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2018年04月25日 18:13:58 | 作者:大众服务 | 来源:新华社
September is an exciting month in every college freshman’s life. For many, it’s the first time they leave home to live in a new environment. But after the hustle and bustle of the first few weeks, excitement gives way to a less enjoyable emotion — homesickness.对所有大一新生来说,每年的九月都是激动人心的日子。许多人都是第一次走出家门,在一个新环境中生活。但在开学数周的喧嚣过后,激动的心情慢慢地被一丝乡愁所取代。Homesickness manifests itself in many ways. You may miss mum’s cooking, your pets, or even your old bed. All this becomes a fond memory of the past. Homesickness can be a bitter feeling, especially when faced with the challenges of settling into an unfamiliar environment.乡愁的表现方式可谓多种多样。你可能想念妈妈的厨艺、你的宠物、甚至是自己的旧床铺。林林总总汇集成对过去时光的美好记忆。乡愁是苦涩的,尤其当你置身陌生环境中,面临诸多挑战时。But remember, you’re not alone. According to a recent B article, 70 percent of British college students experience homesickness. In this increasingly globalized world in which people migrate to far away places for education, work or a relationship, homesickness is a feeling shared by many adults.但记住,你并不孤单。英国广播公司B近日报道称,70%的英国大学生饱受思乡之苦。在这个日益全球化的世界里,人们为了学业、工作或感情而远走他乡,许多成年人心中都弥漫着乡愁。Relocating to a new place is not an easy process, particularly if you don’t speak the local language or are not familiar with local customs.易地而居并非易事,尤其当你对当地语言与风俗一窍不通时。Homesickness can have similar symptoms to depression, explains psychologist Caroline Schuster in an interview with the B. In extreme cases it can develop into a panic attack, she says, while it can also result in social withdrawal, sleep disruption, nightmares, and concentration problems.心理学家卡洛琳#8226;舒斯特在接受B采访时解释道,乡愁与抑郁症状相似。她表示,乡愁严重时可发展成恐慌症,同时也会导致逃避社交、睡眠障碍、噩梦连连以及注意力无法集中等问题。The most famous adult to have suffered from homesickness is probably Odysseus, the hero of Homer’s epic poem, who spent 10 years on a journey trying to get home. It was the memories of his family that helped him get through those difficult times.饱受思乡之苦的、最为著名的人物要数荷马史诗《奥德赛》中的英雄人物——奥德修斯,他历时十年才与家人团聚。正是凭借与家人有关的记忆,他才得以度过重重难关。But the term homesickness, or nostalgia, wasn’t invented until the 17th century. It was considered a disorder by a Swiss physician, who attributed soldiers’ mental and physical discomfort to their longing to return home, “nostos” in Greek, and the accompanying pain, “algos”.然而,乡愁一词(英文homesickness,又被称为“nostalgia”)直到17世纪才得以面世。一名瑞士医生视其为一种疾病,认为士兵们的身心不适源于他们的思乡之情。Nostalgia一词来自希腊语词,nostos(返乡)以及 algos(思乡之痛)。Back then, people saw homesickness as a dangerous and even fatal disease, says Susan Matt, author of Homesickness: An American History. Gradually, it came to be considered childish and immature, she says, ill-fitting to a culture of capitalism and imperialism that required people to travel and explore.《乡愁:一种美国历史》一书的作者苏珊#8226;马特表示,那时人们将乡愁视为一种危险、甚至致命的疾病。她说,后来,乡愁被认为是幼稚、不成熟的表现,是人们不适应资本主义与帝国主义文化的表现。而这种症状需要他们在旅途中不断摸索克。Studies in recent years, however, have shown that nostalgia may have some benefits to our mental health.而近年来的一些研究结果显示,乡愁可能对我们的心理健康大有裨益。After a decade of surveys and research, Constantine Sedikides, a US social psychologist, found thatnostalgia is what makes us human.经过近十载的调查研究,美国社会心理学家康斯坦丁#8226;塞迪基德斯发现,乡愁是人性的一部分。