武汉/阿波罗医院男科泌尿科

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年02月24日 20:11:44
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Leaders社论Syrias civil war叙利亚内战Desperate times艰难时刻A conference on Syria is not enough. The West should also arm the rebels叙利亚问题远非一项会议可以解决,西方国家还应该为反对派提供武装援助NOBODY thinks that the Geneva negotiations, which began on January 22nd after months of effort, will bring peace right away.经过数月努力后,日内瓦会议于1月22日召开,没人相信此次调解会立即带来和平。But with civil war raging inside Syria, just getting people around the same table feels like progress; and, it is argued, the talks might lay the ground for negotiations that may one day lead to a ceasefire, or even to power changing hands.然而,由于叙利亚国内战争甚嚣尘上,单是将双方集结到一张桌子上已属不易。而且,据称,此次对话可能为之后的谈判奠定基础,以实现最终的停火,甚至是权利交接。Meanwhile, they can broker local truces and get relief to Syrians dying for lack of food and medicine.同时,这次的对话还可以调解地方冲突以求和平,为缺少食物和药物的叙利亚人送去援助。Anything that would alleviate Syrias plight is welcome.任何有助于缓解叙利亚困境的行动都是受欢迎的。But if America and Europe are serious about helping Syria, they should arm the rebels fighting the regime.但是,如果美国和欧洲国家真相帮助叙利亚,他们应该武装反对派,打击政权。Out-thinking, out-manoeuvring, inhuman先发制人,惨无人道That is a message people do not want to hear.世人并不想听到这样的消息。Then again, neither do they want to face up to the brutality inside Bashar Assads prisons.同样,他们也不忍直视巴萨尔阿萨德监狱里的残暴。This is not casual thuggery but, as a security official who defected from the regime with thousands of horrific photographs has revealed, an audited policy of official terror administered on an industrial scale.这并非一般的暗杀,而是一名安保人员,背叛组织后惨遭杀害,几千张惊恐的图片披露了这一行径,一项官方恐怖的审计政策以工业规模展开。The violence Mr Assad has used has driven reason and tolerance out of what was one of the Middle Easts most integrated countries.总统阿萨德的暴行使原本团结的中东国家失去了理性和包容。Well over 100,000 people have died and millions have fled their homes.10万多人丧生,数百万人流离失所。The hatred is sping to Lebanon and Iraq.仇恨正向蔓延黎巴嫩和伊拉克。The Geneva gathering cannot drain such an ocean of suffering and wrongdoing. It is built on the premise that Mr Assad will relinquish power through a transitional government.日内瓦会议无法化解这无边的苦海和冤屈,除非总统阿萨德能够放弃权力,组件临时政府。But why should he?但是,他这么做理由何在呢?He believes he is winning. He is holding his own against rebel attacks, or even gaining territory.他认为他正在获得胜利。他正在尽全力对抗反对派,甚至扩张领土。The programme to eliminate his chemical arsenal, imposed after he murdered about 1,000 civilians in a nerve-agent attack, has turned him into a partner of the West.在他屠杀了1000多手无寸铁的平民后,联合国决议决定销毁他的化学武器,但这却使他成为西方国家的一员。He set out to radicalise the rebels, releasing jihadists from his jails early in the conflict.他决意激怒反对派,在冲突开始早些时候释放了圣战者。This programme has been so successful that Western voters now think the rebels are as vile as Mr Assad.这一激将法十分奏效,西方国家目前认为反对派同阿萨德一样邪恶。Geneva could even get in the way of peace.可以说,日内瓦会议妨碍了和平进程。The humanitarian aid that may come from the talks is desperately needed by Syrians, but it comes at a cost, because UN aid agencies will, again, depend on Mr Assad for co-operation.叙利亚人亟需和谈中可能达成的人道援助,但是这些援助却不是免费的午餐,因为联合国援助机构会再次依靠阿萨德的合作。Peace is almost impossible unless Iran, Mr Assads biggest backer, also leans on the regime.除非伊朗—阿萨德最大的持者,也持这一政权,否则,叙利亚和平只能是泡影。