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武汉/市人民医院割包皮要多少钱武汉/哪里看淋病好Mining asteroids小行星采矿Going platinum小行星采矿——淘铂去Mining metals from asteroids seems a bonkers idea. But could it work?小行星采矿这想法听似疯狂,但行得通吗?CAN reality trump art? That was the question hovering over the launch on April 24th, at the Museum of Flight in Seattle, of a plan by a firm called Planetary Resources to mine metals from asteroids and bring them back to Earth.4月24日,行星资源公司(Planetary Resources)在西雅图的航天物馆(Museum of Flight)启动了一项计划——在小行星上采矿并将矿物带回地球。对这项计划,人们一直都在疑惑:现实能否战胜艺术? It sounds like the plot of a film by James Cameron—and, appropriately, Mr Cameron is indeed one of the company’s backers. The team behind the firm, however, claim they are not joking. The company’s founders are Peter Diamandis, instigator of the X Prize, awarded in 2004 to Paul Allen and Burt Rutan for the first private space flight, and Eric Anderson, another of whose companies, Space Adventures, has aly shot seven tourists into orbit. Larry Page and Eric Schmidt, respectively the chief executive and the chairman of Google, are also involved. So, too, is Charles Symonyi, the engineer who oversaw the creation of Microsoft’s Office software (and who has been into space twice courtesy of Mr Anderson’s firm). With a cast-list like that, it is at least polite to take them seriously.这听着就像詹姆斯?卡梅隆的电影中的情节——恰好,詹姆斯?卡梅隆实际上就是这家公司的赞助人之一。但是公司背后的团队宣称小行星采矿这事可不是在开玩笑。行星资源公司的创始人是X奖(2004年Paul Alle和Burt Rutan因首次实现私人太空飞行而获颁此奖)发起者Peter Diamandis和拥有太空探险公司(Space Adventures)(已将七位游客送上太空)的Eric Anderson。GOOGLE的总经理Larry Page和董事长 Eric Schmidt也参与其中,曾负责监督开发微软办公软件的工程师Charles Symonyi同样是其中一分子(通过Eric Anderson的公司,他也上过太空两次)。阵容如此强大,出于礼貌至少也该重视这个想法。As pies in the sky go, some asteroids do look pretty tasty. A lot are unconsolidated piles of rubble left over from the beginning of the solar system. Many, though, are pieces of small planets that bashed into each other over the past few billion years. These, in particular, will be high on Planetary Resources’ shopping list because the planet-forming processes of mineral-melting and subsequent stratification into core, mantle and crust will have sorted their contents in ways that can concentrate valuable materials into exploitable ores. On Earth, for example, platinum and its allied elements, though rare at the surface, are reckoned more common in the planet’s metal-rich core. The same was probably true of the planets shattered to make asteroids. Indeed, the discovery of a layer of iridium-rich rock (iridium being one of platinum’s relatives) was the first sign geologists found of the asteroid impact that is believed to have killed the dinosaurs.这想法虽不切实际,但有些小行星看来确实很诱人。它们许多是由太阳系诞生时遗留下来的碎石堆成的,结构松散;但仍有很多是过去几十亿年里小行星相互碰撞产生的碎片。特别是后者将被行星资源公司优先列在其采矿清单上。因为在行星诞生时,矿物熔化之后会层化为地核、地幔、地壳;这个过程将使其中物质分门别类,令有价值的矿物浓缩成可供开采的矿石。例如在地球上,铂和铂系元素在地表上虽然罕见,但人们认为在富含金属的地核里却是较为常见的。对于那些相互碰撞后其碎片形成小行星的行星而言,情况可能同样如此。实际上,地质学家们提出小行星曾撞击地球的第一个据就是发现了富含铱的岩层(铱是铂的同族元素之一)。人们认为恐龙就是因小行星撞击地球而灭绝的。Most asteroids dwell between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. But enough of them, known as near-Earth asteroids, or NEAs, come within interplanetary spitting distance of humanity for it to be worth investigating them as sources of minerals—if, of course, that can be done economically.大部分的小行星都位于火星和木星的轨道之间。但近地小行星(即NEAS)也不少,它们距离地球很近,值得勘探。当然,费用要划得来才行。