In an interview with The New York Times, Sedikides explains that nostalgia can counteract loneliness, boredom and anxiety. It makes people more generous toward strangers and more tolerant of outsiders. Couples feel closer and happier when they share nostalgic memories.在接受《纽约时报》采访时,塞迪基德斯解释道,乡愁能够抵消孤独、厌烦以及焦虑。这使得人们在面对陌生人时更加慷慨,对外人更加宽容。分享过往的时光使得情侣间更加亲近和快乐。Sedikides admits that nostalgia has its painful side, but the net effect is to make life seem more meaningful. When people speak wistfully of the past, they typically become more optimistic and inspired about the future. The trick is not to become obsessive about the past, but always to live life forward.塞迪基德斯承认乡愁固然有痛苦的一面,但它可以有效地让生命更有意义。怀旧时,人们通常会变得更加乐观、对未来充满希望。而诀窍在于,不过过分迷恋过去,生活要一直向前看。 /201310/262219

Taste is mostly genetic. But appreciating a fine bottle of wine can be learned. One expert, Gary K. Beauchamp, director of the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia, which studies smell and taste and how they affect human health, offers his view of what goes on when we sip.味觉是否灵敏通常由先天决定。但是人们可以通过后天学习来品鉴出一瓶酒的好坏。加里?比彻姆(Gary K. Beauchamp)是费城莫内尔化学感官研究中心(Monell Chemical Senses Center)主任,专注于研究嗅觉、味觉以及它们对人类健康的影响,这位专家给出了自己对于品酒的见解。That Tingly Feeling轻微的刺痛When we talk about flavor, says Dr. Beauchamp, three factors come into play. The first two are the most familiar: The tongue and palate sense the primary taste categories of sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami. And smell receptors at the top of the nose capture molecules floating in the air. In fruit season, for instance, #39;the odors and the tastes interact with different receptors and all converge in the brain, which tells you that this is a peach,#39; he says.比彻姆士说,谈到口味,就必须要提及三个要素。前两个要素我们非常熟悉:舌头和上颚感受几种最基本的口味──甜、咸、酸、苦和鲜味。而鼻腔上部的嗅觉受体捕捉空气中的分子。他说,比如到了盛产水果的时节,桃子的气味和口味与身体中不同的受体相接触,最终汇聚到大脑,告诉你这是一个桃子。For wine, a third factor is also important -- an irritation in the mouth, the throat and the nose that some people like and others find unpleasant. #39;We don#39;t have a good term for it, but it#39;s that sense of pain you feel when you taste something spicy or fermented -- that little stinging,#39; Dr. Beauchamp says.而对于品酒来说,第三个要素也同样重要──一种对口、喉、鼻同时造成的刺激感,这种感受是否讨喜则见仁见智。比彻姆士说,这种感觉就是当你尝到一些辛辣或发酵过的东西时的那种轻微的刺痛感,但我们还没找到一个合适的词语来形容它。For example, #39;If you were to give a spoonful of extra virgin olive oil to people in the U.S., many wouldn#39;t like that burning sensation,#39; says Dr. Beauchamp, who has done studies on this particular condition. #39;But if you give it to people from the Mediterranean, they will recognize the feeling as the sign of the very best olive oil.#39; Enjoying that subtle pain is learned, scientists believe, but Dr. Beauchamp says they don#39;t yet understand how that happens.比彻姆士举例说道,如果你让一个美国人品尝一勺特级初榨橄榄油,多数人都不会喜欢它灼热的口感,他的实验也实了这一情况。但地中海的居民就能从中品尝出极佳橄榄油的感受。科学家们相信,对于那种轻微刺痛感的享受是学习得来的,但比彻姆士表示他们尚未弄清这背后的玄机。Expert Palate“专家级”味觉One of Dr. Beauchamp#39;s colleagues explains that wine flavors are made up of many chemical structures. They arise from materials in the grape, from enzymatic reactions with grape compounds, through alcoholic fermentation and even from the wooden barrels used in the aging process. In the glass, those scents and flavors react with the nose and tongue at different times during sipping, which may cause one person to taste a cherry bouquet and another a leather finish from the same vintage.