male audience.“我们要怎样鼓励孩子们表演?”他向全是男性的观众问道。“Give them alone time,” one man offered.“给他们独处的时间,”一个男人提议道。“Follow their lead,” another said.“听他们指挥,”另一个说道。“Have stuff around that they can interact with,” a third suggested.“把能跟他们互动的东西放在手边,”第三个人建议说。All were correct. And why wouldn’t they be? They were stay-at-home fathers observing a presentation on children and play.这些回答都对。怎么可能不对呢?这些人都是居家奶爸,他们正在观看一个关于儿童和表演的演讲。The men are part of a group called the National At-Home Dad Network, which on an early fall weekend had gathered here for an annual retreat (and a rare night without the kids). The men — 100 in total — had traveled from all over: the Midwest, Canada, Washington State. Over two days, they would attend a workshop on seatbelt safety and bro out at a Colorado Rockies game. They traded recipes — Tex-Mex spaghetti squash, lentil soup, piled into a box in the lobby — and asked questions of a panel of working women. (“Is it weird when your husband gets you a gift with your own money?”; “Who handles your finances?”) The men exchanged email addresses and made plans to meet up in playgrounds across the country.这些男人属于一个名为美国居家奶爸网(National At-Home Dad Network)的组织。今年秋初的一个周末,他们在丹佛举行年度聚会(这是个难得的夜晚,不用带孩子)。他们总共有100人,来自四面八方:美国中西部、加拿大和华盛顿州。在接下来的两天里,他们将参加一个关于安全带安全性的研讨会和科罗拉多州落基山的一个狩猎活动。他们交换菜谱——美墨边境风味南瓜意面、扁豆汤等,这些菜谱都塞入酒店大堂的一个箱子里——向一个职业女性座谈小组提问( “如果你丈夫用你挣的钱给你买了个礼物,你会觉得别扭吗?”;“谁管理你的财务?”)他们交换电子邮件地址,计划在美国各地的游乐场再次聚会。By Sunday, they left, as the convention organizer put it, “better men, better husbands, better fathers.” It was the largest gathering of stay-at-home fathers ever, according to the organizers.正如聚会组织者所说,他们周日离开时变成了“更好的男人,更好的丈夫,更好的父亲”。据组织者们说,这是史上最大的居家奶爸聚会。Some may wonder why fathers need a convention at all. But these men said the answer was simple: They wanted other dads to talk to.有些人可能想知道为什么父亲们需要聚会。但是这些男人说,很简单:他们想和其他奶爸交流。At-home mothers have every support resource in the book, as well as a changing vernacular for how to refer to them (they too are “working moms”). Yet when it comes to dads who are the primary caretakers of their children — a group that is growing swiftly, both in size and visibility — the resources remain dismal. Few books. Fewer community groups.全职妈妈可以在书中找到所有抚养方法,她们还有另一个称呼(“职业母亲”)。但是对于在照顾孩子中承担主要责任的父亲们来说——不管在规模还是可见度方面,这个人群在快速增长——这些资源仍然很少。几乎没什么书。相关的社团更少。“You’ll hear many guys describe it: I’m alone on an island in a vast sea,” said Jim O’Dowd, the conference organizer, who is a former mechanical engineer and a father of four. “There’s no history, no social structure, no guidebook. A guy jumps into this blind.”“你会听到很多男人这样说:我像是孤身一人在茫茫大海的一个小岛上,”聚会组织者吉姆·奥多德(Jim O’Dowd)说。他曾是机械工程师,现在是四个孩子的父亲。“没有关于我们的历史或社会结构,也没有指南书。我们是两眼一抹黑,跳入了这个未知的世界。”And yet, he is also more visible than ever. According to a June study by the Pew Research Center, stay-at-home dads now account for more than 16 percent of at-home caretakers, a number that has more than doubled over the past decade (and still does not factor in dads who work part time).但是现在,他们的可见度增高了。据皮尤研究中心今年6月份的一项调查,如今超过16%的幼儿是由居家奶爸照顾的,这个数字在过去十年里增长了一倍多(这还不包括兼职工作的奶爸)。By no means are single-earner households the norm in this country. And yet along with women’s economic rise — 23 percent of wives now outearn their husbands — has emerged a new kind of male caretaker: the out-and-proud involved dad.在美国,夫妻一方赚钱养家不再是主流。但是,随着女性经济收入的提高——如今23%的妻子挣的钱比丈夫多——出现了一种新型男性看护人:公开承认并以此为荣的奶爸。Sure, he raises his children differently than a woman would. But he’s also there by choice. He isn’t a product of the recession, necessarily. And, according to a Boston College survey, a majority of his full-time working brothers wish they could join him — if their wives’ incomes only allowed.