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2017年10月18日 20:59:07
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武汉/治疗非淋医院哪家最好Peekaboo is a game played over the world, crossing language and cultural barriers. Why is it so universal? Perhaps because it’s such a powerful learning tool.躲猫猫游戏风行世界各地,跨越语言和文化障碍,为何它如此普遍?也许因为它是一种强大的学习工具。One of us hides our eyes and then slowly reveals them. This causes peals of laughter from a baby, which causes us to laugh in turn. Then we do it again. And again.遮住双眼,手再缓缓移开。这样的动作会把婴儿逗得咯咯笑,我们也就跟着这一连串笑声笑了起来。接着就开始一直玩躲猫猫,一直玩。Peekaboo never gets old. Not only does my own infant daughter seem happy to do it for hours, but when I was young I played it with my mum (;you chuckled a lot!; she confirms by text message) and so on back through the generations. We are all born with unique personalities, in unique situations and with unique genes. So why is it that babies across the world are constantly rediscovering peekaboo for themselves?躲猫猫永远不会过时。现在我女儿还很小,我们玩几个小时,她看上去都很开心;在我小的时候,妈妈也和我玩躲猫猫(“你总是咯咯大笑!”她在短信中确认道。),再回溯数代,均是如此。我们生来都具不同个性,生于不同背景,也有着不同基因。那么,为什么全世界的婴幼儿还是对躲猫猫乐此不疲呢?Babies don#39;t books, and they don#39;t know that many people, so thesurprising durability and cultural universality of peekaboo is perhaps a clue that it taps into something fundamental in their minds. No mere habit or fashion, the game can help show us the foundations on which adult human thought is built.宝宝不懂看书,也不认识那么多人,而躲猫猫游戏惊人的耐玩性,跨越文化的普遍性也许就是一种引导,它能接近孩子们心中最根本的想法。这不仅仅只是一种习惯或流行,它能帮助我们认清成人想法建立的基础。An early theory of why babies enjoy peekaboo is that they are surprised when things come back after being out of sight. This may not sound like a good basis for laughs to you or I, with our adult brains, but to appreciate the joke you have to realise that for a baby, nothing is given. They are born into a buzzing confusion, and gradually have to learn to make sense of what is happening around them. You know that when you hear my voice, I#39;m usually not far behind, or that when a ball rolls behind a sofa it still exists, but think for a moment how you came by this certainty.早期,人们认为婴幼儿喜欢玩躲猫猫的原因是他们惊讶于一些东西消失后又神奇重现。这对于你我这样,因为有着成人思维,也许并不会觉得好笑,但是要理解这个笑声背后的原因,我们必须意识到,对于孩子,他们简单、单纯。他们降生于满腹疑惑的世界,慢慢地才学着搞懂周围发生的一切。你知道当你听到我的声音,我就在你不远处,或是当球滚到沙发背后,球其实还在,并没有消失,但是想想看,你是怎样建立起这样的肯定。The Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget called this principle#39;object permanence#39; and suggested that babies spent the first two years of their lives working it out. And of course those two years are prime peekaboo time. Looked at this way, the game isn#39;t just a joke, but helps babies test and re-test a fundamental principle of existence: that things stick around even when you can#39;t see them.瑞士发展心理学家让·皮亚杰(Jean Piaget)把这种规律称为“物体恒存性”,并表示婴幼儿在出生头两年,都在学习这一规律。当然这两年就是玩躲猫猫的最佳时间。这么看吧,躲猫猫并不仅仅是玩笑,还帮会孩子试验及重新试验存在规律这一根本原理:即使你没看到物体,他仍旧在你周围。Maybe evolution fixed it so that babies enjoy peekaboo for its own sake, since it proved useful in cognitive development, but I doubt it. Something deeper than mere education is going on.也许进化把躲猫猫固化成游戏,所以婴幼儿玩躲猫猫纯粹为了好玩,据实,躲猫猫在人类认知发展过程中起着重要作用,但我仍持怀疑态度。我认为,起作用的是一些比单纯的教育更深层的因素。