比彻姆士的一位同事解释道,酒的口感由很多化学成份组成,包括葡萄自身的成份、葡萄化合物的?促反应以及酒精发酵的产物,甚至还包括存放过程中木桶里的成份。品尝一杯红酒,这些不同气味和口味会在不同的时间与鼻子和嘴发生反应,因而同一瓶佳酿既可能如樱桃般醇美,也可能像呛人的皮革一样难以下咽。Professional wine tasters are trained to notice the different flavors that tannins, sugars, acids and various processes give to a particular wine, and to put words to them. But tasters#39; physiology is basically the same as everyone else#39;s. #39;It#39;s not as though they were born with more receptors or grew more over time. They simply developed an ability to notice small differences,#39; says Dr. Beauchamp. #39;With experience, some people can become more attuned to certain smells and tastes, which may lead them to like particular wines more, but their chemistry doesn#39;t change; it#39;s a cognitive effect.#39;专业品酒师能够品尝出丹宁、糖分、酸以及生产工艺所赋予一瓶红酒的不同味道,并对这些味道做出评价。这些品酒师生下来感官并不比别人灵敏。比彻姆士说,他们并非天生就具备更多的感觉受体或随着年龄的增长感觉受体越来越多。比彻姆士说,他们只是训练出辨识酒中细微差别的能力,有了一定的饮酒阅历,人们就逐渐喜欢上某些气味、口味,对特定的酒产生偏好,但这当中的原理只有一个;这是认知效应的结果。Bitter Evolution“苦涩”的进化Among the basic tastes, people seem to differ the most on bitter -- a big factor in appreciating fine wine. #39;It#39;s not exactly clear why there is so much more variation on bitter than sweet and salty. But we have evolved to detect bitter things differently, perhaps to protect us against danger in the environment,#39; he says.在所有基本的口味中,人们似乎对“苦”的感受存在最大的差异,而这恰恰是品酒过程中的一个重要因素。比彻姆士说,至今仍不清楚?什么相较于甜、咸的口感,人们对苦的感受差别巨大。然而是人类的进化让我们对苦产生不同的感受,因而这或许是?了更好地保护自身远离环境中的危险。And because so many factors are at work in the preference for certain wines, it would be very difficult for one person to tell another what he should like.因为如此多的因素共同决定了我们对于酒的偏好,所以品酒是一个因人而异的事情。#39;Take your genetics plus your experience, and we are all living in our own sensory world,#39; Dr. Beauchamp says. For that reason, he has one simple recommendation: Enjoy what you enjoy, and don#39;t worry about what the other guy is savoring.比彻姆士说,遗传加上阅历,造就了我们每一个人的感官世界。也正因如此,对于品酒,他的建议很简单:喝自己爱的酒,让别人说去吧。 /201311/263751

Writer Ann Morgan set herself a challenge – to a book from every country in the world in one year. She describes the experience and what she learned.作家安·根决定给自己一个挑战——在一年时间里从世界所有国家的文学作品中各选一本书来阅读。 她讲述了自己的经历及体会。I used to think of myself as a fairly cosmopolitan sort of person, but my bookshelves told a different story. Apart from a few Indian novels and the odd Australian and South African book, my literature collection consisted of British and American titles. Worse still, I hardly ever tackled anything in translation. My ing was confined to stories by English-speaking authors.我曾认为自己是一个“海纳百川”的人,但我书架里的书却清楚地表明这并非事实。 除了一些印度小说以及澳大利亚和南非的古怪离奇的书以外,我的藏书主要是英国及美国文学。更糟糕的是,我从没有接触过任何小说译本。我读的书大多由以英语为母语的作家写就。So, at the start of 2012, I set myself the challenge of trying to a book from every country (well, all 195 UN-recognised states plus former UN member Taiwan) in a year to find out what I was missing.于是,2012年伊始,我决定给自己一个挑战---在一年内读玩196本分别来自世界每一个国家和地区的书(这里是指联合国承认的195个国家以及一个前联合国成员台湾),看看我在以往的阅读中错过了什么。