当然,他们照顾孩子的方式跟女人不同。但他们也是主动做出这种选择的。他们不一定是经济衰退的产物。据波士顿学院的一项调查,那些全职工作的男人们大多希望能加入这个行列——如果妻子的收入允许的话。“There’s been a feeling for a long time that dads are not capable, that if dads are in the home, moms are still directing, that dads are not interested in that caretaker role,” said Matt Schneider, a 39-year-old former teacher who had traveled to the convention from New York, where he is a founder of a dads group with 1,100 members. “That doesn’t jibe with what we see every day.”“长期以来,人们一直觉得爸爸们照顾不好小孩;爸爸们在家照顾孩子时,仍需妈妈们指导;爸爸们对照顾孩子这个角色不感兴趣, ”39岁的马特·施耐德(Matt Schneider)说。他当过老师,从纽约赶来参加这次聚会。他在纽约创立了一个奶爸团体,有1100名成员。“那与我们每天看到的情况不符。”The roots of the National At-Home Dads Network actually began two decades ago, with a dissertation project at Oakton Community College in Des Plaines, Ill. Robert Frank, now the chairman of the college’s behavioral and social science department, was working toward his Ph.D. in psychology while caring for his two children. When asked one day by a professor what he did for a living, he replied without thinking twice, “I’m a stay-at-home dad.”美国居家奶爸网实际上起源于20年前伊利诺伊州德斯普兰斯市奥克顿社区大学(Oakton Community College)的一个论文项目。罗伯特·弗兰克(Robert Frank)如今是该大学行为与社会科学系的主任。当时他一边照顾两个孩子,一边攻读心理学士学位。有一天,一位教授问他以什么为生,他不假思索地回答道, “我是居家奶爸。”She stared back at him, wide-eyed. “I’ve never heard that phrase before,” she told him. “You’ve just found your dissertation topic.”那位教授吃惊地注视着他。“我从没听过这个词, ”她说, “你的士论文可以以此为主题。”Over the next two years, Mr. Frank surveyed 371 men who said they were the primary caregivers to their children, and determined that 63 percent said they felt isolated versus 37 percent of mothers in the same position. He began a series of at-home dad meetings — before the days of Google, their existence sp by word of mouth — and his findings culminated in a book, “Parenting Partners,” which publishers told him could not have just “dad” in the title.在接下来的两年里,弗兰克调查了自称孩子主要照顾者的371位父亲,发现其中63%的人觉得孤独,而处于同样位置的母亲们只有37%有这种感觉。他开始组织一系列居家奶爸聚会。在谷歌出现之前,他们靠口口相传才知道彼此的存在。他把自己的发现写成了一本书,名叫《养育孩子的父母》(Parenting Partners),出版社说书名中不能只有“爸爸”。His group fizzled somewhere around the 10-year mark, in part because his children were grown by then. He piled his old research notes in boxes in the garage, and moved on to other issues. He said he rarely gives interviews on the subject.大约十年后,他的团体解散了,部分原因是他的孩子们那时已长大。他把旧调查笔记堆在车库的箱子里,转向了其他主题。他说自己几乎没有就这个主题接受过采访。And yet Mr. Frank had started a movement that endures. In recent months, the engaged father has become a subject in men’s magazines, as well as a bevy of advertisements (among them: Cheerios and Tide). At Boston College, the study of the “New Dad,” as it’s called, is now the major focus of the university’s Center for Work and Family. At the dads’ convention, researchers from Notre Dame and Arizona State were looking at stay-at-home dads in the context of social class and identity.但是弗兰克开创了一项延续下来的活动。最近几个月,忙碌的奶爸成了男性杂志和很多广告的主题(比如,Cheerios麦圈和汰渍)。如今,关于“新爸爸”的研究成为波士顿学院工作与家庭研究中心的主要关注点。在奶爸聚会中,来自圣母大学和亚利桑那州立大学的研究者正从社会阶层和身份认同的角度审视居家奶爸。And while there is new research showing that the daughters of active fathers are healthier and have higher self-esteem, the research has not focused just on the positive. A study at the University of Toronto recently determined that the so-called “motherhood penalty” — the idea that moms are penalized at work — applies to men, too, only worse. While women who talked about their children at work were deemed worse employees but better women (: taking on their feminine role), men who talked about being a parent at work were viewed as both lesser workers and lesser men.