Surprise element惊奇元素Peekaboo uses the fundamental structure of all good jokes - surprise, balanced with expectation. Researchers Gerrod Parrott and Henry Gleitman showed this in tests involving a group of six-, seven- and eight-month-olds which sound like more fun than a psychology experiment should be. Most of the time the peekaboo game proceeded normally, however on occasion the adult hid and reappeared as a different adult, or hid and reappeared in a different location. Videos of the infants were rated by independent observers for how much the babies smiled and laughed.躲猫猫有着玩笑共同的基本元素--惊奇与期望并存。研究人员谢拉德·帕洛特(Gerrod Parrott )及亨利· 格雷特曼(Henry Gleitman)对一组婴儿进行一系列测试,有六个月、七个月大的,也有八个月大的,结果看起来比心理学实验更有趣。大多数时候,躲猫猫按部就班地玩,然而有时,一个人躲起来,而一个人出现;或者藏起来后,这个人出现在另一地点。这些视频由一些独立的员评级,看看孩子们笑得开心程度。On these “trick trials” the babies smiled and laughed less, even though the outcome was more surprising. What#39;s more, the difference between their enjoyment of normal peekaboo and trick-peekaboo increased with age (with the eight-month-olds enjoying the trick trials least). The researchers#39; interpretation for this is that the game relies on being able to predict the outcome. As the babies get older their prediction gets stronger, so the discrepancy with what actually happens gets larger - they find it less and less funny.在这些“花样测试”中,婴幼儿笑得更少,尽管结果更令人惊奇。另外,婴幼儿在普通躲猫猫及花样躲猫猫中的享受程度差异,随着年纪增大而增加(其中八个月大的最不喜欢花样测试)。研究人员对此解释说,这个游戏依赖于对结果的预测能力。婴幼儿越大,预测力就越强,所以他们做的预判与实际情况出入越大,他们就觉得越不好玩。The final secret to the enduring popularity of peekaboo is that it isn#39;t actually a single game. As the baby gets older their carer lets the game adapt to the babies#39; new abilities, allowing both adult and infant to enjoy a similar game but done in different ways. The earliest version of peekaboo is simple looming, where the carer announces they are coming with their voice before bringing their face into close focus for the baby. As the baby gets older they can enjoy the adult hiding and reappearing, but after a year or so they can graduate to take control by hiding and reappearing themselves.躲猫猫经久不衰的最终秘密就是,其实它并不是一款游戏。随着宝宝一天天地长大,带孩子的人会调整游戏以适合孩子新掌握的能力,使得孩子与大人都喜欢玩躲猫猫,纵然游戏相似,玩法却不一。最早的版本很简单,在孩子看到大人前,大人告诉孩子自己要来了。孩子长大后,他们懂得从大人的躲藏及反复出现找乐趣,但大概一岁多,他们逐渐学会自己躲起来,然后再出现。In this way peekaboo can keep giving, allowing a perfect balance of what a developing baby knows about the world, what they are able to control and what they are still surprised by. Thankfully we adults enjoy their laughter so much that the repetition does nothing to stop us enjoying endless rounds of the game ourselves.这样一来,躲猫猫能够不断提供及保持一种完美平衡,介于发育中的婴儿对世界的认知、他们能控制什么及他们仍然什么感到惊讶。谢天谢地,我们大人还是很喜欢他们的笑声,不断的重复游戏并没有妨碍我们喜欢这个可以无限循环的游戏。 /201404/292967武汉/黄陂区割包皮哪家医院最好When looking for diet plans to gain muscle there aresome great tips that can help you to ensure that you are eating to help you build the muscle that you want.Your diet is just as important as exercise and when you place the right amount of importance on your diet, itcan help you to reach your goal much faster.当你找寻增加肌肉的饮食计划时,有一些不错的贴士可以保帮你所吃即所得。你的饮食和锻炼一样重要,并且当你足够重视饮食时,好的饮食计划可以更加快速帮你实现目标。You will find that you will eat lean meat almost daily. If you eat meat each day this can help you to stay onpace. The trick with beef is to find lean cuts and this is something that can provide you with protein. Fishand turkey will also be included in this diet. Chicken has some rules and you should always eat skinless andavoid frying.你会发现你将几乎每天都吃瘦肉。如果你每天都吃肉的话,就能帮你保持自己的身材。吃牛肉的窍门在于肉切块,这能给你提供蛋白质。鱼肉和火鸡肉同样可以加进饮食计划里。吃鸡肉的时候需遵守一些规矩,你应吃无皮的鸡肉并避免油炸的鸡肉。