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2017年12月16日 03:48:49    日报  参与评论()人

湖北武汉/汉阳看男科医院武汉/治疗非淋大概多少钱Something odd is going on with Japan’s labour market. Unemployment is at 3.7 per cent. Recently, it has been as low as 3.5 per cent, considered by some economists to be pretty much full employment. (The uptick is only because the previously discouraged are flooding back to work.)日本劳动力市场正在上演一些奇怪的事情。目前失业率为3.7%。最近,失业率最低曾降至3.5%,一些经济学家认为这几乎称得上完全就业。(失业率上升只是因为以前那些就业意愿丧失者正涌入劳动大军。)The trend is being helped by demographics, which sees more baby-boomers retiring than millennials starting out. For every 100 people looking, there are 110 jobs on offer, the best ratio in 20 years. In some industries, including truck driving and healthcare, employers cannot find workers for love nor money. Building site foremen are in desperately short supply as construction companies work overtime to rebuild the tsunami-devastated coast and prepare for Tokyo’s 2020 Olympic Games. One restaurant chain specialising in beef-and-rice dishes was forced to close a 10th of its roughly 2,000 restaurants this summer because it could not find enough staff.人口状况助推了这种趋势,生于婴儿潮时期的退休人员数量现在超过了开始就业的千禧一代。现在每100个求职者有110个工作岗位可选择,这是20年来的最佳比率。在一些行业(包括卡车驾驶和医疗),雇主无论如何都招不到人。建筑工地工头严重短缺,因为建筑公司在加班加点,重建被海啸摧毁的海岸,以及为东京2020年奥运会做准备。今年夏季,由于无法雇到足够多的员工,一家专营牛肉饭的连锁餐厅被迫将其约2000家门店关闭了十分之一。You would have thought that wage inflation would be going crazy as a result. Unfortunately for Japan, you would be wrong. The government has badgered companies, which are making record profits, to share the love. Some have responded with modest wage increases, but not enough to keep pace with prices, which are rising thanks to monetary stimulus and a 3 percentage-point increase in sales tax.你原本会认为,薪资因此会疯狂上涨。不幸的是,对于日本而言,你错了。企业正赚着创纪录的利润,日本政府一直追着要求它们分享成果。一些企业适度上调了薪资,但不足以跟上通胀的速度,由于货币刺激以及消费税上调3个百分点,日本物价一直在上涨。It is just possible that labour-market tightness is finally filtering through. In July cash earnings for regular employees rose a hefty 2.6 per cent, the fastest increase for 17 years. But much of this has come in cash bonuses, not in the base pay that gives workers lasting confidence.可能劳动力市场的紧张最终在产生影响。今年7月,正式员工的现金收入大增2.6%,为17年来最高。但很多是以现金奖金的形式发放,而非让员工获得长久信心的基本工资。Japanese wages do not seem to be responding to normal market pressures. Why not? The conundrum has its roots in the altered structure of the labour market. Contrary to common perception, Japan has an exceptionally flexible workforce. Outside the ranks of the protected “job-for-lifers” – a much rarer breed these days – nearly 40 per cent of workers are about as flexible as you get. They work in poorly paid jobs for hourly rates. Benefits are all but non-existent. For most of these workers, sometimes referred to as the “precariat”, unemployment is a mere “sayonara” away.日本薪资似乎不会对一般的市场压力做出回应。为什么呢?这一难题植根于劳动力市场的结构变化。与普遍看法相反,日本的劳动力大军特别灵活。除了受到保护的终身工作者(这在当今已是相当罕见了),近40%的劳动者都非常灵活。他们从事薪资较低的工作,领取时薪。福利几乎不存在。对于多数此类劳动者(有时被称为无产阶级)而言,失业近在咫尺。Of course, Japan is hardly alone in seeing the bifurcation of its jobs market. Non- or semi-skilled work commands a lower price in a world where technology and cheap foreign labour are y substitutes. In Japan, though, this is proving a particularly thorny problem. For its reflationary experiment to work, wages must begin to rise in line with inflation. But the casualisation of the labour force is short-circuiting that process. Moreover, people in the precariat are less likely to marry and have children. If Japan is to solve its demographic problem, it will have to tackle the labour issue.当然,日本很难说是唯一一个就业市场出现这种两极分化的国家。