First catch your hare勿谋之过早The first thing is to locate a likely prospect. At the moment, about 9,000 NEAs are known, most of them courtesy of ground-based programmes looking for bodies that might one day hit Earth. That catalogue is a good start, but Planetary Resources plans to go further. In 2014 it intends to launch, at a cost of a few million dollars, a set of small space telescopes whose purpose will be to seek out asteroids which are easy to get to and whose orbits return them to the vicinity of Earth often enough for the accumulated spoils of a mining operation to be downloaded at frequent intervals.首先,要找到一个可能有矿藏的小行星。目前已探明的近地小行星约有9000颗,其中大部分是地面计划在寻找可能撞击地球的天体时探测到的。从这个范围开始寻找是很好,但行星资源公司却有更远大的计划。该公司打算在2014年耗资数百万美元发射一组小型太空望远镜,用于寻找容易到达的、能经常回到地球附近的小行星,以便常将所采矿物送回地球。That bit should not be too difficult. But the next phase will be tougher. In just over a decade, when a set of suitable targets has been identified, the firm plans to send a second wave of spacecraft out to take a closer look at what has been found. This is a significantly bigger challenge than getting a few telescopes into orbit. It is still, though, conceivable using existing technology. It is after this that the handwaving really starts.这一步应该不会太难,但下一步就难度更大了。当该公司发现了一组适合采矿的小行星时,便计划要在短短十年多一点的时间内发送第二批宇宙飞船仔细研究一下这些小行星。这个挑战可比向太空中发射几个望远镜要艰巨得多。不过,利用现有的技术仍是可以实现的。在这之后,纸上谈兵才真正开始。Broadly, there are two ways to get the goodies back to Earth. The first is to attempt to mine a large NEA in its existing orbit, dropping off a payload every time it passes by. That is the reason for the search for asteroids with appropriate orbits. This approach will, however, require intelligent robots which can work by themselves for years, digging and processing the desirable material. The other way of doing things is for the company to retrieve smaller asteroids, put them into orbit around Earth or the moon, and then dissect them at its leisure. But that limits the value of the haul and risks a catastrophic impact if something goes wrong while the asteroid is being manoeuvred.要将所采矿物运回地球大致有两种方法。其一是在不改变其轨道的情况下于一颗较大的小行星上采矿,在这颗小行星每次接近地球时卸下所采矿物。这就是为何要寻找轨道合适的小行星的原因。不过,此法需要能独立工作数年的智能机器人来开采并加工有价值的矿物。其二是行星资源公司改变较小的小行星的运行轨道,将其安置在环绕地球或月球的轨道上,再在有空时仔细研究之。但那将减少每次采矿的量,且要承担移动小行星时出现问题而带来灾难性后果的风险。Either way, the expense involved promises to be out of this world. A recent feasibility study for the Keck Institute for Space Studies reckoned that the retrieval of a single 500-tonne asteroid to the moon would cost more than .5 billion. Earlier research suggested that, to have any chance of success, an asteroid-mining venture would need to be capitalised to the tune of 0 billion. Moreover, a host of new technologies will be required, including more-powerful solar panels, electric-ion engines, extraterrestrial mining equipment and robotic refineries.不论哪种方法,所需费用都一定是天价。最近,克柯太空研究所(Keck Institute for Space Studies)进行的一项可行性分析认为,将一颗重量为500公吨的小行星移到月球附近所耗资金将超过二十五亿美元。较早前的研究指出,必须投资一千亿美元才有可能实现小行星采矿。而且,还需要大量新技术,包括功率更大的太阳能电池板、电子离子引擎、太空采矿设备和自动冶炼厂。All of which can, no doubt, be done if enough money and ingenuity are applied to the project. But the real doubt over this sort of enterprise is not the supply, but the demand. Platinum, iridium and the rest are expensive precisely because they are rare. Make them common, by digging them out of the heart of a shattered planet, and they will become cheap. The most important members of the team, then, may not be the entrepreneurs and venture capitalists who put up the drive and the money, nor the engineers who build the hardware that makes it all possible, but the economists who try to work out the effect on the price of platinum when a mountain of the stuff arrives from outer space.当然,若为这个项目投入足够的资金和人才,以上种种都能实现。但对于这种工程浩大的项目,人们真正质疑的并非是否有人能提供这种务,而是有没有这种需求。