Fiber is something that is not talked much about when looking for a muscle building diet, but this is anessential part of the muscle building diet. Fiber has many benefits and will aid in digestion and help you tofeel full. Oatmeal is a great source of fiber, but you should avoid the premade oatmeal. Fruits andvegetables contain a lot of fiber and this can also aid in weight loss if this is a problem you are working on.如果你寻求的是增强肌肉的饮食计划,那一般很少会涉及纤维。但纤维是增强肌肉的一个基础成分。纤维有很多益处并且会有助于消化,让你感到饱。燕麦片是一巨大的纤维之源,但你应避免吃久置的燕麦片。水果和蔬菜富含纤维,如果你正在减肥的话,吃蔬菜和水果也有帮助。If you want to complete your workout more effectively, you need to make sure that you are drinkingadequate amounts of water each day. Your body is made up of water and you need to replenish this watersource each day in order to be in the best shape If you are completing a very intense workout, you will needto make sure that you are drinking even more water to stay hydrated.如果你想更有效地完成锻炼计划。你需要保每天喝足够多的水。你的身体是水做的,如果你正在完成一个剧烈运动的话,你需要每天补充水源以保持最好的体型。你应保你每天喝更多的水以保持身体的水分。Whey protein is a great way for busy individuals to get the protein they need on the go. You can get wheyprotein in the form of a shake and this is something you can make ahead of time and take with you as yougo throughout your day.乳清蛋白质对那些需要补充蛋白质以便四处奔走的大忙人来说十分重要。你可以喝燕麦奶昔,这能提前补充乳清蛋白质能使你一天精力充沛。You will use soy and tofu for sources of protein. You will be able to get tofu and soy into the diet many ways.This can help you to get protein into your diet if you do not eat meat and this can be a wonderful alternative.你可以吃大豆和豆腐补充蛋白质。你可以用多种饮食方式食用大豆和豆腐。如果你不吃肉,这可以成为一个补充蛋白质的不错选择There are diet plans to gain muscle for every category. You can make minor adjustments to your diet thatcan have some great benefits对于每种食物都有很多增强肌肉的饮食计划。稍微调整饮食计划就能产生很大的效果。 /201407/310195武汉/市第五医院治疗前列腺疾病多少钱

武汉/医院医院最強武汉/市中心医院不孕不育多少钱All Steven Schwankert wanted to do was dive a wreck off China’s coast. 最初,史蒂文#12539;施万克特(Steven Schwankert)只是想在中国沿海进行一次沉船潜水。 Instead, the Beijing journalist and scuba instructor stumbled upon the mystery of a missing submarine, man’s first use of scuba equipment to escape from certain death, and an island graveyard that was hidden in plain sight. 但这位驻北京的记者兼潜水教练却偶然发现了一艘沉没的潜艇,以及一个明明就在那里但却没人发现的岛上墓地。在这次沉船事件中,水下呼吸器首次被用于逃生。 The story surrounding that mystery is now the subject of a book by Mr. Schwankert, “Poseidon: China’s Secret Salvage of Britain’s Lost Submarine,” and a documentary, “The Poseidon Project,” by British filmmakers and brothers, Arthur and Luther Jones. 围绕这个秘密的故事现在成为施万克特所写的《海神号:中国秘密打捞英国沉没潜艇始末》(Poseidon: China#39;s Secret Salvage of Britain#39;s Lost Submarine)一书的主题,同时也是英国导演阿瑟#12539;琼斯(Arthur Jones)和卢瑟#12539;琼斯(Luther Jones)兄弟执导的纪录片《海神号事件》(The Poseidon Project)的主题。 Both tell the story of the HMS Poseidon, a British submarine that collided with a freighter in China’s Bohai Sea in June of 1931 and sank in five minutes. Five men ultimately survived the wreck (in addition to the men who abandoned ship before it sunk) by using a prototype of today’s modern scuba gear. Their bravery is one of the compelling stories of the book. 这两个作品讲述的都是关于海神号的故事。1931年6月,这艘英国潜艇与一艘货船在中国渤海相撞,并在5分钟内沉没。这艘潜艇上有五个海军士兵(不包括在潜艇沉没前弃船逃生的人)通过使用现代水肺的原型成功逃生。他们的英勇事迹是这本书中具有吸引力的故事之一。 But it’s not the only moment of drama. Mr. Schwankert, editor of Beijinger magazine and founder of the diving company SinoScuba, vividly describes the process of finding out what exactly happened to the sunken submarine. He tracked the whereabouts of the remains of the men who died in the accident, and learned the sad story of others who perished in the escape efforts. 