With no idea how to go about this beyond a sneaking suspicion that I was unlikely to find publications from nearly 200 nations on the shelves of my local bookshop, I decided to ask the planet’s ers for help. I created a blog called A Year of Reading the World and put out an appeal for suggestions of titles that I could in English.开始时我感到无从下手,因为我暗暗怀疑是否能在当地书店里找到来自将近200多个国家的书,于是决定向世界各地的读者寻求帮助。我开了一个名叫“一年读世界”的客,请大家向我推荐一些我可以用英语阅读的文章。The response was amazing. Before I knew it, people all over the planet were getting in touch with ideas and offers of help. Some posted me books from their home countries. Others did hours of research on my behalf. In addition, several writers, like Turkmenistan’s Ak Welsapar and Panama’s Juan David Morgan, sent me unpublished translations of their novels, giving me a rare opportunity to works otherwise unavailable to the 62% of Brits who only speak English. Even with such an extraordinary team of bibliophiles behind me, however, sourcing books was no easy task. For a start, with translations making up only around 4.5 per cent of literary works published in the UK and Ireland, getting English versions of stories was tricky.我的要求得到了意想不到的反响。很快地,来自世界不同地区的人都在试图给我建议、提供帮助。有的人直接在帖子里附上来自他们的国家的书,有的人花费了几小时的时间来帮我做调查。除此之外,一些作家更是给我发送了他们未出版的小说译本,比如土库曼斯坦的阿克?韦尔斯帕和巴拿马的胡安?大卫?根。这给我了一个难得的机会,因为这些书对于占总人口62%的只会说英语的英国人来说本是读不到的。即便有爱书人组成一特别的队伍持我,寻找书源也绝不是一件简单的事。在英国和爱尔兰,出版的文学作品中只有4.5%的是译本,寻找一些故事的英文版是件棘手的事。Small states较小的国家和地区This was particularly true for francophone and lusophone (Portuguese-speaking) African countries. There’s precious little on offer for states such as the Comoros, Madagascar, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique – I had to rely on unpublished manuscripts for several of these. And when it came to the tiny island nation of Sao Tome amp; Principe, I would have been stuck without a team of volunteers in Europe and the US who translated a book of short stories by Santomean writer Olinda Beja just so that I could have something to .尤其是对于使用法语以及葡语的非洲国家来说,只有找到很少、很宝贵的一部分书能够被找到,比如科罗、马达加斯加、几内亚-比绍以及莫桑比克。对其中的一些国家,我不得不依赖于尚未出版的手稿。而对于圣多美及普林西比民主共和国这个小小的岛国,我有幸得到了一来自欧美的志愿者团队帮助才有书可读,他们翻译了圣多美和普林西比作家奥林达?倍加短片小说。没有他们,我的读书计划难以进行下去。Then there were places where stories are rarely written down. If you’re after a good yarn in the Marshall Islands, for example, you’re more likely to go and ask the local iroij’s (chief’s) permission to hear one of the local storytellers than you are to pick up a book. Similarly, in Niger, legends have traditionally been the preserve of griots (expert narrators-cum-musicians trained in the nation’s lore from around the age of seven). Written versions of their fascinating performances are few and far between – and can only ever capture a small part of the experience of listening for yourself.一些地区很少用文字记录他们的故事。比如在马绍尔群岛,当你在想要听一个好故事的时候,你可能会去请求埃罗(首领)准许,然后去听一个当地说书人讲故事,而不是拿起一本书来阅读。类似地,在尼日尔,传说通常都专属于格里奥(专门的故事叙述者及音乐家,7岁开始接受本国神话传说方面的训练)。他们精表演的书面版本少之又少,并且即便你亲耳聆听,也只能捕获到少许。