正因为稀有,铂、铱等矿物才价格不菲。若这些矿物能在一个由碎片构成的行星的地核中被开采到,它们就成了普通金属,价格也会变得便宜。所以,这个团队里最重要的成员可能不是推动这项事业并参与投资的企业家和风险投资人,也不是设计实现这一目的的硬件工程师;而是当大量的铂从天外而来时,那些试图算出其对铂价冲击的经济学家。201205/183343武汉/治疗非淋医院哪家好 Books and Arts; Book Review;Bulgakov and Stalin on stage;文艺;书评;舞台上的布尔加科夫与斯大林;Men and monsters;Two new plays explore the relationship between art and tyranny;人与怪物;探讨艺术与极权统治之间关系的两部新剧;Even without the constraints of censorship, Stalins reign lends itself to surrealism. How else to convey its mad caprices, the incomprehensible scale of his cruelty and the spiralling paranoia? Two new London productions that, coincidentally, involve Stalin and the novelist Mikhail Bulgakov, make apt use of surreal fantasia. Catch either, or ideally both, if you can.即便没有审查制度,斯大林的统治之下,艺术也会走向超现实主义。不然还有什么方式,可以表达其统治的反复无常,以及其人不可理解的残酷程度和日益增强的偏执呢?伦敦最近的两部新剧,恰好以超现实的幻想曲,让斯大林和小说家米哈?布尔加科夫走到了一起。两者中任一方面都值得玩味,如果你能,也可以兼顾双方。The new version of “The Master and Margarita” by Complicite, a British company justly renowned for its daring theatre, is set to tour Europe after a short, triumphant run at the Barbican. The unwieldy zaniness of Bulgakovs great novel—whose action involves the devil and his retinue visiting Stalins Moscow, the blighted affair of the eponymous characters, and the masters novel about Pontius Pilate and Jesus—somehow hasnt deterred stage adaptations. In this one, Simon McBurney, Complicites director, doubles down: rather than trying to simplify, he mashes up the stories, echoing and embellishing them in multimedia. There are projections, sound loops, puppetry and nudity: a painfully emaciated Christ; a flying, nude Margarita.以大胆的舞台著称的英国Complicite公司推出了新版《大师与玛格丽特》,在巴比肯的短暂上演大获成功,计划接下来去欧洲巡演。布尔加科夫这本伟大的小说带有一种不受配的癫狂:魔鬼极其随从造访斯大林的莫斯科,同名人物的事迹以及大师所著关于比拉多和耶稣的故事。但这些都没有阻碍舞台剧本的改写。Complicite公司的总监Simon McBurney认为,不应当简化原著,而是把整个故事融为一体,并通过多媒体手段加以呼应和装饰。电脑投影,环绕音响,木偶人像和大胆裸露都得以应用。瘦骨嶙峋的耶稣痛苦地受难,还有赤身裸体悬在空中的玛格丽特。The result is a dark carnival of theatrical effects, which is demanding, sometimes overwhelming, only occasionally misfiring. Like ers of the book, some members of the audience may yearn for more of the comic demons, in particular the giant, lecherous cat. But the overall impact highlights the novels underlying themes: the hypocrisy of many but compassion of some; the way craven people get the callous rulers they deserve, yet now and then rise to a nobility that deserves better.这一切的结果便是各种舞台特效在黑暗中的狂欢。全场气氛被跳动起来,有时甚至无法抵抗,只有某些时刻会显得过火。和原著的读者一样,现场的一些观众可能也会渴望看到更多动画制作的怪物,尤其是那只巨大的充满色情意味的猫。但总体效果还是突出了小说暗藏的主题:多数人的伪善和少数人的悲悯;懦弱的民众从暴君是自食其果,虽然不时的那点高尚,似乎值得更好的统治。“Collaborators”, a coruscating new play at the National Theatre, imagines a relationship between Stalin and Bulgakov himself. Directed by Sir Nicholas Hytner and written by John Hodge, previously best known as the screenwriter for “Shallow Grave” and “Trainspotting”, the production will soon transfer to the Nationals main Olivier stage after opening at the smaller Cottesloe. Bulgakov (Alex Jennings) is coerced to write a play about the dictators early years to celebrate his 60th birthday. In return, along with his life and his wifes, he is promised the un-banning of his subversive drama about Molière—grotesque, masked scenes from which intrude on the main story, as do comically appalling passages from the Stalin tribute.在国家剧院上演的《合作者们》也是一部引人注意的新剧,假想了斯大林与布尔加科夫之间的故事。导演是Nicholas Hytner,编剧是John Hodge,之前凭借《浅坟》和《猜火车》为人所知。这部新剧在Cottesloe开演之后,很快会转至更大的国家奥利弗主剧院演出。剧中布尔加科夫(Alex Jennings饰)被迫写一部关于独裁者早年经历的剧本,以庆祝他的60岁诞辰。回报就是他得到允诺,他关于莫里哀的反动剧作不会被禁演。于是这个剧作中的奇怪晦涩的场景会不时插入到为斯大林献礼的剧作中,传达出既滑稽又恐怖的信息。