但这并非唯一的戏剧性时刻。施万克特是《北京人》(Beijinger)杂志的编辑,并且是水肺潜水训练中心SinoScuba的创始人。他生动的描写了发现这艘沉没的潜艇究竟发生过什么的过程。他曾追踪此次事故遇难者遗体的下落,并发现了有关其他一些在逃生过程中死亡的人的悲伤故事。 Mr. Schwankert highlights the story of the man he says is the story’s hero, Petty Officer Patrick Willis. The book opens with a dramatic scene of Mr. Willis leading the six men and two young Chinese mates’ assistants in the forward torpedo room of the downed submarine in a prayer as they feel the cold water rising on their bodies. 施万克特以浓重笔墨描写了其中一个名叫帕特里克#12539;威利斯(Patrick Willis)的海军士官的故事,他说威利斯是这个故事中的英雄。这本书以一个戏剧性场面作为开头,当时威利斯带着五个士兵和两个年轻的中国大副助手在艏鱼雷舱祈祷,当时他们感觉到冰冷的水在他们周围不断上涨。 The room had to be flooded so that the men could open the escape hatch and try to make their way to the surface, 126 feet (38 meters) up. And as Mr. Schwankert writes, “The submariners had no choice but to contemplate doing something that no one had ever done before: rescuing themselves from a downed submarine using an experimental breathing device.” 只有这个舱充满水,他们才能打开安全舱口,并设法回到距离他们有38米的水面上。施万克特写道,这些潜艇人员不得不考虑去做他们以前从未做过的事:使用一个实验性的呼吸器从一艘沉没的潜艇中自救。 Adding to the tension, the room offered just seven sets of Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus, an early scuba technology called a rebreather, for eight people. Mr. Willis gave the seven devices to the six navy men and one of the Chinese boys. The other boy, Ho Shung, was described by several accounts of falling into a panic not surprising if he saw everyone else with breathing equipment. One account has the men knocking the boy out so that his panic didn’t affect everyone. Ho, and a British sailor whose device had no oxygen, never appeared on the surface after the accident. 雪上加霜的是,舱内只有7套戴维斯脱险工具(Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus)(早期潜水术语对呼吸器的叫法),但他们有8个人。威利斯将这7套工具分配给六位海军士兵和两个中国男孩中的一人。据称,另一个男孩何爽(音)陷入恐慌――当看到其他人都有呼吸器时,他有这样的反应并不令人意外。据称这些海军士兵将这个男孩击昏,这样他的恐慌就不会影响到其他人。何爽和一位呼吸器内没有氧气的英国海军士兵在此次事故后长眠于深海中。 The book and the movie highlight dramatic incidents like these and others: Mr. Schwankert’s discovery that the Chinese eventually salvaged the Poseidon in 1972, a finding that Mr. Schwankert calls the main discovery of the book; the contrast between Mr. Willis the hero and the submarine captain Bernard Galpin, who Mr. Schwankert says made a “dumb” decision that caused the sub to be rammed and sunken; and Mr. Schwankert’s search for the British naval cemetery where two of the men who died in the accident, and whose bodies were recovered, were probably buried. 这本书和电影突出了类似这样的和其他一些戏剧性的事件,包括施万克特发现中国在1972年打捞过海神号,他将这个发现称为这本书中的主要发现;威利斯与潜艇船长加尔平(Bernard Galpin)的对比,施万克特说加尔平做了一个愚蠢的决定,导致这艘潜艇撞船并沉没;以及施万克特寻找英国海军墓地(上述两位遇难者以及其他打捞出来的遗体可能被安葬的地方)的过程。 Three months after the Poseidon accident, the Japanese invaded Manchuria. The story of the Poseidon, which made headlines and even led to a feature film called “Men Like These,” was lost to history. 在海神号事故发生三个月后,日本入侵满洲。曾经登上头条,甚至拍成剧情片《像这样的男人》(Men Like These)的海神号事件渐渐被淹没在历史长河中。 Now, though, with a book and film, the story has resurfaced. “To be able to correct history, to be able to write history correctly, that is really what I wanted to do,” Mr. Schwankert says. 但是现在,通过这本书和这部电影,这一事件再次浮出水面。施万克特说,能够修正历史和正确的书写这段历史,这是我真正想要做的。 