Yet Iran was barred from the conference only hours after having been invited, because it will not sign up to the condition that he surrenders power.然而,伊朗在接受邀请数小时后就被拒绝参加会议,因为该国不同意阿萨德交出政权。To cynics, Geneva is a device that lets everyone pretend to have a Syria policy even when they dont.对批评人士来说,日内瓦会议只是权宜之计,让所有人误以为叙利亚问题有方法解决,实则是无计可施。That may be deft diplomacy, but it is a licence for inaction, and the price is counted in Syrian suffering.于外交来说,这一招妙不可言,但却使不作为获得了许可,而且代价在叙利亚伤亡中显而易见。As talks drag on, Russia and Iran will continue to boost Mr Assads strength.由于谈判一再拖延,俄罗斯和伊朗将继续为阿萨德提供援助。It would be wrong to let the balance tilt so far that he can dictate terms.力量失衡如此严重,让阿萨德可以为所欲为,实属下策。The best way to break the deadlock would be for the West to arm and train selected rebels, as it should have done almost from the start of the violence.打破僵局的最好办法是西方武装和训练精挑细选的反对派,战争开始之初就应该这样做。Many fear that the beneficiary of money, equipment and arms would be al-Qaeda, which matches only Mr Assad in its contempt for human life and Western democracy.许多人担心钱财、设备和武器最后会落到基地组织手里,他们残害生命和打击西方政策的行径与阿萨德不相上下。But over the past few weeks that risk has diminished, as nationalist Sunni groups, including devout Islamists, have turned against the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, an al-Qaeda affiliate.但是,在过去的几个星期里,风险已经降低,因为民族主义者逊尼派,包括虔诚的伊斯兰教徒,已与伊斯兰教国家伊拉克和ISIS反目,后者是基地组织的一个分。Not only are arms and money less likely to end up in the wrong hands, but the nicer rebels—even if they are not the most reliable or savoury allies—are the front line against ISIS, whose sectarian poison threatens the entire region.不仅武器和钱不太可能落入贼手,稍显仁慈的反对派—即使他们不是最可靠、最适合的同盟者,却在前线对抗ISIS,其派别纷争威胁着整个地区。Even with more outside help, the rebels are not about to defeat Mr Assad.即使外援增加,反对派也无意于扳倒阿萨德。But turning the tide of the fighting might shift the negotiations, too.然而,转移斗争的矛头可能会影响谈判。If the regime is under pressure on the battlefield, it may be more willing to negotiate a proper ceasefire, or even, if people are tired of war, Mr Assads departure.如果政权在战场上饱受压力,阿萨德可能更乐意协议停火,或者,人们厌倦了战争,阿萨德会选择放弃。Moreover Iran can ill afford to finance a stalemate.而且,如果伊朗意图不轨,大可继续为其提供援助,维持僵局。When it has had enough of pouring money into Mr Assads seemingly endless conflict, it may be willing to argue for peace.待到有足够的金钱持阿萨德似乎无休止的战争时,伊朗可能会求和。Some say that if outsiders continue to help the rebels, they will condemn Syria to even more suffering.有人认为,如果外界继续帮助反对派,可能会使叙利亚的苦难更加深重。That is possible.这一点并非不可能。But the brutality Mr Assad has practised against his own people strengthens the case for trying to tip the balance of power against him, and the best way to persuade his backers to withdraw their aid is if the West has money on the table, too.然而,阿萨德对其人们施行的暴政使外界决意使力量的天平向对方倾斜,而且劝退其持者的最好办法便是,西方国家也提供援助。One thing is certain: if either Mr Assad or al-Qaeda prevails, Syria will continue to suffer for a very long time.一件事可以肯定:无论阿萨德或基地组织任一方胜出,未来很长一段时间里,叙利亚都将继续处于水深火热中煎熬。 /201402/275815