在技术和外国廉价劳动力随时可充当替补的情况下,从事非技术或半技术工作所能要求的薪资自然较低。然而在日本,事实明这是一个尤其棘手的问题。要让通货再膨胀发生作用,薪资必须开始与通胀同步上涨。但劳动力中的散工现象正在让这个过程短路。另外,属于无产阶级的人们更不可能结婚和生育子女。如果日本要解决其人口问题,它必须解决这个劳动力问题。What can be done? At least three things. The first is to narrow the gap between over-protected permanent workers and under-protected non-permanent ones. Akira Kawamoto of Keio University argues that coddling one section of the workforce does not serve Japan’s interests well. Absolute job security stifles risk-taking, he says, something that Japan desperately needs. Simply making life less cushy for permanent workers is not likely to do any good on its own.日本可以采取何种措施?至少有3项措施。首先是缩窄受到过度保护的固定员工和没有得到充分保护的非固定员工之间的差距。庆应义塾大学(Keio University)的川本明(Akira Kawamoto)指出,娇惯某一部分劳动者不太符合日本的利益。他表示,绝对的就业安全会扼杀冒险行为,而这种冒险是日本现在亟需的。但仅仅让固定员工的生活变得不那么安逸,可能不会带来任何好处。If adding to Japan’s aggregate demand is the goal, the big push should be on improving the wages and conditions of temporary workers. Crucially, it should be made far easier for them to migrate to permanent jobs and for workers of all descriptions to move more freely between companies. An open, fluid labour market would help cross-fertilise ideas and allocate resources to productive parts of the economy.如果扩大日本总需求是目标的话,那么日本应大举改善临时工的薪资和工作条件。重要的是,日本应让他们更容易转入固定工作,并让所有类型的员工更自由地在企业间跳槽。一个开放且流动的劳动力市场将有利于催生更多创意,并将资源配置到具有生产效率的经济领域。Second, immigration policy needs to be bolder. True, allowing in lots of foreign workers might put downward pressure on wages, at least initially. Yet there are some jobs that Japanese are simply not prepared to do. If foreigners were brought in, for example, to provide affordable care for children and the elderly, this could free Japanese women to have more fulfilling careers.其次,移民政策需要更为大胆。确实,允许大量外国劳动者进入可能会对薪资构成下行压力,至少一开始会如此。然而,有一些工作是日本人不愿意从事的。例如,如果引入外国人为儿童和老人提供价格实惠的看护务,那么这可能会让日本女性解放出来去从事更有成就感的职业。That brings us to the third point. Women are flooding into the workforce in unprecedented numbers. Nearly 65 per cent of women aged between 15 and 65 are working, the highest percentage since records began in 1968.这就要谈到第三项措施。空前数量的女性正涌入劳动大军。近65%的年龄在15岁至65岁之间的女性在工作,为自1968年有记录以来最高。There is a catch. The majority of these jobs are badly paid, part-time or both. Too many companies still view men as the primary wage earner: younger women are there to look pretty and older women to do the drudgery. If Japan is to progress, such attitudes need to change.这里存在一个难题。其中大部分工作要么薪资不高,要么为兼职工作,或者两者兼具。太多企业仍然将男人视为主要雇佣劳动者:较为年轻的女性是为了充当“花瓶”,而年纪较大的女性则去做那些脏活累活。如果日本要进步的话,这种态度需要改变。Legislation can help. One simple measure would be on tax. At present the head of a household, usually male, can claim a dependent tax exemption for his wife so long as she earns less than about ,000 a year. Neutral tax treatment of second earners would remove this disincentive, encouraging married women to pursue full-time careers. And if the men did not like it, they could always stay at home and look after the kids.立法可以起到一定帮助。一项简单的措施是税收立法。目前,户主(通常为男性)可以为妻子申请赡养免税,只要妻子的年收入不足1万美元。给予家庭中第二赚钱者中性税收待遇,将消除这种抑制工作积极性的因素,从而鼓励已婚女性从事全职工作。如果男性不喜欢,他们可以呆在家里照顾孩子。 /201409/329207武汉/三甲医院有几家 Xiaomi Inc., the startup that has rattled China#39;s smartphone market with its fast-selling handsets, is hoping to capture some of the magic that made Apple Inc. a global success story.在其畅销手机品牌撼动了中国智能手机市场后,初创企业小米公司(Xiaomi Inc.)希望能借鉴一些苹果公司(Apple Inc.)享誉全球的秘诀。The Chinese company, which is planning to expand abroad, paid Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak to appear on Sunday in front of reporters at its headquarters in Beijing. Mr. Wozniak showed up at the event--labeled as the #39;Lei Jun amp; Woz Tech Talk#39;--with Xiaomi#39;s founder and chairman, Lei Jun, and told reporters that Xiaomi#39;s products were #39;excellent#39; and #39;good enough to crack the American market.