That, in the event, is written by Stalin, who summons Bulgakov to secret meetings. The actual Bulgakov did write a never-performed play about Stalins youth; Stalin telephoned and took an interest in him, though there is no record that they met. Simon Russell Beale (pictured above) is a chillingly hilarious Stalin; substituting a West Country burr for the original Georgian accent, he is cunning and charming, manipulative, menacing and intellectually insecure. While Stalin hammers out the script, Bulgakov, struggling with his compromises and conscience, is obliged do his collaborators paperwork, which slides from steel-factory targets, to grain allocations, to death as.这一段在剧中,是由斯大林所写,他召见布尔加科夫密见。现实中布尔加科夫的确写过一部关于斯大林青年时期经历的剧本,但从未被搬上舞台。斯大林和他通过电话并表示过赞赏,但并没有他们会面的记录。Simon Russell Beale(如图)扮演了一个冷酷却又惹人发笑的斯大林,用西方粗喉音代替了他原来的乔治亚时期的口音。他世故圆滑,富于魅力,控制欲强,具有威慑力同时又反复无常。在剧中,当斯大林敲定剧本台词时,布尔加科夫在妥协和良知之间摇摆挣扎,但不得不完成这一合作的剧本,内容涉及炼钢厂目标,谷物分配,甚至死刑名额。Both productions explore the relationship between tyranny and creativity: the artistic kind, but also the humbler urge to create private love and lives in crushing times. “The Master and Margarita” proclaims that “manuscripts dont burn”. “Collaborators” is less sure of arts resilience: “the monster always wins”, Stalin insists. “Collaborators” hints at the structural similarities between writing and governing. Both are lonely work, requiring the imposition of an arbitrary order on unseen, notional individuals—only, in the case of the tyrant, the people are real.两部新剧都探讨了集权统治和艺术创造之间的关系:在集权压制的时代,关于个人情爱和生活的艺术创作的动力极其微弱。《大师与玛格丽特》宣称“手稿不可被真正焚毁”。《合作者们》则并未如此确定艺术的自我恢复能力,毕竟“怪物们总是胜利”,这是剧中斯大林坚持的台词。这两部作品都算是脱离现实,涉及到对那些未见的个体施加强制命令,只有在暴君统治之下,居中的人民才活在真实当中。 /201209/200626Obituary;逝者;Keith Colquhoun;基斯·科尔克霍恩;Farewell to an old Asia hand and The Economists previous Obituaries editor;一个写亚洲的老手、《经济学人》逝者专栏前编辑,再见了;In the 20-odd years he worked for The Economist, from 1981 to 2004, Keith Colquhoun never raised his voice. He did not need to. His soft, courteous, slightly smiling delivery encouraged people to listen, as to a favourite uncle. But steel lay behind it. “Ive just taken one or two liberties with your copy,” he would say, meaning that it had been completely rewritten into the best simple, accurate, sparely punctuated Colquhoun prose. “I would like to do X,” he would say gently, announcing the weeks Obituary candidate, who was often a complete unknown; and neither wild horses, nor the deaths of great celebrities, could persuade him to change his mind.1984年-2004年,在基斯·科尔克霍恩为《经济学人》工作的这20多年里,他从不提高声音说话。他不需要这样。他轻柔、谦恭、略带微笑的讲话风格使人们愿意聆听,就像听一个可爱的叔叔讲话一样。但是话语背后透着坚决。他会说,“我把你的稿子做了一两处处理”,意思是,稿子已经改成最简洁、最准确、标点最少的科尔克霍恩风格。当他宣布当周的逝者人选时,他会轻轻说,“我想做某某人”,通常是一个完全不为人知的名字;无论是野马,还是大明星的去世,都不能改变他的主意。Keith came into journalism the old-fashioned way, through provincial papers and Fleet Street, but got as far as Hong Kong, where he worked for the Far Eastern Economic Review. He loved Asia, though his view of it was really that of a 19th-century colonial administrator. He had a soft spot for geishas. Of one correspondent, non-productive though enjoying a lavish retainer, he once remarked: “I think perhaps if we do not hear from him next year, we should send him a note.” Though no stripling, he would hunger to get to Siam, Sinkiang or Tartary. He developed a fondness for the Pacific islands, and actually found stories there.基斯进入记者圈是那种很老套的方式,先在地方报纸做,然后进入伦敦报业街,但是他最远到了香港,供职于《远东经济》。他热爱亚洲,尽管他对亚洲的看法还像是一个19世纪的殖民地官员。他喜欢艺妓。他曾这样一个不出活却享受高价聘用金的记者:“我想也许这样,假如我们明年收不到他的信的话,我们应该给他寄一封。” 他虽然不是小伙子,却渴望去暹罗、新疆和鞑靼。他还对太平洋诸岛产生了兴趣,而且真的在那里找到了故事。