楼主:知乎翻译 时间:2018年03月20日 00:27:24 点击:0 回复:0
听力参考文本:We often hear about the economic costs of environmental regulation on the energy industry.But theres a flip side to that equation—the price society pays for pollution. One scientist has added up those costs. And she found theyre going down.Modeling the hidden costs of pollutionFor years, scientists have known that pollution from burning fossil fuels is bad for us.But can we place a dollar amount on the hidden costs of burning coal and other fossil fuels for electricity?One person who wanted to know was Paulina Jaramillo, a Carnegie Mellon scientist. She studies how energy systems impact the environment.Jaramillo called up a colleague. They designed a model to figure out those hidden costs.The researchers plugged in pollution reports from the EPA, weather models and population data. They took into account the effects of pollution on crops, forests, and infrastructure. They also took into account how pollution affects human health.Much of that cost hinges on one basic number. And its kind of creepy number.;Value of a statistical life—which is a number widely used in policy analyses to estimate mortality costs,; she says.The value of a statistical life is basically the amount of money we as a society are willing to spend to save someones life. And according to the federal government, its around million these days.How the cost of pollution has decreasedSince the early 2000s, emissions from sources like coal-fired power plants have been going down. And because of this, Jaramillo found that the annual cost of pollution declined from 2002 to 2011 by about 25 percent, to 0 billion.;Because we started reducing those emissions, we reduced health impacts,; she says. ;These models cannot pinpoint who has specifically benefited, but on a population basis there are benefits.;Those benefits include fewer heart attacks and fewer ER visits for asthma that can be triggered by air pollution. So, what happened?Jaramillo says the big change is that new regulations forced many coal-fired power plants to clean up.The Great Recession lowered demand for a few years, and cleaner sources, like natural gas, have cut into coals share of the electricity market. These costs of air pollution may be going down, but the price tag the researchers calculated is still around 0 per year for every person in the U.S.This research was published in the journal Energy Policy.201602/428140When you think of Cuban exports, you probably think, cigars, sugar, and rum. But Cuba exports something of much greater value to third-world countries: doctors. Cuba has trained 23,000 foreign physicians for free at the Latin American School of Medicine near Havana.In 2001, Cuba opened the school to Americans.While in Cuba, we met one such American, Samantha Moore of Detroit, in her final year of medical school.Medical school is no picnic—whether youre in Cuba or the U.S.The day we met, it was nearly 90 degrees, and Moore had just finished a more than 24-hour shift on her surgery rotation. Yet she appeared cheerful and full of energy. ;There were so many cases last night for surgery alone, so we got swamped,; Moore says as she both laughs and sighs. ;I was in an operation at 5:00 a.m. this morning. Una appendicites.; (Appendicitis in English.)She takes us on a tour of the main hospital, which seems dated but not that different from U.S. hospitals—except many of the hallways and courtyards are open air. Many other buildings on the sprawling campus are a bit shabby. Some are being reconstructed.Moore rates her education in Cuba highly. Her textbooks are the same as those in American medical schools. She has a lot of interaction with patients. In her fourth year, her class went door-to-door for several weeks, teaching Havana residents how to protect themselves from dengue and the Zika virus.Shes assisted in many procedures as well.;Ive got to see hip