虽然有新研究表明,积极的父亲养育的女儿更健康、更自信,但是研究不只关注这些正面影响。多伦多大学最近的一项研究发现,所谓的“母性的惩罚”——认为妈妈们在工作中处于不利地位——也适用于男人,而且情况更糟。在工作中谈论孩子的女人被认为是较差的员工、较好的女人(也就是说:她承担女性角色),但是在工作中谈论为父之道的男人既被认为是较差的员工,也被认为是较差的男人。“Has there been an attitudinal shift? Yes,” said Brad Harrington, the executive director of the Center for Work and Family. “But we’re still in a period of transition.”“人们的态度有没有变化?有,”工作与家庭研究中心的执行总监布拉德·哈林顿(Brad Harrington)说,“但是我们仍处于转型期。”For its part, this dads’ network is working to change the stigma. Today there are subsets of the group all across the country, including men who gathered in five cities last month to celebrate “International Babywearing Week” (that is, a week to honor parents with small children strapped to their chests). One member hosts a conference for dad bloggers, called the Dad 2.0 Summit, and the network’s president, Al Watts, recently published an essay collection with Hogan Hilling called “Dads Behaving Dadly.”美国居家奶爸网正在努力改变这种偏见。如今,该组织在美国各地有很多分部,包括上个月在五个城市聚会庆祝“国际婴儿背带周”(International Babywearing Week,旨在表彰把小孩捆在胸前的父母们)的奶爸们。其中一个成员为奶爸主们举办了一次大会,名为奶爸2.0峰会(Dad 2.0 Summit)。最近,美国居家奶爸网的主席阿尔·沃茨(Al Watts)和霍根·希灵(Hogan Hilling)出版了一个文集,名叫《尽为父之责的父亲们》(Dads Behaving Dadly)。A couple of years ago, when Huggies created an ad that many of the men found offensive — the idea was to put the diapers up to a bumbling “Dad Test” — the men got together and wrote the company with their objections. Huggies pulled the ad, and was even a sponsor at this year’s conference.几年前,好奇公司(Huggies)发布了一个广告,把换纸尿裤加入一个笨拙的“爸爸测试”(Dad Test)中,很多男人觉得遭到冒犯,他们聚集起来,给该公司写信表示抗议。好奇公司撤了那个广告。它是今年奶爸大会的赞助商之一。That camaraderie was in full display in Denver. Mr. Watts played master of ceremonies, while Greg Washington, a part-time football coach in Madison, Wis., encouraged men to share photos of their children. A dad who works part time as a graphic artist designed the program, and the opening montage — a mash-up of news clips about modern fatherhood — was created by a dad, too. (At the end: a female newscaster asking, “Is dad the new mom?” To which a chorus of male voices shouted at the projector, “No!”)这种同志情谊在丹佛的大会上得到充分体现。沃茨担任主持人;威斯康星州麦迪逊县兼职橄榄球教练格雷格·华盛顿(Greg Washington)鼓励男人们分享孩子们的照片。一位兼职做美术设计的奶爸设计了这个项目,而开幕的视频剪接片也是一位奶爸制作的,它是关于现代父性的新闻视频剪辑(在视频末尾,一位新闻女主持人问道,“奶爸就是新型妈妈吗?”男人们对着投影仪一起喊道:“不是!”)。But these men are used to that question, or at least what it represents. They see it at the playground as they scan the grass for other dads to talk to, or from male friends who, as Mr. Washington put it, “don’t always get it.” They hear it in the innocent question from a neighbor — “Are you babysitting today?” — or the pediatrician who asks, “Should I speak with your wife?”但是这些男人已经习惯了这种问题,或者至少习惯了这种境况。他们在游乐场四处巡视也未必能找到可以交谈的奶爸;或者如华盛顿所说,“并不是所有的”男性朋友“都能理解”。某个邻居无意中会问:“今天你当保姆吗?”儿科医生会问:“我应该跟你妻子商量吗?”Mr. Harrington, of Boston College, recalled a story from a few years back in which a man he knew — carrying his baby snuggled under his jacket on a cold day — emerged from a park trail to a circle of police officers because he looked suspicious.波士顿学院的哈林顿想起了几年前的一个故事:在一个寒冷的日子,一个他认识的男人让幼儿依偎在大衣里面,走在一条公园小径上,一圈警察拦住了他,因为他看起来很可疑。“One of our first dads meetups was at the Whitney Museum,” said Mr. Schneider, a father of two. “There were five of us with our babies, having lunch. It was like we were one of the exhibits. We had people coming up to us saying, ‘What is this?’ ”“我们早期的奶爸聚会有一次在惠特尼物馆举行,”施耐德说。他有两个孩子。