#39;周日,这家计划进军海外的中国企业在其北京总部举办了一场名为“极客巅峰对话”(Lei Jun amp; Woz Tech Talk)的活动。该公司掷金邀请来苹果公司创始人之一的沃兹尼亚克(Steve Wozniak),与小米创始人兼董事长雷军一同参加了活动。面对在场记者,沃兹尼亚克表示小米的产品“非常棒”,“有足够实力打入美国市场”。Mr. Wozniak said he was given Xiaomi#39;s flagship Mi 3 smartphone to test. He also received a demonstration of Xiaomi#39;s new Mi Wi-Fi router, which comes in a do-it-yourself kit that requires consumers to assemble the device themselves. Mr. Wozniak was later given the kit as a gift, which comes in an elegant wooden box, with his birthdate engraved on it.沃兹尼亚克说,他得到一台小米手机3(小米主打产品)用来测评,还看到了新款小米路由器的安装演示。用户在购买这款路由器时会得到一份DIY套件组,需要自己动手来组装路由器。后来,小米公司还将一个刻有他生日的精美套件木箱作为礼物送给了沃兹尼亚克。#39;I#39;m playing with mine. I like it so far, and I#39;ll tell you if I have problems,#39; he told reporters. Mr. Wozniak didn#39;t disclose how much he was paid for the appearance, but said he only nets 20% of his original fee. In fact, he said that 15% of his fee goes to a co-broker, 12.5% goes to his agent, 37% is paid in U.S. government taxes and 13% goes to California state taxes. #39;I do not do this for money,#39; he said. #39;If I find things I don#39;t like about the Mi 3, I#39;ll tell them.#39;他对记者说:我正在试玩我的小米产品,现在为止我挺喜欢的,如果我有什么问题会告诉你们。沃兹尼亚克并未透露此次活动的具体出场费,只是表示他只赚得初始费用的20%。实际上,他说他出场费的15%划给一位联合代理人,12.5%归他经纪人所有,37%用于付美国政府税,13%用来付加利福尼亚州州税。他说,我做这件事不是为了钱。如果我发现小米手机3有什么我不喜欢的地方,我会告诉他们。Xiaomi#39;s corporate culture and rapid ascent has invited some comparisons to Apple. Like the late Apple co-founder Steve Jobs, Xiaomi#39;s chairman sports dark shirts and presides over high-profile product releases. As part of efforts to expand overseas, Xiaomi last year hired Hugo Barra, Google#39;s former vice president of the Android mobile operating software, to help develop its international business. Mr. Barra also attended Sunday#39;s event.小米的企业文化和近年来的快速成长促使一些人将小米与苹果相提并论。正如苹果已故创始人乔布斯(Steve Jobs)那样,小米董事长雷军每次也都身着深色T恤上台主持高级别的小米产品发布会。为向海外拓展,小米于去年聘请了谷歌(Google Inc.)前安卓(Android)业务副总裁巴拉(Hugo Barra)帮助公司发展国际业务。巴拉也参加了周日的这场活动。For the joint appearance, Xiaomi shipped in an Apple II -- one of Apple#39;s earliest computers -- and ask Mr. Wozniak to sign it. Mr. Lei told reporters that he learned computer programming on an Apple II three decades ago and that Mr. Wozniak was one of his role models.此次活动中,小米还拿出了一台苹果II电脑(苹果最早期的产品之一)请沃兹尼亚克在上面签名。雷军告诉记者,三十年前他正是在一台苹果II电脑上学习了编程知识,他还说沃兹尼亚克是他的偶像之一。Meanwhile, Mr. Wozniak also provided some of his views on innovation in Asia.沃兹尼亚克还就亚洲的创新发展谈了谈自己的一些看法。In 2011, Mr. Wozniak told the B that a company like Apple was unlikely to have emerged in a strict Asian society such as Singapore. Mr. Wozniak said Sunday that although he doesn#39;t like strict societies, he believes Asia has made important contributions to Silicon Valley in terms of human capital and knowledge.2011年沃兹尼亚克对英国广播公司(B)说,新加坡那种严格的亚洲社会不太可能涌现出苹果这样的公司。沃兹尼亚克在周日说,尽管他不喜欢严格的社会环境,但他肯定亚洲在人力资本和知识方面为硅谷做出的巨大贡献。#39;A lot of our brain power comes from China,#39; he said. #39;We#39;ve needed these elements that have come from Asia for so long.#39;他说,我们的许多人才来自中国,我们长期以来一直依赖亚洲提供这些要素。Mr. Wozniak said he noticed that Singapore is changing. #39;They actually have quite a bit of great hardware development, and so they have very talented people. They have people that are thinking very much like Xiaomi thinks,#39; he said.沃兹尼亚克说他注意到新加坡正在发生改变。他说,他们确实在硬件领域取得了相当大的进展,因此他们肯定拥有非常有才华的人。他认为,这些人才的思维方式与小米非常相似。Finally Mr. Wozniak said he #39;would love to live#39; in Beijing. #39;It#39;s a very comfortable place for Americans ... I want to shop in the little stores that are building components and parts, and plugging in phones and reprogramming them. I love that world -- it#39;s certainly where I started.#39;最后,沃兹尼亚克表示他“非常乐意”定居北京。他说,对美国人来说这是个很舒的地方……我想去那些专门制作组件和元件、植入手机并重编手机程序的小店里买东西。我很喜欢那些地方,我的事业就是在那样的地方起步的。 /201401/272902武汉/那家男科医院乳腺科好

