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仙桃市第一人民医院不孕不育科武汉有哪些医院做睾丸活检武汉人民医院皮肤科专家门诊 武汉哪家医院可以做引产

湖北男科挂号Warring States period thinkers created four social classes that should be the theoretical framework for political thinking for the next two thousand years: scholars, peasants, craftsmen, and merchants.战国时期的思想家提出了士、农、工、商(四民)的划分理论,为其后2000多年的政治思想提供了理论框架。As we can observe from these four categories, peasants, by far the largest section of the Chinese population still today, played an important role in political thinking.在这些人中,农民对政治统治发挥着巨大的作用。The peasantry did not only contribute the most part of the state income by taxes, but also served as laborers for state projects and as militia in the ever larger infantry units.他们不仅要交租税,保障政府的财政收人,还要因国家大兴土木而徭役,在日趋扩大的军队中兵役。The heaviest burden thus lay upon the shoulders of the farmers that were not only exploited by their own ruler but also had to suffer the inflictions of the intense warfare campaigns between the contending states.他们不仅受到统治者的剥削,还要饱受战乱之苦,负担沉重。In years of famine, peasants gave up their fields and engaged as craftsmen, petty traders or sold their labour force as day-la-borers. In the worst case, the whole peasant family sold themselves as slaves.饥荒之年,农民无法种田,往往改做手艺人、小商贩或出卖体力作佣工,最糟的情况下甚至还会卖身为奴。While during the Spring and Autumn period, only the state and the aristocracy owned slaves——either debt slaves or war prisoners—it was now possible for every wealthy household to acquire slaves.春秋时期还只有国家和贵族才能拥有奴隶(包括债务奴隶和战争奴隶),战国时每个富有之家都可以有奴隶。It was especially the class of merchants that was able to accumulate extraordinary wealth by purchasing cheap and selling expensive.特别是商人, 他们通过贱买贵卖积聚了大量财富。The inter-state trade was of great importance and contributed to the cultural and economic flourishing at the end of the Warring States era.战国末年,诸侯国之间的贸易极为重要,为繁荣经济、文化的发展做出了巨大贡献。The new class of rich merchants even gained access to important political posts that were hitherto reserved to members of the aristocracy.新兴的商人阶级甚至可以谋取重要的官职。The best example is the case of Lu Buwei, a wealthy merchant with an exceptional education background who helped to promote Prince Yiren of Qin who was exiled in Zhao to become heir apparent and later king of the state. Lu Buwei, member of the despised class of merchants, became chancellor of Qin.吕不韦就是一个最好的例子。他凭借自己特殊的教育背景帮助流亡在赵国的秦国公子异人成为太子,后又成为秦王,而吕不韦一一一个备受歧视的商人最终成为秦的相国。During the Warring States Period, iron farm tools were in common use, replacing wooden and stone implements, which not only helped to fell trees, construct water conservancy, reclaim wastelands and practice deep ploughing and intensive cultivation, but to promote the agriculture greatly as well.战国时,铁制农具已代替木、石农具普遍用于生产之中,不仅有利于砍伐树林、兴修水利、开垦荒地和深耕细作,而且促进了农业生产的大发展。When weeding, peasants paid special attention to tell the differences among various types of soil, so that they could select the suitable crops.在深耕除草的同时,农民们注意识别土壤性质,因地制宜地选择不同的作物进行种植。The technique of fertilizing was improved, and a variety of manure, ranging from animal droppings to green manure and wood ashes was applied widely.施肥技术提高,懂得用肥汁拌种,粪便、绿肥和灰肥被普遍施用。At the same time, they began to give their attention to seeds selection, and plant disease and insect pets prevention. A new kind of farming method was introduced, which was convenient to ventilate the fields, and prevent water-logging. Peasants were good at breeding, weeding, intercropping and commanding farming season.开始注意选择籽种,防治虫病,实行畦种法,便于通风排涝;善于培根、除草、间苗和掌握农时季节。The system of twice ripeness in a year was sp,which raised the output per unit enormously.普遍推广一年两熟制,大大提高了单位面积的年产量。To assure the moisture of soil,Chinese farmers since oldest times built dykes and canals with small sluices, while the rulers of all states also took the development of water conservancy as one of the important measures to enrich countries. They would usually organize the digging of great canals from the rivers to the fields around the capital, like King Lianghui from Wei who had built a canal from the Yellow River to the capital Daliang (near modern Kaifeng in Henan).