His research in China over the years taught him some important lessons. “In China, it’s kind of like football. You don’t go for touchdowns; you go for first downs. You try to push forward as much as you can. The fact that I was able to discover that a submarine had a completely different final chapter than was previously known, and that it was all done in original Chinese research that to me was amazing.” 过去几年施万克特在中国进行的研究让他学到了一些重要的道理。他说,在中国,情况有点像打橄榄球,首攻比触地得分更重要,你得尝试尽力前进;能够发现一艘潜艇的与过去所知完全不同的完结篇,而且这些发现都是基于对中文原始资料的研究完成的,这连我自己都感到吃惊。 The book “Poseidon”was released Oct. 12. Mr. Schwankert will be talking about the book and the movie at Beijing’s Bookworm on Nov. 7. 《海神号》一书已于10月12日出版。施万克特11月7日将在北京的老书虫书店(Bookworm)聊这本书和这部电影。 /201310/261400武汉/那家医院好Like many 12-year-old girls, McKenzie Carey loves to dance. And though McKenzie has a rare genetic disease that keeps her in a wheelchair, she has a devoted dance partner in her father, who#39;s waltzed her through many local pageants.和许多12岁女孩一样,麦肯齐·凯利热爱跳舞。尽管麦肯齐因身患罕见的基因疾病而无法离开轮椅,但她忠诚的舞伴——她的父亲还是带她在本地的许多舞蹈比赛上跳起华尔兹。McKenzie has mitochondrial disease, a debilitating condition that deprives the body of energy and damages cells in the heart, liver, skeletal muscles, respiratory systems and brain.麦肯齐患有线粒体疾病,这种疾病会让人丧失大量能量,并损伤心脏、肝脏、骨骼肌、呼吸系统和大脑等部位的细胞,从而使人衰弱。#39;Dancing with daddy makes her feel like she’s on top of the world,#39; her father, Mike Carey, told Today.com.她的父亲麦克·凯利告诉Today.com:“和爸爸一起跳舞让她觉得无比幸福。”#39;Pageants give her the same opportunity as other children and show people that she can accomplish anything with a little bit of help,#39; her mother, Tammy Carey, added. #39;I just want the judges to look at her, not her wheelchair.#39;“舞蹈比赛给了她和其他孩子同样的机会,让她能够在人们面前展示:只要一点点帮助,她就能完成任何事。” 她的母亲塔米·凯利补充道,“我只希望裁判们能看她,而不是她的轮椅。”Ms Carey began entering McKenzie in pageants when she was five but it wasn#39;t until 2010 that her father began joining her onstage.凯利夫人在麦肯齐5岁的时候开始替她报名参加舞蹈比赛。2010年起,麦肯齐的父亲开始和她一起在舞台上跳舞。#39;My wife was sitting in the audience and was so stressed about McKenzie, so I decided to do something a little crazy,#39; Mr Carey told Today.com.凯利先生告诉Today.com:“我太太和观众坐在一起,因为麦肯齐而非常紧张。因此我决定做件有点疯狂的事。”#39;I took McKenzie up on stage and did a wheelie with her wheelchair. Then I spun her around, picked her up and started doing a freestyle dance. The crowd went wild and gave us a standing ovation!#39;“我带着麦肯齐走上舞台,用她的轮椅做了一个抬头特技(类似托车抬起前轮)。接着我旋转她,抱起她,跳起自由式舞蹈。观众们变得疯狂起来,为我们起立鼓掌。”McKenzie has competed in more than 100 pageants, and won about 20. The family is currently preparing for a national pageant in Nebraska.麦肯齐参加了100多场舞蹈比赛,赢了大约20场。凯利一家现在正在准备在内布拉斯加州举行的一场全国比赛。#39;If I get one person [inspired], it made the whole song and whole thing worthwhile,#39; Mr Carey told ANews.com. #39;It’s like an unspoken message. This dance is alike an unspoken testimony and shows bond and love between a father and daughter.#39;“如果我能让一个人感动,那整首歌整件事就是值得的”,凯利先生告诉ANews.com,“这就像无声的讯息。这舞是父女间爱与牵绊的无声宣言。”The Careys have set up a GoFundMe page to raise money for McKenzie#39;s medical treatments, and have aly seen ,000 donated to the cause.凯利一家制做了GoFundMe网页来为麦肯齐的治疗募捐。目前已收到8万6千美元的捐赠。#39;As a mother of a special needs child, there is nothing I won#39;t do to help improve my daughter#39;s quality of life,#39; Ms Carey wrote on the fundraising site.“做为一名有特殊需要的儿童的母亲,为了改善我女儿的生活质量,没有什么是我不能做的,”凯利夫人在募捐网站上写道。#39;She is such an inspiration to everyone she meets.#39;“她感动了每一个见到她的人。” /201407/309302武汉/男性不育症

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