When he took over the Obituaries in 1995, just after their launch, he kept the Asian flag flying. He also set an extraordinary standard for clear, dry, witty writing. The openings of his Obituaries were a particular delight. “One of Walter Linis minor pleasures was to get the better of the French.” “The achievement of Karl Kehrle, a Benedictine monk, was to breed a very decent British bee.” Or this:就在“逝者”诞生后不久的1995年,他接手了这个栏目,并且一直高举亚洲大旗。他清晰、朴素、诙谐的写作风格树立了一个卓越的标准。他逝者文章的开头能带给读者一种特别的愉悦。“沃尔特·里尼的一个小乐趣是盖过法国人。” “本笃会修士卡尔·科赫尔的成就是培育一只品种非常优良的英国蜜蜂。” 或是下面这个:Hunting around for something not too brutal to say about Tiny Rowland now that he is dead, those who knew him have remarked on his charm. The English language is helpful with the evasive word.认识泰尼·罗兰的人在脑中搜寻他那些不是太过残酷之处——因为他已经不在了,他们于是说起了他的魅力。英语这种语言很会描述这个含糊的词。It was an open secret, however, that Keiths dearest occupation was not The Economist. It was his own writing, at which he could be seen tapping eagerly for as long as he dared before boarding the homeward train to Mersea Island. He produced 11 blackly comic novels, the last of them (“Five Deadly Words”) this April. Those disarmed by his gentleness could never quite forget that in Keiths world guns would be suddenly drawn, blood spilt on the carpet and bullets lodged in a desk, “reducing its value a little should it ever come to auction.”然而,基斯最钟爱的职业不是他在《经济学人》的工作——这是一个公开的秘密。他最爱的是为自己写作。你能看见他在登上回家乡莫西岛的火车之前,热切地敲着他自己的作品,直到该上车的最后一刻。他创作了11部黑色幽默小说,最后一部(《五个致命单词》)在今年四月出炉。那些被他的温和缴械的人从来不会忘记,在基斯的世界里,会突然被拔出,血会溢到地毯上,颗颗子弹会固着在桌子里,“假如哪天把这桌子拿去拍卖,价钱也就微折。” /201209/200885孝感市大悟县看男科怎么样

汉川看前列腺炎好吗Scientists in this laboratory in Sweden have made a medical breakthrough by cultivating artificial corneas they are able to store visions to millions of people in need of transplant in face of the risk of going blind. The biosynthetic cornea developed in Canada and Sweden looks like a contact lens. Eye surgeon May Griffith explains how it made.瑞典一科学实验室内的科学家们在人工角膜领域有了新突破。这将为几百万等待角膜移植,可能失明的患者带来了光明。这种在加拿大和瑞典的人工合成角膜看上去就像隐形眼镜一样。眼科医生May Griffith将向我们做详细解释。;We started with the recombinant human collagen, so the first thing that was done was the scientist at Fibrogen, genetically engineered yeast. They took human DNA, put it into yeast cells, and got the yeast cells to produce this human protein. What we then did was take this protein chemically treated, put into molds and the result is a transparent contact lens looking like cornea. ;“我们从重组人体胶原蛋白开始,所以首先纤维蛋白原方面和基因工程方面的专家制作酵母,他们提取人类DNA,将DNA注入酵母细胞中,使酵母细胞生产人类蛋白质。我们接下来要做的就是将这些蛋白质进行化学处理,注入霉菌,结果就生成了看上去像隐形眼镜的透明人工角膜。”The procedure involves of removing the damage cornea which covers the iris of the people, and replace it with an artificial film-like one. The cornea itself is made from protein collagen, and reflects light allowing the retina to focus. The operation was carried out on 10 patients, and up until now, their sight has improved.患者需要手术移除虹膜上受损的角膜,并换上人工角膜。这种新型的人工角膜由蛋白质组成,质地轻盈,使虹膜能够自由聚焦。已经有10名患者接受了这种手术,截止到现在,他们的视力有了显著提高。This was a test designed primarily to look at the safety of implanting biomaterial into patients. But we were very surprised and very happy for the results we got. Because the results show that six out of ten patients could now see things about four times further away than they could before the operation. And when we put hard contact lens on all ten patients, the vision in all ten patients was improved.这项实验的初衷是检验向病人植入人造角膜的安全性。但结果让我们惊讶并且十分兴奋。结果显示10名接受手术的患者中,六名患者可以看清以前视力所及距离的四倍以外的物体。而所有接受手术的10名患者的视力都有了很大改善。