Business商业报道Mining in Indonesia印尼矿业Smeltdown熔炉决定生存The government risks an export slump to boost the metals-processing industry政府为了刺激金属加工业发展不惜冒着削减出口量的危险INDONESIAS government concedes that it will cause short-term damage; but on January 12th it went ahead and banned exports of mineral ores, at last implementing a law passed in .印尼政府承认了金属加工产业将蒙受短期亏损;但是在1月12号,印尼政府坚持09年的立法,继续禁止出口矿石。Officials say that forcing mining firms to export only processed minerals will attract investment in smelters and refineries.官方称,强令矿业公司只出口加工过的矿石将吸引投资,主要针对熔炼和精炼产业。After a year or so this will start to add value to the countrys exports, they say.在一年左右的时间后,这举措会增加印尼出口的价值。But it is quite a gamble.但这是一个相当大的。Indonesiahas few smelters, and earns 5 billion a year by exporting unprocessed minerals such as copper concentrate, nickel ores and bauxite.印尼有一些熔炉产业,而且每年可以从出口天然矿产里,例如铜精矿石、镍矿石、矾土,获利50亿美元。The mining ministry had admitted that an outright ban on ore shipments would cut exports by 4 billion this year and 2.5 billion next.矿业部承认,今年完全禁止矿石海运出口会减少40亿的出口额,明年预计减少25亿。With the countrys current-account deficit last year hitting 3.5% of GDP, its worst since 1986, and its currency falling steeply, this is a bad time to be forgoing foreign earnings.在印尼往来账户赤字占有GDP总额3.5%的情况下,这不是一个放弃国外盈利好时期。这是自1986年来最坏的情形,并且它的货币贬值很厉害。This may explain why the president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, relaxed the moratorium at the last moment to let big copper producers keep exporting concentrate.这就解释了为什么苏西洛总统最后最后时刻放宽了出口政策转而让大型制铜商们继续出口精矿石。FreeportIndonesia, an American-owned miner, had warned of a 60% cut in production at its Grasberg mine in Papua, the worlds fifth-largest copper mine, if the ban had been imposed in its original form.如果禁令实施保持不变,美国控股的印尼自由港矿业公司警告它将减少了它在巴布亚岛Grasberg矿的60%产量。Freeportsmelts about 40% of its output at Gresik in eastern Java, the countrys sole copper smelter, but it exports the rest as concentrate.这座矿同时也是世界第五大铜矿。自由港冶炼了在Java东部Gresik大约40%的矿石产出,是这个国家唯一的铜矿冶炼公司,但是它出口剩下没炼的矿石,例如铜精矿。Concentrating minds以提炼矿石为中心Another reason for waiving the restriction on copper is that, in contrast to some other metals, mining and concentrating it produces most of its final value:放弃限制铜矿出口政策的另一个原因就是,与某些金属对比,采铜和精炼就可以占有最大一部分的最终价值:Nathan Associates, a consultancy in Washington, DC, says only 4-6% is added by smelting.南森联合公司是华盛顿的一家咨询公司,宣称只有4%-6%的价值是通过熔炼加上去的。So the potential upside from insisting that only refined copper be exported is slight relative to the downside of losing 2.5 billion a year of concentrate exports.因此,与丧失一年25亿美元铜精矿出口额相比,潜在的升值空间就来自于坚持出口精炼铜矿出口。However, there are significant gains to be made by processing other metal ores.然而,有一些可观的收入就可能来自于其他金属矿石加工。About 94% of aluminiums final value comes from the refining and smelting stages, for example.大约94%的铝矿最终价值来自提炼和熔炼程序,例如,熔炼增加了镍矿石的价值。Smelting adds a lot of value to nickel ore, too.但是,只要大量新的熔炉实际建成,印尼就会实现这些收入。But Indonesia will achieve these gains only if plenty of new smelters are actually built.这些投入很昂贵,需要大量配套基础设施,Such plants are expensive, and require a lot of supporting infrastructure, such as power plants, ports and roads:Indonesiais terrible at building these.如电力,港口,道路:印尼很不擅长建造这些设施。Moreover, world mineral prices are depressed and smelting margins are low.世界矿产价格持续低迷,熔炼利润持续走低。Nevertheless, the government says that many new smelters are in the works.不过,政府部门称,很多熔炉都已投入使用。China Hongqiao, that countrys biggest privately owned aluminium producer, is building a 1 billion smelter in Borneo.中国虹桥公司,作为印尼最大的私有铝矿生产者,正在Borneo建造一个价值十亿美元的熔炉。The Indonesian government says another big Chinese firm, Shandong Nanshan Aluminium, is investing 5 billion in a smelter, power plant and port on Bintan island.