“我们五个男人带着孩子一起共进午餐。弄得好像我们就是一项展览。有人走过来问:‘这是什么展览?’ ”The good news is that the culture has started to catch up. In April, Daniel Murphy, the Mets second baseman, ignited a fury of radio chatter after missing two games to be at home with his wife and newborn son. When the chief executive of MongoDB Inc., a software firm, announced that he would step down this year to spend more time with his family, he noted that, “As a male C.E.O., I have been asked what kind of car I drive and what type of music I like, but never how I balance the demands of being both a dad and a C.E.O.”好消息是风气开始改变了。今年4月,大都会棒球队的二垒手丹尼尔·墨菲(Daniel Murphy)为了在家陪妻子和刚出生的儿子未参加两场比赛,在电台引发轮番批评。MongoDB软件公司的首席执行官宣布今年将辞职,花更多时间陪伴家人。他提到,“作为一名男性首席执行官,有人问我开哪种车,喜欢哪种音乐,但是从来没人问我如何同时履行做父亲和做首席执行官的责任。”Companies like Facebook and Change.org are among a group that have begun to offer generous paternity leave policies, and as a 2014 survey of dads revealed, 89 percent said it would be an important criterion in looking for a new job.Facebook和Change.org等公司开始提供慷慨的产假政策,2014年的一项关于父亲的调查显示,89%的父亲说,这将会成为找工作时的一项重要考虑因素。And then there are the fathers who are wearing their dad badges each day, proudly.另外就是这些每天自豪地顶着奶爸头衔的父亲们。“Find somebody you don’t know and thank them for coming here today,” Mr. Watts prompted the conference attendees, each of whom got a gift bag (a water bottle and beef jerky) underneath his seat. Good-natured heckling was allowed, but only because each of these men shared a kind of understanding.“寻找你不认识的人,感谢他们今天到这里来,”沃茨鼓励与会者这样做。每个人的座位下都有一个礼物袋(一个水瓶和牛肉干)。这里允许善意的诘问,因为他们相互理解。“You know, anybody who cares about their kid can learn to change diapers and do laundry and cook — and all of those things that are part of being an at-home parent,” Mr. O’Dowd said. “But you can’t overcome social stigma on your own. So while we want guys to feel like they can come here and bond with each other, we also want to enlighten the world a little bit. To say, you know, dads can do this gig, too.”“你知道,任何关爱孩子的人都能学会换纸尿裤、洗衣和做饭——所有这些都是做全职父母的责任,”奥多德说,“但是仅凭一己之力无法改变社会偏见。所以我们想让奶爸们知道自己可以来到这里,建立联系,我们也想让这世界更开明一点。也就是说,你知道,爸爸们也能胜任这项工作。” /201411/344670。
  • Times are hard for Japanese with a sweet tooth as the country bemoans the latest side effect of Abenomics: a surge in the price of chocolate.对于喜爱甜食的日本人来说,现在的日子有点不好过,该国正抱怨安倍经济学(Abenomics)的一个最新副作用:巧克力价格飙升。Over the past two weeks, all three of Japan’s largest confectioners — Meiji, Morinagaand Lotte — have announced sharp increases in the price of any sweet that uses cocoa.过去两周,日本三大糖果制造商——明治(Meiji)、森永(Morinaga)和乐天(Lotte)均宣布大幅上调所有以可可粉为原料的产品的价格。The price rises reflect the yen’s latest slide, taking it from Y120 to Y125 against the dollar since mid-May, a move with decidedly mixed consequences for Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s economic stimulus.此番涨价反映出日元汇率的最新下跌行情,自5月中旬以来,日元兑美元汇率已从120日元兑1美元跌至125日元兑1美元,对于日本首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)推出的经济刺激计划而言,这必然会产生好坏不一的结果。A weaker currency should help exporters, while higher inflation is one of Mr Abe’s main goals. Economists worry, however, that rising prices for imported food will drain Japanese consumers of cash and confidence, hampering the recovery of domestic demand.汇率下跌应会帮助出口商,而通胀上升是安倍晋三的主要目标之一。然而,经济学家担心,进口食品价格上涨将损耗日本消费者的现金和信心,从而阻碍内需的回暖。Deploying very similar language in their press releases, each confectioner said it had done its best to absorb the cost of imported raw materials, but was now having to pass the costs on to customers.这三家糖果制造商在新闻发布会上使用了非常类似的措辞,它们都表示,已尽全力消化进口原材料的成本,但现在不得不将成本转嫁给消费者。