武汉/腹股沟和睪丸疼痛Seventeen-year-old Nick D#39;Aloisio is taking some time off from school in London, where he lives with his parents. He will let mom and dad manage his money.17岁的达洛西奥(Nick D#39;Aloisio)与父母在伦敦一起生活,这段时间他请了假,没去上学。他会让父母管理自己的钱。Those are the decisions of a newly minted teenage millionaire.这些都是一位刚刚晋身千万富豪的少年所做的决定。Mr. D#39;Aloisio has sold the free newser app he began developing at age 15 to Yahoo Inc., which announced on Monday it bought Summly without disclosing a price. A person familiar with the situation said Yahoo paid tens of millions of dollars for the company.达洛西奥把自己15岁时开始开发的免费新闻阅读软件卖给了雅虎公司(Yahoo Inc.)。雅虎周一公布了买下Summly的消息,不过没有披露交易价格。知情人士说,雅虎为收购这个公司付了数千万美元。Not bad for a team that will bring just two other employees to Yahoo and generates no revenue.对于一个仅会给雅虎增添两名员工而且还没有收入的团队来说,这是个不错的价码。Plenty of teenage entrepreneurs have built companies that later have success, but very few strike it rich so quickly.青少年时期创立公司、后来公司获得成功的人有很多,但很少有人会如此迅速地致富。Yahoo was attracted to Summly#39;s core technology for automatically summarizing news articles. The technology, which included an algorithm for deriving the summaries, was created with help from SRI International, a Silicon Valley research-and development firm that has an artificial-intelligence lab and has an ownership stake in the startup.吸引雅虎的是Summly可自动将新闻稿件浓缩成概要的核心技术。该技术是在硅谷研发机构SRI International的帮助下开发出来的,其中包括一种生成摘要的算法。该研发机构有人工智能实验室,并持有这个初创企业的股权。Behind the app was Mr. D#39;Aloisio, who taught himself how to create computer programs at age 12, and previously created several apps, including Facemood, which analyzed a person#39;s Facebook FB -2.33% account to determine their mood, and a service that helps people discover new music.软件的幕后英雄是达洛西奥,一位从12岁开始自学计算机编程的少年。他以前也开发了几款应用程序,如分析一个人Facebook账户以判断其心情的Facemood,还有一种帮助人们发现新音乐的应用。In 2011, Mr. D#39;Aloisio founded his company, at the time called Trimit. He redesigned the app to automatically boil news articles down to 400-word summaries and re-launched it as Summly in late 2012 with help from SRI.2011年,达洛西奥创建了自己的公司,当时叫作Trimit。在SRI的帮助下,他重新设计了那款软件,使之能自动将新闻浓缩为400字的摘要,并在2012年底将其命名为Summly再次推出。To help with the launch, Mr. D#39;Aloisio raised funding from Zynga Inc. ZNGA -0.29% CEO Mark Pincus and the investment firm owned by Hong Kong business mogul Li Ka-shing, who Mr. D#39;Aloisio said #39;contacted me out of the blue#39; after Trimit began to receive accolades.为协助这次软件发布,达洛西奥从在线游戏开发商Zynga Inc.首席执行长平克斯(Mark Pincus)以及香港商业巨头李嘉诚(Li Ka-shing)持有的某投资公司那里募集到了资金。达洛西奥说,Trimit受到好评后,李嘉诚突然联系了我。That opened the door to other high-profile investors, who collectively gave him a total of .5 million in funding, including actors Ashton Kutcher and Stephen Fry. Besides its effectiveness in summarizing content, Summly has drawn attention for its slick design. The colorful app#39;s features different types of news content that are refreshed by swiping them to the side.此举引来了其它知名投资者,其中包括演员艾什顿?库彻(Ashton Kutcher)和斯蒂芬?弗雷(Stephen Fry)。他们投给达洛西奥提供的资金总额为150万美元。除在总结内容方面具有很高的效率外,Summly的巧妙设计也吸引了人们的注意。这款色鲜艳的软件菜单上有各种不同类型的新闻内容,向侧面划动即可刷新。Mr. D#39;Aloisio became a minor tech celebrity, and his efforts garnered numerous print-media articles and TV appearances.达洛西奥成了年少有为的科技界明星,他也成为了众多纸媒文章报道的对象并在电视上露面。