印尼政府说另一个大型中国公司,山东南山铝业,正投资50亿美元在Bintan岛建造熔炉,电力系统,港口。As for nickel, when President Xi Jinping visited Indonesia last October he witnessed the signing of several agreements by Chinese firms to build smelters to produce the metal, used in making stainless steel.至于镍矿,去年十月份习近平主席拜访印尼时,见了中国公司建熔炉生产金属制作不锈钢的协议签订。This was a reminder of how dependentChinais on Indonesian nickel supplies, and a hint that it may be more interested in securing those supplies than in whether its companies make profits from the new smelting plants.这是一个对中国的提醒,对印尼镍矿提供有多么依赖,也是一个暗示,中国可能会对保护这些供给矿源产生更大的兴趣,而不是在乎是否这些公司真正从这些新熔炉制造中盈利。So although export bans are generally not a good idea, and using protectionism to foster “infant industries” is a policy that has produced more failures than successes, it is not impossible thatIndonesiawill achieve its hopes of moving its natural-resources industries up the value chain.因此,尽管出口禁令总体上不算个好点子,而且使用贸易保护主义来培育“新生产业”的政策往往带来更多失败而不是成功,但印尼也有可能实现它的期望,那就是将依赖自然资源的工业绑上盈利产业链。But at what cost in the meantime?但是这样做的同时需要付出什么代价呢?A little bit of resource nationalism may win Mr Yudhoyonos allies a few votes in the parliamentary elections scheduled for April and the presidential one in July.一年资源国家主义可能会为尤多约诺总统在四月份的议会选举和7月份的总统大选里赢得一些选票。But it may lose a lot more if many smaller miners, who cannot afford to invest in smelters, close down and cut large numbers of jobs.但是也有可能失去更多的小型矿主,他们无力投资熔炉,导致倒闭和大量裁员。If the short-term loss of export income exacerbates worries aboutIndonesias current account, the consequences could be worse still.如果短期出口盈利损失使印尼货币贬值加剧,结局仍可能是更糟。 /201401/273890

  

  In the early 70s, when Gil met them, 在70年代早期,当吉尔遇见他们,Filhos De Gandhi were in a bad way, 菲力奥斯·德·甘地正境况不佳,they were the only Bloco Afro in Bahia, 他们是在巴伊亚唯一的桑巴,playing African at ceremonies, that they have few members and werent even taking part in Carnival. 在各种仪式上演奏非洲音乐,他们有几名成员,甚至不是参加狂欢节。Gil joined the group and brought them new fame and popularity with a song about them, 吉尔加入了这一组织,歌曲带给他们新的名誉和声望,but he performed with Gori band.但是他与戈里乐队一起演出。The song helped Filhos De Gandhi win new members and a new following. 这首歌帮助菲力奥斯·德·甘地得到新成员及一件接下来的喜事。In the military era, the resurgence of a black religious carnival group like this was seen a sign of resistance in Salvador. 在军事掌权时代,复兴的黑人宗教嘉年华组织被视若萨尔瓦多阻挠的标志。201305/240318。

  Is animal cloning for real? I want to have my cat cloned.动物真的可以克隆吗?我想克隆家里的猫。Well, animal cloning technology exists, but pet cloning isnt quitethere yet. And it may never be.动物克隆确实存在,但是,宠物克隆现在还没有。估计以后也不会有。Why not? I could think lots of people could want to have copiesof their pets.为什么不呢?我觉得有不少人想克隆宠物吧?Thats just a problem. A clone isnt a copy. Its a separate, individual organism.因为你得考虑这样一个问题:克隆并非复制。克隆是独立的生物个体。The only thingclone of Mr. Wolfs and Mr. Wolfs of themselves have in common is their genetic sequence.沃夫先生的克隆产物和生物体本身唯一的共同点在于基因序列。The only thing? Isnt that everything?只是基因序列吗?不是所有的都相同?Apparently not! As cloning technology has improved, more and more evidence has come out ofclones that dont look alike or act alike.当然不是!随着克隆科技的不断发展,越来越多的明显示克隆并非看起来一样或行为一样。For example, Ted Friend and Greg Archer, both at Texas Aamp; M, have cloned piglets.比如,德州农工大学的Ted Friend 和Greg Archer教授克隆了一批小猪。