为保持土壤的水分,中国劳动人民很早就开始修筑带有水阀的沟渠。各国的统治者也把水利事业的发展看作是富国之道的重要措施之一,他们通常会组织人力开渠引水灌溉都城附近的田地。In Sichuan (part of Qin state then), canals and waterways dotted the Chengdu Plain. Around the capital Xianyang (modern Xianyang in Shaanxi), the Qin King had built canals to fertilize the central region of Qin with the help of Zheng Guo, a famous water-work architect.梁惠王开通了连接黄河与都城大梁(今河南开 封附近)的水渠,在四川(秦的蜀郡)的成都平原上沟渠星罗棋布。秦又用水工郑国在都城咸阳外筑渠,灌溉秦中部地区。These canals contributed to the richness of Qin.郑国为秦的富强做出了重大贡献。Many rulers of various states employed political advisors who proposed methods for a successful eco-nomic policy, like the legist politician Guan Zhong in Qi , Li Kui in Wei, Shang Yan-gin Qin, and many advisors whose methods are described in the book Lushi Chunqiu .各国国君还纷纷聘请谋士,他们都提出了发展经济的成功政策,例如齐国的管仲,魏国的李悝,秦国的商鞅。他们的改革措施在《吕氏春秋》中都有记载。The enhanced productivity of the peasant household allowed them even to sell some surplus on the markets.生产力的提高 使农民有剩余产品可交换。The handicraft industry of the Warring States Period also got a rapid development with the significant technology improvement in iron-smelting, bronze wares casting, lacquer and cloth-weaving.战国时,手工业大大发展。冶铁、青铜器铸造、漆器、丝织业的生产水平都有显着的提高。Having mastered the casting technique of pig iron, in which high temperature water was used to deoxidize iron, handicraftsmen could forge high-carbonic steel applied to swords.已经较好掌握了高温液体还原法的生铁冶铸技术,能锻打出用于剑身的高碳钢。Bronze wares were made in the method of smelting and welding.青铜器的制作普遍使用熔铸、焊接。New techniques came up that covered the surface of the vessels with beautiful ornaments made of inlaying gold and silver. Exceptionally wonderful appearance of Warring States bronze vessels were created by the lost wax technique. All of these wares were light, small and exquisite with delicate and complicated patterns. The technique and art had reached a rather high level.也出现了和金银嵌错和失蜡法等新工艺,产生了在铜器表面涂金、鎏金和刻纹工艺,器型轻薄灵巧,花纹细致繁复, 具有高超的技术和艺术水平。Glass composed of lead and barium was produced.铅钡琉璃业已产生。Lacquer-work had grown into an independent section. A wood roughcast was painted with a variety of bright and beautiful patterns in more than ten paintings like black, red, yellow, blue, purple and white etc.漆器制造业成为独立的手工业部门,所造漆器以木为胎,有黑、红、黄、蓝、紫、白等十多种颜色的漆,在器物上绘出各种光泽美丽的花纹。Woven textiles of the Warring States period show a wide diversity in patterns and coloring, but also in weaving technique.编织物的颜色和花纹以及编织工艺更为多样化。With the development of handicraft industry, private entrepreneurs in some businesses were a-ble to acquire wealth and finances, like the salt producer Yi Dun of Lu, Widow Qing in the state of Qin owned mines producing cinnabar, ironworks of the families Kong and Zhou in Wei,and Guo Zong in the State of Zhao.随着手工业的发展,出现了一些私营大手工业主,如鲁国煮盐的猗顿,秦国巴地开采丹砂的 寡妇清,冶铁业如魏国的孔家、卓家和赵国的郭纵等。Increasing productivity and wealth led to a likewise rising marketability of agricultural and industrial goods that were offered and purchased in the markets in the large cities.随着生产力的提高和财富的增加,大城市的市场中可供交易的农产品、手工业品越来越多。Goods from all over the country were traded along the canals and trade routes often passing through several different states before being sold in shops in capital markets.全国各地的商品通过水路、陆路源源不断地涌人都城中的市肆。These shops were observed by a government official who had to collect taxes and to care for law and order.市场中设有专人收税,并维护治安。Even estate like fields and houses were tradable.各种不动产,如土地、房屋也可以买卖。The existence and the development of a market economy made it necessary to produce more coins and a standardized currency.经济的存在与发展需要更多的货币和统一的货币制度。The old cowry shells (Beibi) were replaced by spade-shaped copper coins (Bubi), large specimen were used in the Central Plain while smaller types of the spade coins were produced in the state of Jin and its three successors(Zhao, Wei, Han ). In the states of Yan and Qi coins in the shape of a knife (Daobi) was issued.