#39;It#39;s been an amazing journey,#39; he said of the past few months. #39;I didn#39;t expect this to happen after launching [Summly] in November.#39;他说:过去几个月是一段美妙的旅程,去年11月推出Summly后,我没想到会有这样的事。Mr. D#39;Aloisio, who lives with his parents and younger brother near the southwest London suburb of Wimbledon, said he will stay at home for the time being and remain on a kind of sabbatical from King#39;s College School while continuing to take some #39;exams outside of school#39; in order to prepare for eventual university enrollment. He said he is planning to study humanities rather than computer science.达洛西奥现在与父母和弟弟生活在伦敦西南郊区温布尔登(Wimbledon)附近。他说,自己还会在家住一段时间,会继续从学校King#39;s College School告假,同时为准备最后的大学入学参加一些校外考试。他说,自己打算读人文专业,而不是计算机科学。Mr. D#39;Aloisio said his parents are Australian and that he spent ages one to seven there before returning to the U.K., where his father works as an analyst for a commodities division of Morgan Stanley MS -0.95% . His mother is a lawyer.达洛西奥说,他的父母是澳大利亚人,他七岁以前一直生活在澳大利亚,后来才回到英国。他的父亲在英国是根士丹利( Morgan Stanley)大宗商品部门的一名分析师。母亲是律师。He said he doesn#39;t have any special plans for the funds he will earn from the acquisition other than to work with his parents to manage it.他说,对于从这笔收购中获得的收入,他将和父母共同管理,没有什么特别的计划。He also said it would be #39;reasonable#39; to spend a few years at Yahoo but added that #39;I have no limits on time. I want to go in with open eyes and try to innovate.#39;他还说,在雅虎待上几年是理所当然的,但是他补充说,我对自己没有时间限制。我想要在那里观察学习和努力创新。Last fall, when Mr. D#39;Aloisio was seeking financing, he said #39;a number of companies approached us#39; about a possible acquisition. Mr. D#39;Aloisio was attracted to Yahoo because of its #39;scale#39; and Chief Executive Marissa Mayer#39;s #39;real focus to beautify content when you#39;re on a mobile device.#39;达洛西奥说,去年秋天寻找融资时,多家公司主动与我们接触,洽谈收购交易的可能性。达洛西奥之所以被雅虎所吸引,是因为雅虎的规模,而且首席执行长梅耶尔(Marissa Mayer)真正地专注于美化移动设备上的内容。The deal is at least the sixth startup acquisition since Ms. Mayer became Yahoo#39;s CEO last year. Yahoo said it is shutting down the Summly app, which was downloaded less than one million times, and incorporating its technology into other Yahoo services.这笔交易是梅耶尔去年担任雅虎CEO以来的第六宗收购初创公司的交易。雅虎说,该公司将关闭Summly应用程序,并把该技术整合于雅虎的其他务。这款应用程序的下载次数不到100万次。Adam Cahan, a Yahoo senior vice president, said in an interview on Monday that Mr. D#39;Aloisio was an #39;exceptional#39; talent and that Yahoo did #39;extensive#39; testing of Summly#39;s algorithm, or mathematical formula, for condensing news articles.雅虎的高级副总裁卡恩(Adam Cahan)周一在接受采访时说,达洛西奥是一个杰出的人才,雅虎对Summly压缩新闻报道的算法进行了大量测试。Mr. D#39;Aloisio has met with a number of Valley luminaries, including Apple#39;s senior vice president of industrial design Jonathan Ive, according to people familiar with the conservations.熟悉这些谈话的人士说,达洛西奥已经与不少硅谷名人见了面,包括苹果负责工业设计的高级副总裁伊夫(Jonathan Ive)。Other investors in Summly, Mr. D#39;Aloisio said, include Wendi Murdoch, wife of Rupert Murdoch, the chief executive and chairman of Wall Street Journal owner News Corp., NWSA +0.33% which signed a deal with the startup so that its content could easily be integrated with the app.达洛西奥说,Summly的投资者还包括默多克(Rupert Murdoch)的妻子邓文迪(Wendi Murdoch)。默多克是《华尔街日报》的母公司新闻集团(News Corp.)的首席执行长和董事长。新闻集团已经与这家初创公司签订了协议,以使该公司的内容能够轻易地整合进这款应用程序。Ms. Mayer has said the company is looking to create services for mobile devices that fit into people#39;s #39;daily habits.#39; She said she is focused on increasing the amount of time people spend on Yahoo, which in time will lead to greater revenue.梅耶尔说,公司正打算推出能够融入人们日常生活的移动设备的务。她说,她正在专注于增加人们在Yahoo上所花费的时间,进而制造更多营收。