They report that there is just as much variation in appearance among the clones as among thenon-clones.报告显示在克隆猪和正常繁殖的猪并无二致,都存在生物变异。Some have bristly coats, others not; some have more teeth, some fewer.有的鬓毛较多,有的没有鬓毛。有的有的牙齿更多;有的牙齿更少。But wouldnt a clone of Mr. Wolf at least have its charming personality?克隆的宠物猫至少保留了讨人喜欢的个性吧?Maybe not. The worlds first cloned cat was made by Duane Kraemer, also at Texas A amp; M.也许不会哦!同是德州农工大学的Duane Kraemer研究出了世界上第一只克隆猫。Hereports that the clone has a different personality altogether than its clone mother-its much morefriendly, in fact.克隆猫的性情和原来那只猫的性情大不同—友善了不少。 201404/293153

  Money and happiness金钱和快乐Buy buy love买来的爱Smarter ways to spend更明智方式消费Happy Money: The Science of Smarter Spending.By Elizabeth Dunn and Michael Norton. 《快乐理财》:更明智消费的科学 伊丽莎白·唐恩和迈克尔·诺顿合著WHAT would you do with590m? This is now a question for Gloria MacKenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. The blogosphere is full of advice for this lucky Powerball pensioner. But if she hopes her new-found lucre will yield lasting feelings of fulfilment, she could do worse than “Happy Money” by Elizabeth Dunn and Michael Norton.如果你有5.9亿美元,你会想做什么?葛罗瑞亚·马克肯泽尔正面对这个问题。她是一位84岁在弗罗里达拥有一座小房子的寡妇,最近获得了有史以来最大的票头奖。客上到处是给这位幸运强力球奖金领取者的建议。但如果她希望她新得到的财富会让她产生持久的满足感,她可能需要读读伊丽莎白·唐恩和迈克尔·诺顿合著的《快乐理财》。These two academics—she teaches psychology at the University of British Columbia; he lectures on marketing at Harvard Business School—use an array of behavioural research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and palatial homes on remote bluffs. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly. What was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; remorse creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dunn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time—as stories or memories—particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others这两位学者,一位在英属哥伦比亚大学教授心理学,一位在哈佛商学院教授市场营销。在书中他们引用了一些列的行为学研究向读者表明最受益的消费方式可能具有反直觉性质。财富给人的感觉经常会意味着豪车和峭壁旁的富宅。不过,这些物质采购带来的满足感会很快消失。曾经让人兴奋和带来新奇的东西到手之后不过就像是老旧的礼帽;懊恼悄然而至。远不如把钱花在生活体验上,唐恩和诺顿说道,比如说旅行,特别的膳食及去电影院看电影。随着时间的流逝,这些体验往往会变得珍贵--成为人们的故事或记忆-如果其中包含了情感故事则更是这样。This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most “happiness bang for your buck”. It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it). Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason McDonalds restricts the availability of its popular McRib—a marketing gimmick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.无论你是工资的奴仆,还是票的幸运儿在这本薄薄的书,都能让你获得“金钱带来的快乐大爆发”。如果人们能够缩短他们的工作时间和看电视的时间而花更多的时间跟朋友和家人在一起会让他们的生活的品质更高。买礼物或捐助慈善机构往往会比给自己买东西更让人觉得开心。购买限售版奢侈品会让消费者更开心。这显然是麦当劳为什么限制受欢迎的烤汁猪排堡的出售量的原因--这个营销手段使人们为猪肉三明治着迷。Readers of “Happy Money” are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfilment, not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.《快乐财富》的读者显然是生活富足的人,他们考虑的是生活的满足感而不是饥饿。金钱可能不能买到快乐,但是在更富裕国家的人们一般比贫穷国家的人们快乐。不过,不管是在富裕的国家还是贫穷的国家,感觉良好和消费在其他人身上的联系随处可见。对大多数人来说,稀缺性提升了很多事情的快乐。并不是每个人都同意笔者在从安排更多的度假时间到减少税收刺激美国购房者的观点。但是读完这本书,大多数的人会觉得它值得购买。 /201404/289234DON:Yael, Ive been thinking lately that maybe I should go into stand-up comedy.唐:雅艾尔,最近我一直在想也许该去演喜剧脱口秀。YAEL:What on earth gave you that idea?雅艾尔:到底是什么让你萌生这种念头?DON:Ive noticed that I seem to make a lot of people laugh, especially women.