The patients were monitored from 2 years, and doctor said 90% of the cases the tissue grew back completely joining together with the implant. Doctors said that there havent been any adverse effects and the artificial cornea was mimicking a natural one with patients producing tears.接受治疗的患者将会被观察两年,医生表示,90%的患者的眼部组织和植入的人造角膜完全愈合。医生还说,人造角膜不仅没有副作用,并且还能仿照天然角膜制造泪水。Corneal disease affects millions of people around the world, and the number of transplants carried out limited due to a shortage of donors. The second and third phase of the test still needs to be carried out and medics say it will be another five years until the eye opening procedure will be performed at hospitals.角膜类疾病困扰着全世界几百万人口,大批患者等待角膜移植,而捐献者及其有限。人造角膜的第二第三阶段实验仍需实施,相关的医学工作者表示,人造角膜应用于临床还需要至少五年。Basmah Fahim, Reuters.Basmah Fahim,路透社消息。recombinant n. 重组;[生]重组体collagen n. (骨)胶原(蛋白);成胶质yeast cells n.酵母细胞;酵母菌iris n. 虹膜注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201208/194309武汉/治疗软下疳最专业医院 Books and Arts; Book Review;The sp of disease;Germs and money;文艺;书评;疾病传播;细菌与金钱;Where and when will the next pandemic emerge?下一次大范围流行病将于何时在哪里爆发?Contagion: How Commerce Has Sp Disease. By Mark Harrison.《疫病蔓延:商业行为是如何传播疾病的》,马克·哈里森著。Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic. By David Quammen.《溢出效应:动物传染病和下一场人类流行病》,大卫·奎曼著。On October 2nd a British traveller, flying home to Glasgow from Afghanistan, began to feel ill. Within hours he was diagnosed with Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever, a virus nasty enough for him to be put onto a military transport aircraft for transfer to an isolation hospital in London. Less than 24 hours later he was dead.10月2号,一名英国旅行者从阿富汗乘飞机返回故乡格拉斯哥。在旅途中,他突然感到有些不适。几个小时以后他被诊断出患有克里米亚-刚果出血热——这种疾病的病毒特别危险,足以让他被送上一架军用运输机并转移到伦敦的一家隔离医院里。他没撑过24小时就病发身亡了。This outbreak, on top of another death last month in Saudi Arabia from a previously unknown virus, a cousin of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), has set global health agencies on edge. Ten years ago the deaths of a couple of travellers from foreign parts might not have been news at all. But the fright of the SARS outbreak in 2003 has left a lasting impression, and scientists and public-health officials now tend to see any putative disease threat through its lens.上个月,在沙特阿拉伯有一种此前未知的病毒(严重紧急呼吸综合症 (SARS)的类似病毒)导致一人死亡,再加上本次克里米亚-刚果出血热的爆发,这两起事件让全球各卫生机构紧张起来了。如果放在十年以前,从国外回来的几个旅行者暴毙可能根本算不上什么新闻。但对2003年 SARS 爆发的恐惧给人们留下了持久的印象,科学家和公共卫生官员如今往往对任何假定的疾病威胁都不敢轻忽。It is refreshing, therefore, to take a wider look at the problem of infectious disease. Two recent books take very different approaches to the narrative of bacteria and viruses, prions and protists that humanity has known for centuries and the brand new bugs that, by opportunistic accident, hop between species and start a new evolutionary tussle. Mark Harrison, director of Oxford Universitys Wellcome for the History of Medicine, charts a chronological path through the history of such diseases. David Quammen, an American science journalist, picks up the story of contemporary blights, exploring how the next pandemic will be detected.因此,如果能从更广泛的角度来看待传染病的问题,的确让人耳目一新。最近有两本新书面世,采取了截然不同的方法来叙述人类发现于几个世纪以前的细菌、病毒、朊毒体和原生生物。两本书中还提到了一些全新的微生物——它们具有“机会致病性”,活跃在各个物种之间,并在进化方面引发了一场新的争论。马克·哈里森是牛津大学维尔康医学史研究所负责人,他针对历史上的此类疾病绘制了一张按时间顺序排列的进程图表。美国科学新闻记者大卫·奎门报道了当代枯萎病的情况,对人类会在什么时候发现下一次大范围流行病进行了研究。