If that wasn’t enough, politics threw me the odd curveball too. The foundation of South Sudan on 9 July 2011 – although a joyful event for its citizens, who had lived through decades of civil war to get there – posed something of a challenge. Lacking roads, hospitals, schools or basic infrastructure, the six-month-old country seemed unlikely to have published any books since its creation. If it hadn’t been for a local contact putting me in touch with writer Julia Duany, who penned me a bespoke short story, I might have had to catch a plane to Juba and try to get someone to tell me a tale face to face.如果这还不够,政治因素更是给我出了个大难题。2011年7月9日南苏丹的建立,对于经历了数十年内战的国民来说可能是一件值的欢庆的事,某种意义上说却给我带来了一个挑战。没有公路、医院、学校或其它基础设施,这个六个月大的国家自建立以来便没有出版过任何的书。如果不是一个当地人帮助我联系上了作家茱莉亚?端妮,请她为我写下一个故事,我可能不得不飞到朱巴去找人面对面给我讲述一个故事。All in all, tracking down stories like these took as much time as the ing and blogging. It was a tall order to fit it all in around work and many were the nights when I sat bleary-eyed into the small hours to make sure I stuck to my target of ing one book every 1.87 days.总而言之,如此追索这些故事可能花费了和我看书、写客差不多的时间。有时候很难找时间来完成所有的任务。有多少个夜晚我都是睡眼朦胧地看到凌晨,以确保达到平均每1.87天一本书的目标。Head space头脑空间But the effort was worth it. As I made my way through the planet’s literary landscapes, extraordinary things started to happen. Far from simply armchair travelling, I found I was inhabiting the mental space of the storytellers. In the company of Bhutanese writer Kunzang Choden, I wasn’t simply visiting exotic temples, but seeing them as a local Buddhist would. Transported by the imagination of Galsan Tschinag, I wandered through the preoccupations of a shepherd boy in Mongolia’s Altai Mountains. With Nu Nu Yi as my guide, I experienced a religious festival in Myanmar from a transgender medium’s perspective.然而所有的努力都是值得的。当我走过世界文学不同的地理风貌,不同寻常的事发生了。和那些坐在扶手椅上的旅行不同,我发现自己入住了故事讲述者们的心理世界。 在不丹作家昆赞?秋殿的陪伴下,我不仅仅是简单地参观了别具异域风情的寺庙,而是以一个当地佛教徒的身份进行了拜访。乘着格尔森?契那歌德想像的翅膀,我游走在蒙古阿尔泰山牧童的思想里。以努努依为向导,我从一个变性人的视角体验了缅甸的宗教盛典。In the hands of gifted writers, I discovered, bookpacking offered something a physical traveller could hope to experience only rarely: it took me inside the thoughts of individuals living far away and showed me the world through their eyes. More powerful than a thousand news reports, these stories not only opened my mind to the nuts and bolts of life in other places, but opened my heart to the way people there might feel.在这些天才作家掌握中,我发现,书带给了我一种外出旅行少有的经历:它把我带入了那些远方人们的思想当中,并且给我展示他们的双眼所观察到的世界。比成千上万新闻报道更有感染力的是,这些故事不仅让我看到了其它地区生活的点点滴滴,也让我与当地人感同身受。And that in turn changed my thinking. Through ing the stories shared with me by bookish strangers around the globe, I realised I was not an isolated person, but part of a network that stretched all over the planet.而这反过来改变了我原有的想法。通过读那些世界各地爱书人给我分享的书籍,我意识到我并不是一个孤立的人,而是属于一个覆盖全球的网络的一部分。One by one, the country names on the list that had begun as an intellectual exercise at the start of the year transformed into vital, vibrant places filled with laughter, love, anger, hope and fear. Lands that had once seemed exotic and remote became close and familiar to me – places I could identify with. At its best, I learned, fiction makes the world real.渐渐地,年初被当成智力训练而列下的国名,变成一个个充满欢笑、爱、愤怒、希望和恐惧的地方,活灵活现、意义非凡。曾经被我认为奇异和遥远的地方变得接近和熟悉---成了一个个我能清晰辨别的地方。最难能可贵的是,我学到:小说让世界变得真实。 /201404/289849

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