唐:我注意到,我似乎是很多人的开心果,尤其是在女性中间。Sometimes all I have to say is ;Hello.; Its rather remarkable.有时我只是不得不说你好。就能带来非凡的笑果。YAEL:Actually, its rather ordinary.雅艾尔:事实上,这再普通不过了。Laughter research has found that only a small percentage of laughter, less than 20%, is a sincere response to someones humor.对于笑的研究已经发现,只有很小一部分的笑,不到20%,是对别人幽默真诚的回应。In fact, laughter is primarily a social signal, as opposed to an emotional outburst.事实上,笑是主要的社会信号,而不是一种情绪的宣泄。People are thirty times more likely to laugh in a social situation than when they are alone.处于社交场合时人们的笑会是独自一人时的30倍。And other observations about laughter also imply it has a social function.而另一项关于笑的研究也表明它有一种社会功能。For instance, theres ;polite; laughter.例如,有“礼貌”的笑声。How often have you found yourself laughing at someones attempt at being funny in order to spare their feelings or make them feel good?你是否经常发现自己笑别人的幽默只是为了照顾他们的感情或让他们感觉好受些?DON:Wow. Youve just described my relationship with my father.唐:哇。你刚刚讲的就是我和父亲之间的关系。It hurts me how unfunny he is.这伤害了我,他是个多么无趣的人。Im sure Id be able to tell if people were faking their laughter at my jokes, though.尽管我确信自己可以判断是否有人假装感到我的笑话笑果出众。YAEL:Hmm. Well, Don, research has also found that women tend to laugh a good deal more than men.雅艾尔:嗯。嗯,唐,研究也发现,女性的笑常常超过男性。And male speakers tend to illicit more laughter than female speakers.而男性演讲者们往往比女性的笑更为不正当。Also, laughter may very well be a sign of power dynamics between people, signaling dominance and submission, acceptance and rejection.还有,笑声很可能标志着人与人之间的权力分配,信号统治及顺从,接受和拒绝。Certainly, that seems to be the case when someone is laughed at rather than with.当然,这似乎是这样而当有人嘲笑的时候则另当别论。DON:Thanks a lot, Yael.唐:雅艾尔,非常感谢。I think youve ruined my career in comedy, as well as laughter in general.我认为你毁了我的喜剧事业,还有一般的笑。Youve explained the life out of it! 你已经融入于生活中了! 201311/265321

  Science in Argentina阿根廷的科学发展Cristina the alchemist炼金术士克里斯蒂娜Argentina is trying to build a scientific establishment阿根廷正努力打造一个科学机构SOUTH AFRICA is not the only middle-income country which aspires to join the worlds scientific powers.南非并不是唯一渴望加入世界科学强国的中等收入国家。Argentina would like to as well.怀有同样渴望的还有阿根廷。The place is proud of its three Nobel science prizes—the largest haul of any Latin American nation—even if the most recent was awarded in 1984.曾经三次荣获诺贝尔科学奖,但即使最后一次获奖发生在1984年,阿根廷仍然以此为傲,因为这是任何拉丁美洲国家都无法比拟的成就。But many researchers fled in the 1990s, when budgets were slashed. Now the government is trying to attract them back, and to encourage younger talent to consider a scientific career.但在20世纪90年代,预算大幅削减,许多研究人员抽身而去。如今,政府正在努力将其吸引回国,并鼓励青年人才以科学为职业。When Néstor Kirchner, the predecessor and late husband of the current president, Cristina Fernandez, took office in 2003, Argentina was spending just 0.41% of its GDP on research and development.前总统内斯托尔·基什内尔于2003年上台,当时阿根廷在研究和开发上的投入仅占其GDP的0.41%。Now, that figure is 0.64%.如今的投入占到0.64%。Kirchner raised researchers salaries, launched a scheme to repatriate departed scientists and gave tax breaks to software companies.基什内尔总统提高了研究人员的工资,推出召回离国科学家的方案,允许软件开发公司享受税收上的优惠。Ms Fernandez followed suit by creating a science ministry and putting a biologist, Lino Barao, in charge of it.费尔南德斯夫人也相继建立起科技部,并任命生物学家巴拉尼奥为部长。She also increased grants to firms that try to develop new products.她还提高了给新产品研发公司的拨款。