The company also is in talks to buy a controlling stake in France Télécom SA#39;s FTE.FR -1.88% online- site Dailymotion, which is valued at around 0 million, according to people familiar with the talks. If the deal materializes, it would be Ms. Mayer#39;s first major acquisition since taking over the Internet pioneer last year.雅虎还在就购买法国电信(France Télécom)旗下在线视频网站Dailymotion的控股权进行谈判。熟悉谈判的人士说,Dailymotion的估值大约在3亿美元左右。如果交易达成,这将是梅耶尔接掌这家互联网先锋公司后实施的第一笔大规模收购交易。Yahoo, which generates the bulk of its billion in annual revenue from selling ad space on its websites and apps, also has been examining numerous advertising-technology firms that it could snap up, people familiar with the matter have said.知情人士说,雅虎50亿美元的年度营收中,大部分来自网站和应用程序上广告空间的销售,雅虎正在对大量广告技术公司进行研究,以寻找收购目标。The move by Yahoo into news-ing technology for mobile devices comes less than a year after the company shut down its Livestand app, which it created in 2011 to compete with companies such as Flipboard Inc. and Alphonso Labs Inc., the maker of the Pulse app.此前不到一年,雅虎关闭了应用程序Livestand,该公司2011年打造了Livestand,目的是与Flipboard Inc.和Alphonso Labs Inc.竞争。Alphonso Labs Inc.开发了应用程序Pulse。#39;There is a consumer behavior around ing and finding information and articles on mobile devices, and lots of people have innovated in this space,#39; Mr. Cahan said.卡恩说,在移动设备上阅读以及寻找信息和文章会产生一种消费者行为。许多人已经在该领域进行创新。 /201303/232417鄂州市中心医院男科电话 That locking mechanism on your tablet computer or smartphone? It’s mostly a relic from the days of the keyboard. With the advent of touchscreens, the three-by-three grids and four-digit passcodes popular on today’s mobile devices are anachronistic. Yet they persist, despite “shoulder surfers” and the telltale oilsleft by swiping fingers.眼下平板电脑或智能手机上的锁屏程序可谓键盘时代的遗物。随着触摸屏的出现,如今移动设备上常用的“九宫格”式和四位密码都过时了。然而,它们仍然在广泛使用,尽管老有人站在别人身后偷窥,而用户手指划过屏幕时留下的油迹也会泄露密码。A new study from Rutgers University suggests that squiggling—yes, squiggling—on the screen of your tablet or smartphone may provide a better authentication mechanism than the standard pattern locks favored by Google’s GOOG 1.54% Android operating system and the Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) preferred by Apple’s AAPL -0.09% iOS.美国罗格斯大学(Rutgers University)一项新研究表明,在平板电脑或智能手机上信手涂鸦可能是比谷歌(Google)安卓( Android)操作系统所采用的标准模式锁屏以及苹果(Apple)所青睐的个人识别号码(Personal Identification Numbers, PINs)更好的身份验机制。“The current locking and authentication mechanisms available for mobile systems commercially do not work so well,” said Janne Lindqvist, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at Rutgers University and an author of the study. “Instead of having old methods or cued methods, we let people just generate gestures without any kind of visual cue or other kind of instructions.”研究报告的执笔人之一、罗格斯大学电气和计算机工程助理教授珍妮o林奎斯特称:“目前移动系统采用的商业化的锁定和身份验机制不太好用。我们弃用给用户提示的老方法,转而让用户在屏幕上信手涂鸦,不存在任何视觉提示或其他类型的指示。”The studies’ researchers, which included collaborators from the Max-Planck Institute for Informatics and the University of Helsinki, asked 63 participants to scrawl “continuous free-form multitouch gestures,” essentially finger-painting on the blank touchscreen canvas of a Google Nexus 10 tablet. No grid, no template: the subjects improvised a pass-doodle, rather than a password.这项研究的研究人员包括来自马普信息学研究所(the Max-Planck Institute for Informatics)以及赫尔辛基大学(the University of Helsinki)的合作者。他们请63位被试者以“连续不规则多点触控手势”信手涂鸦,本质上是以谷歌Nexus 10平板电脑的空白触摸屏为画布,以手指为笔作画。没有“九宫格”,也没有模版,被试者即兴创作的是“密画”,而非密码。The researchers then asked users to recall and redraw their scribbles after a short break and a bit of distracting mental math (counting down from 20 to 0 and rotating a shape in their minds). Next, the researchers retested the users’ memory after a minimum of 10 days. (Six subjects didn’t return for the second test.)