布币取代了旧时的贝币。中原地区使用大的铲形布币,晋及其后的赵、卫、韩三国使用的是小的铲形布币,齐、燕两国主要是用刀形的刀币。On most coins the name of the mint was given where the coins were cast.大多数钱币上都铸造有地名。Until the 19th century coins in China were not minted but cast. The states of Zhou,Zhao,Wei and Han were the first to issue round coins with a round hole (yuankong yuanqian), from the 3rd century B. C. Qi and Yan issued round coins with a square hole (fangkong yuanqian ), a shape that became popular four bronze (copper) coins until the end of the empire in 1911.周、赵、卫、韩 四国是最早使用圆形圆孔钱的。公元前3世纪,齐国和燕国开始使用圆形方孔钱,这种圆形方孔钱后来相当流行,一直使用到1911年,中国的封建王朝结束。In the southern state of Chu a different kind of coin was in use, a round type with a protruding “ant nose”(Yibiqian).南方的楚国主要是用形似贝壳的蚁鼻钱。Larger sums were paid or stored as gold bars (jinding) or lt;4gold cakes^ (jinbing), especially in the state of Chu. Merchants like Bai Gui and Zi Gong could accumulate exorbitant wealth from the interstate trade with different goods.大量的金锭和金饼被用于流通或贮存,特别是楚国的商人白圭和子贡更是通过诸侯国间的货物交易积聚了万贯家财。The most prosperous cities were seen at Linzi (modern Zibo in Shandong), capital of Qi and home for about seventy thousand households, and Ying (modern Jiangling in Hubei), capital of Chu.当时最为繁华的城市是楚国的都城郢(今湖北江陵)和齐国的都城临淄(今山东临淄),其居民多达70000户。Many new towns were founded like Handan (modern Handan in Hebei), capital of Zhao.同时许多新城市也出现了,如赵国的都城邯郸。 /201511/407446武汉协和医院割包皮手术价格 华中科技大学同济医学院附属同济医院有泌尿科吗

武汉男性尿道炎有哪些症状Eating with a fork instead of a spoon can help you lose weight, new research suggests.最新研究显示,吃饭时用叉子不用勺,有助减肥。A study by the University of Florida found that using a fork and eating from smaller, less fancy, and even paper plates will help prevent overeating.美国佛罗里达大学的一项研究表明,吃饭时用叉子,或者用小一点的、不那么花哨的盘子,甚至用纸盘子,都能防止吃得过多。It also claims that putting mirrors in your dining room will help weight loss because they actually make junk food taste worse.研究还表明,在餐厅放置镜子也有助于减肥,因为镜子能使垃圾食品的口感下降。The researchers asked 185 undergraduates to choose chocolate cake or a fruit salad and evaluate the taste.研究人员让185位大学生在巧克力蛋糕和水果沙拉中选择一种食用,并对它们的口感做出评价。Those who ate them in a room with a mirror scored the taste of the junk food lower than those in a room without one, but it had no effect on the fruit salad.在测试垃圾食品的口感时,有镜组比无镜组的食用口感差,而水果沙拉的口感未受到镜子的影响。Lead scientist, Dr Ata Jami of the University of Central Florida, said: #39;A glance in the mirror tells people more than just about their physical appearance.中央佛罗里达大学的阿塔·杰米士是研究小组的带头人。他说:“镜子告诉人们的可不止是体态外貌。”#39;It enables them to view themselves objectively and helps them to judge themselves and their behaviors in a same way that they judge others.’“镜子使人们可以从一个置身事外的角度观察自己、评价自己,就像他们观察别人、评价别人时那样。”The mirrors were found to push the subjects to compare and match their own behaviours with accepted social standards.该研究发现,镜子能促使受试者用普遍的社会标准来衡量自己,并用它规范自己的行为。The study#39;s authors believe it proves that people don#39;t want to look in the mirror when they feel that they are now adhering to those social standards.研究者认为,这足以明:当人们觉得自己的行为已经符合社会标准的时候,他们就不会想去看镜子了。When they do look in the mirror, feelings of discomfort and failure are enhanced.而当他们吃着垃圾食品,想要看镜中的自己时,不适感和挫败感就增强了。Therefore, the presence of the mirror induces a discomfort and lowers the perceived taste of unhealthy food.这时候,镜子的存在引发了人的不适,降低了垃圾食品的口感。But, this is only the case if the person selects the food they are eating because they are responsible for that choice.但是,只有当人们自主选择食物时,这个规律才会奏效,因为他们要为自己的选择负责。The study suggests that mirrors be placed in dining rooms and other eating spaces so people will start eating more healthily因此该研究建议在餐厅等用餐地点放置镜子,促使人们吃得健康些。The study was published in the Journal of the Association for Consumer Research.《消费者研究杂志》刊登了这项研究结果。 /201601/419620 武汉阿波罗几点上班武汉割包皮去哪个医院好



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