surgeries, knee surgeries...and I can cast you, I know how to do the casting and everything. Its one of my favorites.;When I look surprised, she says, ;It is! I like putting people in casts!; and laughs.U.S. medical school was out of reach—so the dream was deferredWe sit under the shade of gigantic trees on the campus and I ask Moore to tell me her life story.Her path to medical school wasnt linear. She got a bachelors degree in math and computer science at the University of Detroit Mercy, and a masters in computer science at Lawrence Tech. She worked.;It wasnt that I didnt want to go to medical school,; says Moore. ;I couldnt afford to go to medical school.;Then, one day, she got a call from her dad, with news. ;You can become a doctor if you want to,; he said.Moores father had about the Latin American School of Medicine in the Michigan Chronicle. He urged her to apply, and he kept urging her, until she did. ;Youll be bilingual,; he argued, ;and youll be a doctor. You have nothing to lose and—its free!;With the average medical school debt in the U.S. about 0,000 dollars, free had a good ring to it. She applied, was accepted in the program, and, seven years later, seems to have no regrets.Not everything in Cubas health care system is rosyMoore says the big weakness with Cubas government-run health care system is financial. Theres not enough money to pay doctors, for medicine, for buildings, for tests. Thats not surprising, given the Cuban governments limited budget.And Moore says the U.S. embargo doesnt help. If a hospital in Cuba acquires a U.S.-made MRI or other machine, and it breaks down, it can mean long waits for patients who need tests.;They eventually find the parts, but its not something they can fix right away,; notes Moore. ;Where in the U.S., Oh, we need this part, we can special order it, and have it there in the afternoon or the very next day.;Whats next for MooreThe main goal of the Latin American School of Medicine is training primary care physicians to serve impoverished and underserved people in their home countries.Moore would like to be a family physician, but says the paperwork and staffing required to run such a practice in the U.S. is daunting; perhaps shell specialize in internal medicine and work in a clinic or hospital.;I would like it to do it in Michigan. I really would like to stay in Michigan.;Shell graduate in June. Cubas top leader Raul Castro is expected to attend the graduation ceremony.Like all doctors in the U.S., Moore will have to run the gauntlet of passing her exams when she returns to her native country—and then go through the nail-biting process of being matched with a hospital for her residency years.Meanwhile, medical students from Michigan State University found much to admire and criticize—when they saw Cubas approach to health care first-hand. Well have that story later as part of our series, Pure Cuba: Opportunities for Michigan.201605/441775Film and television Blood and cuts电影与电视 删减血腥镜头Unusually, some Chinese want more censorship不同寻常,一些国人期待更严格的审查A FLYING dagger stabs a Japanese soldier in the heart. Another fighter has his neck slit by a Chinese secret agent. Others are shot at close range, gassed or drowned. Like war dramas everywhere, “Royalty in Blood”, a 36-part television series about the war between China and Japan from 1937-45, is pretty gory. Yet unlike elsewhere, the on-screen violence is not just for adult viewers. It is aired each week at 7.35pm, the most popular television-watching hour, when even very young children in China have yet to go to bed.飞掷而来的匕首刺中了一名日本士兵的心脏,另一名士兵被中国特工割破了脖子。其他人或被近距离射杀,或被气体毒死,或被淹死。36集电视连续剧《异镇》,描述了1937年至1945年的中日战争。与满大街的战争戏一样,该剧场景异常血腥。但是与其他国家或地区不同,中国电视荧屏上的暴力场景不仅只供成年观众观看。该剧在每天晚上7点35分的电视黄金时间播放,而那时,甚至中国的小孩子都还没有上床睡觉。