随后,研究人员要求被试者在短暂休息和令人分心的心算(从20倒数到0,同时想像一个图形在自己脑海中转动)后,回想并重复自己刚刚画的手势。然后,在至少10天之后,研究人员再次测试了被试者的记忆(有6名被试者未回来参加第二次测试。)The trick—as with any good password—was to concoct a gesture complex enough to dupe spies yet simple enough to remember.如同所有好的密码一样,手势的关键在于复杂到能骗过窥视的人,但却简单好记。“You never need to be perfect,” Lindqvist said on reproducing a gesture swipe-for-swipe. “You can make a bit of errors, but not too much. It depends a lot on the security policy you want to implement.”关于手势的正确性,林奎斯特解释道:“你不必做到完美。你可以出一点错,只要不太多。这很大程度上取决于你想要采取的安全策略。”For instance, authentication for a mobile device might accept a higher error rate than one protecting a bank vault.例如,手机身份验程序可接受的密码错误率可能高于保险柜的安保系统。To verify matches, the team used a “recognizer” algorithm, which compared each gesture to a set of stored templates. The algorithm then calculated an average score for each attempt at unlocking. Gestures whose scores rose above a certain threshold value were authorized entry.为了验手势是否匹配,研究团队采用了“模式识别”算法,将每个手势与一套储存的模版进行比对,同时计算出每次解锁操作的平均分。分数高于特定阈值的解锁操作就能获准进入。“You never can, in any case—with any kind of meaningfully complex gesture—repeat it exactly the same way,” Lindqvist said, noting that it takes at least three repetitions, or templates, for a gesture to become stable. (For improved accuracy, the study used 10 templates per participant.)林奎斯特说:“无论如何,对于复杂的手势,大家绝对不可能做到百分之百准确重现。”林奎斯特指出,至少需要三次重复或模板才能使手势稳定。(为了提高准确度,在研究中对每位被试者采用了10个模板。)The researchers also used a flexible algorithm. Participants were able to draw anywhere on the device’s screen at whatever size and angle they wished, as long as the shape of the gesture was correct. Such flexibility may allow single gestures to adapt across platforms: for instance, on the larger screen of a tablet versus the smaller screen of a smartphone.研究者还使用了一种适应性很强的算法。被试者们能够在移动设备屏幕的任何地方、以任意角度画出图案,大小也可随心所欲,只要手势的形状正确即可。这样灵活的算法可以让同一手势跨平台使用,例如大屏幕的平板和屏幕相对较小的智能手机能使用相同的手势密码。To measure each gesture’s level of security, the researchers imported a concept from Information Theory called “differential entropy.” This metric quantified the “information content,” or “surprisingness,” of a gesture. Generally, the most secure gestures were the most complex. Some of these looked like brambles, tumbleweeds or multi-faceted jewels.为了准确衡量每种手势的安全性,研究人员引入了信息论中的“微分熵”概念。这个概念能量化手势的“信息内容”或者说“多样性”。一般来说,越复杂的手势越安全,它们有些看着像荆棘、风滚草等植物,还有些看起来像是有很多面的珠宝。On average the most memorable gestures were shorter and simpler than those best for security. Some of the most memorable ones included simple angular shapes, like triangles, and signatures.通常,与最安全的手势相比,那些最容易记住的手势一般比较简洁,其中包括简单的图案造型,例如三角形和签名等。The least-secure gestures consisted of gentle, looping circles.而最不安全的手势则要数单调循环的圆圈。Another measure of security involved a “shoulder surfing” test. Six student volunteers independently watched s of another student performing three representative gestures. These “attackers” were then asked to replicate each gesture.另一种衡量安全性的方法是所谓的“背后偷窥”测试。方法是让六名学生志愿者独自观看一位学生演示三种典型手势的视频,然后凭记忆重复这些手势。The preliminary results were promising. “None of the attackers came even close to the gesture,” Lindqvist said.初步测试的效果令人振奋。林奎斯特称:“偷窥者们甚至都无法画出相近的手势。”In fact, one attacker did nearly replicate one of the gestures—a backwards “N”—but did not come close enough for a “recognizer” to authenticate.事实上,还是有一人几乎画出了其中一种手势——一个倒写的字母“N”,但相似度没有达到系统“识别”通过的程度。“Typing in a password seems to be an artifact of the past,” said Nasir Memon, professor of computer science and engineering at New York University, who was not involved in the study. “There is definitely a need to explore the alternatives.”