“Quarantines have become tariffs by another name,” Mr Harrison states at the beginning of “Contagion”, which moves with scholarly deliberateness from 12th-century Europe through to the globalised early 20th century, to demonstrate how modern-day quarantines evolved. Commerce was aly associated with infection during the Black Death, though it would be hundreds of years before rats were singled out as its carrier, and the first quarantines followed soon after. When the plague reappeared in Britain and on the continent in the 1660s, European countries used tit-for-tat quarantines to keep out competitors, skim fees from merchants, reassure trading partners and punish those who quarantined them.《疫病蔓延》一书用学术性的从容笔调从12世纪的欧洲一直写到全球化的20世纪早期,展示了现代隔离检疫的发展过程。哈里森在书的开头写道:“隔离检疫已经成了另一种名义上的关税。”几百年前,在黑死病肆虐期间,人们曾经认为老鼠是唯一的带菌者——但当时的疾病感染已经和商业行为联系了起来,而且其后不久就实施了人类历史上首次隔离检疫。17世纪60年代,当英国乃至整个欧洲大陆再次出现这场瘟疫的时候,欧洲国家采取了针锋相对的隔离检疫措施来阻拦竞争对手、从商人手中捞取钱财、消除贸易伙伴的疑虑并且惩治那些曾经对欧洲实施隔离检疫的国家。Mr Harrison follows the loosening of quarantines as the tides of free trade rose in the mid-19th century. A series of international conferences (and another bad bout of plague) finally gave birth to the first international health regulations in 1907 with the object of smoothing out commerce. On both sides of the Atlantic, quarantine was increasingly replaced by better intelligence and proactive measures.哈里森叙述道:19世纪中期,随着自由贸易浪潮的兴起,隔离检疫措施有了一些松动。一系列国际会议(以及另一场瘟疫的猛烈侵袭)最终促使各国在1907年制定了首批国际卫生规程,旨在解决商业贸易难题。大西洋两岸的国家逐渐采用更完善的疾病情报工作和主动防御措施来代替隔离检疫行为。But current quarantine regulations are not immune to politicisation, and it is in making this point that Mr Harrisons book is most illuminating, though this forms a small part of the overall narrative. In defending “biosecurity”, governments have tended to react defensively to diseases like the H5N1 bird flu and mad-cow disease (or BSE), disrupting not just bilateral trade but international markets as well. For instance in the swine-flu pandemic, Russia, China and others banned pork imports from North America and Mexico despite protests by the World Trade Organisation and the European Union that there was no evidence the virus could travel in meat. Disease scares still provide an appealing cover for trade protectionism.但现行的隔离检疫规程仍然难免要受到政治化的影响。尽管哈里森在通篇叙述中对此着墨不多,但正是对这一方面的论述让本书极具启发性。在保护“生物安全”的时候,各国政府对于 H5N1 禽流感和疯牛病(或称 BSE)等疾病往往采取防御性的反应,不仅中断了双边贸易,还给国际市场带来了负面影响。比如,年猪流感大范围肆虐的时候,俄罗斯、中国等国家曾经禁止从北美和墨西哥进口猪肉——尽管当时世界卫生组织和欧盟抗议称并没有据表明猪流感病毒可以通过食用肉类传播。对疾病的恐慌仍然能够为贸易保护主义提供有利的掩护。Mr Quammens book, “Spillover”, is a scientific narrative rather than an historical one, focusing on zoonotic infections, those that pass from animals to humans. This category makes up nearly two-thirds of all human infectious diseases, including rabies, Ebola and malaria. The three most recent outbreaks—of SARS, bird flu and swine flu—indicate that the next pandemic is likely to be zoonotic in origin.奎曼的《溢出效应》与其说是采取了历史性的叙述方式,不如说是从科学角度进行了描述。本书主要论述动物传染病在人类身上引发的感染。在所有人类传染疾病方面,这个范畴占了将近三分之二,其中包括狂犬病、埃拉病毒和疟疾。历史上最近三次的传染病爆发(SARS、禽流感和猪流感)暗示下一场大范围流行病可能也会起源于动物传染病。Mr Quammen analyses individual diseases, searching for patterns in their outbreaks. Most of the chapters focus on a single infection, and he ranges with ease over decades and continents, drawing upon years of interviews and field trips with scientists. Mr Quammen is a lively writer and a good detective, tracing diseases from their first appearance back to their origins—in some cases, still unsettled.奎曼分析了一些疾病个例,从它们的爆发情况中寻找规律。本书大部分章节主要描写单一的某种疾病感染。凭借多年的探访经验以及和科学家们一起做的实地考察,奎曼游刃有余地涉及了几十年来各个大洲的感染情况。他是一位笔触生动的作家,也像是一名神探,从疾病首次出现时追溯到它们的爆发源头——某些疾病究竟起源于何处仍然悬而未决。