All films and TV shows are vetted by a government committee. Oddly, however, China has no ratings system to denote a films suitability for certain age-groups. It has no TV “watershed” either, as many countries do, dividing the day into family-oriented programming and late-night viewing with more adult content. Violent TV dramas are sometimes shown on public transport. Ticket sales at cinemas increased nearly 50% in the first 11 months of 2015 on the previous year to reach .3 billion, a total surpassed only by America. Yet questions are often raised about whether films are safe and appropriate for children, who can watch any of them.所有的电影和电视节目都要经过一个政府委员会的审查。但奇怪的是,中国并没有相应的分级制度说明电影适宜观看的年龄群体;也没有很多国家施行的电视“限时”播放制度----该制度将一天的电视节目分为家庭节目时段与包含更多成人内容的深夜节目时段。此外,含暴力场景的电视剧时不时也会出现在公共交通中。2015年的前11个月中,中国电影票房相比去年全年增加了近一半,达到了63亿美元,仅次于美国。但是,经常有人对电影内容是否适合儿童观看提出质疑,因为儿童看电影没有限制。The government does not want ratings or a watershed because it does not want to be seen to be permitting sex and violence for anyone. Its constraints on what may appear on screen represent a laundry list of the states anxieties. Content must not “endanger” Chinas unity, security or honour. It also should not “twist” history, feature explicit sex or gambling, advocate “the supremacy of religion” or “meticulously describe fortune-telling”. Playing up violence is prohibited, in theory.不采取分级制度和限时播放制度,是因为政府不想被人们认为其允许色情和暴力是适合某些人观看的。电视节目的限制清单反映了国家的关注点。电影电视内容不能危害国家团结、安全或有损国家荣誉。同时它也不能“扭曲”历史,包含直白的性内容、,倡导“宗教至上”或“封建迷信”。理论上,暴力内容也应被禁。But to attract adult audiences, makers of film and TV entertainment often like to push the boundaries of what the Communist Party regards as good taste. And even the prudish standards of the censors are sometimes flexible enough to allow content that might shock children, who are just as impressionable in China as anywhere else. In apparent response to demand from anxious parents, a handful of cinemas in the far western province of Xinjiang introduced their own unofficial ratings in 2014.但是为了吸引成年观众,电影或电视节目的制作者常常挑战共产党制定的规则。而有时保守的审查者也会过于灵活,让一些儿童不宜的内容出现在了荧幕上,这个人群在中国和别处一样,都非常容易受到影响。为了响应忧心忡忡的父母们的请求,2014年,在中国偏远的西部省份新疆,一些电影院采用了他们自己制定的非官方分级制度。Censors shockability has varied over time. The first Communist-era on-screen kiss was a peck on the cheek in “Romance on Lushan Mountain” in 1980, the year that Richard Gere appeared naked in “American Gigolo”, among the first Hollywood films to feature full-frontal male nudity. China has relaxed a bit since: for a while, one film fan had a blog called “Research Centre for Nipples in Chinese Films”.随着时代变迁,中国审查者们的尺度也在不断更改。在第一代共产党时代,屏幕上的亲吻仅是1980年《庐山恋》中出现的嘴唇轻轻一触脸颊,而同年Richard Gere的裸体已经出现在了《美国舞男》中,那是第一批男士裸体正面出现的好莱坞电影之一。据一位电影爱好者的客“中国电影乳房研究中心”所言,自那时开始,中国已经逐渐放开了一些。However, prudishness has revived in recent years. The nude scene in “Titanic”, a Hollywood film, was screened intact in China in 1998, for example, but removed from the 3D version released in 2012. Heaving bosoms have been blacklisted too: in the past year two popular TV dramas have been forced to re-edit shots that include plunging necklines and to zoom in on the actresses faces instead (movies involving such filming techniques are referred to scathingly as “big-head” ones). Online streaming sites, which previously had often succeeded in escaping the censors attention, are coming under closer scrutiny.但是近年来保守之风又死灰复燃。例如好莱坞电影《泰坦尼克》1998年在中国放映时,戏中的裸露镜头是保持完整的,但是在2012年重新发布的3D版中却被删减。丰满的胸部也被列入了黑名单:去年两部热播电视部就被强迫重新编辑镜头,聚焦到将含有低胸画面的镜头改成女主角的脸部(使用到此类拍摄技巧的电影被人们戏谑地称为“大头娃娃”版)。线上媒体先前逃脱了审查者的注意,但现在也被置于更严格的审查中。Moral strictures are not applied equally. Regulators warn against “displaying excessive drinking, smoking and other bad habits”, for example, yet smoking is routine on Chinese screens. One blockbuster released in 2015, “Gone with the Bullets”, had to delay its premiere, probably because it had to adjust some of its sexually suggestive content. But it featured 45 smoking scenes—around one every three minutes.然而道德标准并不公正。例如,监管者们对“播放过度饮酒,抽烟或其他陋习”提出警告,然而在中国电影电视中,抽烟的镜头依旧比比皆是。2015年的电影巨作《一步之遥》不得不延迟上映,或许是因为要修改其中一些性暗示内容。但是电影中出现了45个抽烟的镜头----约每三分钟出现一次。