At Lotte, the prices of its eight best-selling chocolates are up 10 per cent; the largest increase at Meiji is 11.9 per cent on its Banana Chocco product.乐天的8种最畅销的巧克力价格上涨10%;明治价格涨幅最大的是其香蕉巧克力(Banana Chocco)产品,上涨11.9%。Nor is it just chocolates. The price of everything from curry to cup noodles is on the up, with food inflation running about 2 per cent, compared with the flat level of core goods prices.涨价的不仅仅是巧克力产品。从咖喱到杯面的所有产品都在涨价,日本的食品通胀率为2%左右,而核心商品价格却未见上涨。“We are certainly hearing more companies increasing prices in line with increasing import costs relating to the yen,” said Shusuke Yamada, chief Japan foreign exchange strategist at Bank of America Merrill Lynch.美银美林(Bank Of America Merrill Lynch)首席日本外汇策略师山田秀佑(Shusuke Yamada)表示:“我们确实听到有更多企业在涨价,以应对以日元计价的进口价格上涨。”“But the ability of the companies to raise prices is also because the deflationary mindset of Japan is disappearing, so companies are more confident passing the rising costs of raw materials on to customers.”“但企业之所以能够涨价还因为日本的通缩观念在消失,因此企业有更多的信心将不断上涨的原材料成本转嫁给消费者。”Hiromichi Shirakawa, chief economist at Credit Suisse in Tokyo, said companies tend to use the yen as a convenient excuse for price rises aimed at boosting their margins.瑞士信贷(Credit Suisse)驻东京首席经济学家白川弘道(Hiromichi Shirakawa)表示,企业往往会利用日元作为涨价的便利借口,而它们涨价是为了提高利润率。“The Bank of Japan may want to argue the phenomenon shows a rising expected inflation rate,” he said. “In reality, it seems to us, this is not about expected inflation as much as companies wanting to get some money back.”“日本央行(Bank of Japan)可能希望辩称,这种现象显示出通胀预期日益上升,”他表示,“实际上,在我们看来,这与其说关乎通胀预期,不如说是因为企业想收回一些现金。”The bump in food prices will help keep headline inflation above zero through the summer — with propaganda benefits, at least, for Japan’s central bank. The economic effect will depend on whether the boost to exports outweighs the hit to consumption.食品价格上涨将有利于在今年整个夏季将整体通胀率保持在零以上,至少对于日本央行而言,这具有宣传效应。其经济效应将取决于对出口的提振是否超过对消费的冲击。Mr Shirakawa thinks the benefits will be modest, because sluggish global demand means low export prices are offsetting the boost from a weaker currency. Meanwhile, it will be harder to raise consumption, with wage increases for Japanese workers absorbed by higher prices at the supermarket.白川弘道认为,汇率下跌对经济的好处将较微弱,因为全球需求乏力意味着低出口价格正抵消日元走软所带来的提振作用。与此同时,日本劳动者的薪资上涨被超市涨价吸收,提高消费的难度将加大。“I think the average Japanese will feel they are getting somewhat poorer,” he says.他表示:“我认为,日本普通人会感到自己变穷了。”Analysts at Nomura argue that Japanese households are well able to tolerate a weaker yen but that the speed of yen depreciation makes a big difference.野村(Nomura)分析师称,日本家庭具备很强的能力忍受日元贬值,但日元贬值的速度会有很大影响。“While it takes some time for the yen depreciation’s positive impact on exports to be felt by the domestic economy, the prices of imported energy and domestic consumer prices rise much more quickly, effectively reducing real income levels of Japanese households,” noted economist Tomo Kinoshita in a report.经济学家木下智夫(Tomo Kinoshita)在一份报告中指出:“国内经济需要一段时间才能感受到日元贬值对出口的积极影响,但进口能源和国内消费者物价上涨的速度要快得多,这事实上降低了日本家庭的实际收入水平。”With Japan’s economy trundling forward, the path of the yen is likely to depend greatly on how fast the US moves towards a rise in interest rates, and whether China manages a soft landing for its economy.随着日本经济缓慢向前,日元汇率的走势可能会在很大程度上取决于,美国迈向加息的步伐有多快,以及中国是否能实现国内经济软着陆。“The yen is getting to the point where the dollar rally has been driven by technical factors and could stall at any time,” said Mr Yamada.山田秀佑表示:“日元兑美元汇率即将到达这样一个点,即一直受到技术因素推动的美元升值可能会随时停止。” /201506/379801。
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