Familiar diseases are given a fresh gloss, while even the most devoted hypochondriac will find some new ones to worry about. (Ever heard of parrot fever?) One of the most surprising chapters is on HIV, about which much has aly been written. Mr Quammen traces the various strains of HIV back to the beginning of the 20th century, when the virus is likely to have moved from a chimpanzee into a human. With judicious use of a fictional narrative he then draws the story forward, bringing in some startling new evidence for how HIV was able to sp so widely.奎曼对人们熟知的疾病进行了全新的阐述,即使是最坚定的疑病者看了这本书之后也会产生另外的焦虑(听说过鹦鹉热吗?)本书最让人惊奇的章节之一是关于 HIV 的——针对这种病毒已经出版了很多相关资料。奎曼将几种不同类型的 HIV 追溯到20世纪初:该病毒可能是在当时由黑猩猩传染给人类的。然后,他审慎而明智地采用一种小说般的叙述方式将故事向前推进,针对 HIV 如何能够如此广泛传播提出了一些惊人的新据。To his credit, Mr Quammen does not shy away from the lurid question of the “next big one” that will be on ers minds from the start. But he folds it into the story with due scientific rigour. From one disease to the next he asks, “Why hasnt this gone big?” In the case of SARS, for instance, the answer may be mostly sheer luck. Neither quarantines nor eradication programmes, nor even disease detectives, will be enough to guard mankind against the next outbreak. But wise precautions may limit collateral damage as humanity tries to stave off the next big one.读者从一开始关心的就是“下一场大瘟疫”将在什么时候到来。值得赞扬的是,奎曼并没有回避这个耸人听闻的问题。但他用一种恰当的科学严谨性把这个问题融入了叙述之中。每谈到一种疾病,他都会问道:“为什么这种疾病没有大范围流行?”比如拿 SARS 来举例——可能通常被解读为纯粹的运气。不管是进行隔离检疫,还是实行病毒根除方案,抑或是派遣疾病调查员,都不足以帮助人类抵御下一次流行病的爆发。但如今人类正在试图延缓“下一场大瘟疫”的到来,此时采取理智的预防措施或许能减轻这场疫病的附带损害。 /201210/204315武汉/市第九医院割包皮多少钱

武汉/如何延长性功能时间Science and technology科学与技术The fight against AIDS对抗艾滋病HIVs slow retreat艾滋病的缓慢退却One of the worlds worst plagues is giving ground抗击艾滋病:显现曙光THE timing of the popes much-discussed change of position on the use of condoms to prevent the sp of HIV was surely no coincidence.近期罗马教皇改变了其对于使用避套以防止艾滋病传播的立场,引来一片议论。这个时间绝非巧合。He made it on November 21st—ten days before World AIDS Day and two before UNAIDS, the ed Nations body charged with combating the epidemic, released its latest report on the state of the battle.他是本月21日向外界宣布的—恰逢世界艾滋病日前十天,也是在两天后,负责抗击艾滋病的联合国机构—联合国艾滋病规划署发布了其最新的艾滋病防治工作报告。That report carries good news.这份报告带来了好消息。Though some 33m people are infected, the rate of new infections is falling—down from 3.1m a year a decade ago to 2.6m in .纵使艾滋病毒感染人数已达3300万,但新增感染者的速度正在放慢—从十年前的每年感染310万人降至年的260万人。Moreover, as the map shows, the figure is falling fastest in many of the most heavily infected countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa and South and South-East Asia.此外,从这张地图上可以看出,正是那些感染最严重的国家新增感染者的速度下降最快,尤其是撒哈拉以南的非洲国家以及南亚、东南亚国家。The reason is a combination of behavioural change, a big reduction in mother-to-child transmission at birth and during breast-feeding, and the roll-out of drug treatment for those aly infected.此中原因是多方面的:包括性行为方式的改变,母婴分娩传播与哺乳传播的大幅减少,以及已感染者对毒品的戒除。Besides prolonging life, anti-HIV drugs make those taking them less likely to pass the virus on.抗艾滋药物除了可以延长生命,还可降低用者将病毒向他人传播的几率。More than 5m people in poor and middle-income countries are now on such drugs, though Michel Sidibe, the head of UNAIDS, says another 10m could benefit.超过500万来自贫困或中等收入国家的艾滋病患者正在用这种药物,即使这样,据联合国艾滋病规划署的负责人Michel?Sidibe说,仍有超过1000万人需要这种药物。The problem, as always, is money.资金不足始终是个问题。Dr Sidibe reckons the fight needs about billion a year to be fully effective.Sidibe士认为,抗击艾滋病每年大约需250亿美元方可全力维持。At the moment, the sum spent is around billion.但现在最高的年出只有约170亿美元。Not a bad fraction of the desideratum, but one that will be hard to sustain in the face of the worlds economic difficulties.与总需求相比这还不算太糟,但在全球经济面临困境的当下,想维持这一水平却又是个难题。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201302/227679 武汉/阿波罗门诊是正规医院吗湖北省协和医院男科专家挂号



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