Tolerance for violence is higher than it is for sex, perhaps because so much of what passes for entertainment on TV and in cinemas is in fact propaganda relating to the war against the Japanese and the partys bloody rise to power. Such historical gore is mostly given a clean pass (although some anti-Japanese war shows were reined in for being “overly dramatic” in 2013). A Chinese film released in 2006, “Curse of the Golden Flower”, was given a rating in America that required those under 17 to be accompanied by an adult because of its violent scenes (one is pictured). But these scenes were left uncut when it was screened in China. Viewers were given no warning about them. On TV “The Patriot” (Yue Fei), a popular historical drama, commonly features long fights with bloody swords, arrows through the heart and dripping corpses. It currently airs on one channel in the early afternoon (others show it at 7.35pm).对暴力内容的容忍度比性要高,这或许是因为许多电视节目和电影实际上都是在宣传反对日本侵略的战争,以及宣扬共产党崛起的血腥历程。类似的历史剧一般都不会遭到刁难(尽管2013年一些抗日战争剧因为“过于戏剧化”而被禁播)。2006年上映的电影《满城尽带黄金甲》因为其中的暴力场景(如上图),在美国被评级为17岁以下人员需由一名成人陪同才可观看。但是这些画面在中国上映时并没有被删减,观影者没有接到任何警告。正在上映的流行历史剧《精忠岳飞》中,经常出现带血的刀剑,箭矢穿心而过,以及正在流血的尸体等长时间打斗的画面。该剧每天下午早些时候在一个频道中播放(其他频道在晚上7:35播放)。Censors more often pounce if the context is not related to Chinas military heroism. A Japanese anime film, “Attack on Titan”, was pulled from the Shanghai film festival in June, probably because of its violent content. A childrens cartoon, “Pleasant Goat and the Big, Big Wolf”, a Chinese “Tom and Jerry”, was criticised by state media in 2013 for its “vulgar” language and violent images; they said that the wolf was assaulted with a frying pan over 9,500 times in his attempt to bring a sheep home for his wife to cook. There were no apparent objections to the gender stereotypes.当上映内容与中国的军事英雄主义无关时,审查者们往往都倍加严格。在今年6月的上海电影节中,一部日本动漫电影《进击的巨人》或许就由于其暴力内容被撤。儿童动漫《喜羊羊与灰太狼》----中国版的《猫和老鼠》,在2013年时因为其中的粗俗语言和暴力画面被国家媒体抨击;他们称那只狼为了将羊抓回家让老婆煮被平底锅击中了9500多次。审查中没有明显地对性别的刻板印象提出异议。 译文属译生译世 /201602/428086

Say hi to Twitch everybody, thats Twitch over there.和特维奇打招呼吧 这位是特维奇You were parrot scoping before the show.你们是节目里飞翔的鹦鹉I was parrot scoping before the show. People I like that!我是节目里飞翔的鹦鹉 观众喜欢这样You like it, yeah. Its very cool. Its whole lots fun.你喜欢这样 这很酷 相当欢乐啊Absolutely, Yeah!People love seeing you. They love seeing you.那当然 是啊 人们喜欢看见你 人们喜欢看见你I love seeing them. I think its a very cool thing to do.我也喜欢他们 这是很棒的事Welcome back. You went to the White House?欢迎回来 你是去了白宫吗Yes. How amazing was that?I mean it was so incredible. Its... Its是的 很赞吧 我是说 很难以置信even more beautiful than they shoot it on TV.You see pictures and stuff like that.它比你在电视里看到的更美 虽说照片和材料里看过And the closer and closer I got to it,the more excited I got.我离它越近 就越觉得兴奋And you just cant go in there,unless they dont know you go in there.但你就是进不去 除非背着他们悄悄进去You know what I mean like tho-? Yeah.Just dont do it. You know?你知道我的意思是 知道 只是不会这么做 对吧Look at you with our First Lady. Absolutely.How cool was our First Lady! I mean - Yep.这是你和第一夫人一起跳舞 -很显然 我们的第一夫人多酷 -是啊that shes amazing.Yep, we had a blast.We see the crowd in front of us do it.她人非常好 是 我们玩得很嗨 我们前面的人也在跳Everybody is having a blast. Maam it was so so much fun.每个人都很尽兴 她让我们很欢乐Look at her. She has probably not stopped rehearsing since way before...看她 她好像没停止过排练 自从她she rehearsed with me, acting like ;Oh I dont have time to rehearse;她和我一起排练的 一直说 天哪 排练时间不够了Thats all she does is rehearse that dance.所以她就一直在排练Ill take her on this time.Next time she comes back, Ill know that dance by now.这次我将与她迎战 下次她来 我就和她一战高低Okay. Alright. And Im glad you had fun.Before we go any further, I have a...好的 我很高兴你过得愉快 在此之前 我有一件事要说This is a legal issue that I wanna address right now.It affects.. It affects you, Twitch.我要声明一项法律问题 这关系到你 特维奇It affects all of us really.Apparently Taylor Swift has copyrighted a bunch of phrases from her songs.这真的关乎到我们每一个人 看样子 泰勒?斯威夫特 将她的几句歌词申请了版权 /201602/428640

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