纽约大学(New York University)计算机科学与工程专业教授纳西尔o梅蒙说:“输入密码已经过时了,我们亟需发掘替代方案。”梅蒙并没有参与上面提到的研究。Still, even with the aid of muscle memory, one must question how confusing a world of security gestures might become.不过,即便有肌肉记忆辅助,我们也可能会被一大堆手势密码弄得不知所措。“If you have three different gestures for three different accounts, how do you deal with that?” Memon asked.梅蒙反问:“如果你的三个账号有三个不同的手势密码,你怎么区分?”In future studies, Lindqvist said he plans to instruct participants in best practices for generating secure and memorable gestures. He also hopes to expand the shoulder-surfing test. “I think that this robust alternative and a better alternative than the current method, and looking forward to working on this more,” Lindqvist said.林奎斯特表示,在未来的研究中,他计划指导被试者,帮助他们掌握最佳的做法,获得安全又好记的手势。此外,他还希望扩展背后窥视测试。他说:“我认为手势密码非常安全,比现有方案要好。我希望在这个领域继续深入研究。”If the new tactic’s promise holds, the future of password security may look less like a keyboard and more like finger-skating. For now, though, the billions of people around the world using mobile devices must stick with their PINs and patterns.如果这种新方法靠谱,未来密码安全可能不再靠键盘,而是靠信手涂鸦。不过,目前全球几十亿移动设备用户只能用谷歌安卓系统的标准模式锁屏和苹果的个人识别号码。“It holds potential,” Memon said. “But we’re still a long way from it being seriously adopted.”梅蒙说:“手势密码确实有潜力。但它要得到广泛的采用还有很长的路要走。” /201406/308560武汉/阿波罗男子医院正规吗

武汉/市中心医院治疗阳痿早泄 China#39;s official news agency says the government has tightened controls on Internet users by enacting rules requiring them to register their real names.中国官方通讯社报道,政府通过要求网民实名注册加强了对互联网用户的控制。The state Xinhua news agency said lawmakers approved the measures Friday at the closing meeting of a five-day session of the Standing Committee of the National People#39;s Congress.官方的新华社说,历时五天的全国人大常委会在星期五的闭幕会议上通过了这项措施。Beijing says the regulation is aimed at protecting the personal information of Web users and cracking down on abuses such as junk e-mail.中国官方说,这项规定是为了加强保护网络用户的个人信息,并打击垃圾邮件等滥用行为。However real-name registration will also curtail people#39;s ability to report, often anonymously, corruption and official abuses.然而,实名登记制还将限制人们在网上举报官员腐败和滥用职权,这些举报通常是匿名进行的。Many Internet users in China have turned to so-called virtual private networks (VPNs) to gain access to websites that are otherwise blocked by China#39;s Internet censorship, but Duncan Clark, a Beijing-based consultant who is also a senior adviser to Stanford University#39;s Graduate School of Business, tells VOA#39;s Victor Beattie Chinese authorities are limiting access to those, too, and that could hurt business:中国境内很多网络用户使用“虚拟个人网络”(VPN)登陆被中国审查人员封锁的网站。不过,在北京的咨询商、同时担任斯坦福大学商学研究生院做高级顾问的邓肯·克拉克对美国之音记者贝蒂说,中国当局也在限制人们获取VPN的途径,这可能会伤害到公司企业。;On the one hand we have a lot of multi-national companies who depend on, and that includes Chinese multi-nationals who are trying to go global, who depend on access to sites outside and secure ways of exchanging data. But also we have a number of small to medium size enterprises who use cloud computing or things like Google Drive to access say you know shared accounting or invoicing software, and once that#39;s blocked, of course people have been shifting to these VPNs, but if the VPNs aren#39;t working, then you#39;re out of luck.;克拉克说:“一方面,我们有很多跨国公司,包括那些想要走向全球的中国跨国公司,它们必须能够登陆境外网站并以安全方式交换数据。可是,我们还有一些中小型企业,它们利用计算机云技术或者谷歌的Google Drive这样的途径来获取财务共享或者账单共享等软件。而一旦这条途径被封,人们就转向这些VPN,而如果VPN也不灵了,那你就倒霉了。”Beijing promotes Internet use for business and education but bans material deemed subversive and blocks many Web sites.北京推动商务或教育性的互联网使用,但禁止被视为具有颠覆性的内容,并封锁了许多网站。 /201212/217543武汉/哪里割包皮好费用要多少武汉/阿波罗男子门诊部在哪里



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