Many of the Kirchners critics were sceptical, seeing the ministry either as a political marketing ploy or as a soft touch for lobbyists seeking unjustified subsidies.许多针对基什内尔的批评家们持一种怀疑态度,他们认为科技部既是一种政治营销策略,又会被那些寻求不正当补贴的说客轻易利用。But the strategy seems to be working.然而整个策略却似乎正在发挥作用。With help from the Inter-American Development Bank the government has, since 2004, lured back 854 expatriate scientists.2004年,在美洲开发的帮助下,阿根廷政府总共将854名移居国外的科学家吸引回国,It has done so by providing new laboratories and equipment for them, moving their families, and forking out extra money for their salaries.为他们提供新的实验室和仪器,安置其家人,分拨额外资金作为他们的酬劳。As a consequence, according to Dr Baraao,根据尼奥教授所说,Argentine researchers have published 179 articles in leading journals in the past decade, compared with just 30 in the 1990s.之后阿根廷的研究员们在过去的十年里发表在前沿期刊的文章就有179篇,而90年代却只有30篇。Most of the returners are academics. But commercial science has benefited, too.大多数归国人员都是学术派,但商业科学却也从中受益。Indear, a joint public-private biotechnology-research centre based in Santa Fe, recently worked out how to transfer a gene for drought resistance from sunflowers to crops such as maize, soyabeans and wheat.总部位于圣达菲的一家公私合营生物技术研究中心Indear,近日研发出如何将向日葵中的抗旱基因转移到玉米大豆及小麦等农作物上,此举可将旱地产量提升至40%。That can increase yields in droughts by up to 40%. And the government has also doled out 54m in grants for the development of products that include coagulant factors to treat haemophilia,同时,政府还发放5400万美元开发包括发凝血因子在内的产品,transgenic cattle which secrete valuable hormones in their milk, and better ways of probing for oil deposits.以治疗血友病,研究分泌珍贵激素的转基因奶牛,以及提高石油储备的勘探技术。Help for high-tech innovation comes in other forms, too.对高科技创新的扶持还不止这些。The state offers, for example, to pay the cost of patenting inventions in foreign jurisdictions and of hiring lawyers to defend those patents.例如,政府会为在海外司法审批的发明付专利申请费用,并出钱雇佣律师为之辩护。It also acts as a headhunter for information-technology firms seeking employees with PhDs, and will pay part of the salaries of such recruits.同时还为信息技术公司充当猎头,搜寻有士学历的员工,并付其部分薪金。None of these programmes has faced allegations of corruption.所有的项目都没有发生有关贪污的起诉。Whether all this activity will have the effect of stimulating high-tech industry, as Ms Fernandez hopes, remains to be seen.然而,整个方案是否会像费尔南德夫人希望的那样推动高科技工业的发展,还得拭目以待。Argentine scientists are happy to take taxpayers money but according to Luis Dambra, a professor at the IAE business school in Buenos Aires, they look down their noses at the idea of actually getting their hands dirty by going into industry.花着纳税人的钱让阿根廷的科学家们十分高兴,不过布宜诺斯爱丽丝IAE商学院的路易斯·丹布尔教授认为,进入工业领域就是自降身段的说法让科学家们嗤之以鼻。Mr Dambra, though, says industry is equally to blame.尽管如此,丹布尔先生表示工业同样应该被斥责。In , only 21% of Argentine Ramp;D was paid for by the private sector, compared with 44% of Brazils.年,阿根廷研发领域仅有21%的费用是由私营部门付,相比巴西就达到了44%。Firms that might recruit academic scientists often do not see the point.那些有可能聘请学术科学家的公司却总是忽略了这一点。Even those that do may struggle to accommodate people with a non-commercial background into the business world.即便那些看到这一点的公司也可能争抢着将非商科背景的研究员安置在商业领域。Attitudes can change, of course.当然,态度看法总是发生变化的。In the 1980s many British academics were as snobbish about commerce as Argentinas are now.19世纪80年代,许多英国学者看待商业的态度和今天的阿根廷人一样不屑一顾。These days, Britains top universities are gung-ho for spin-outs and the revenue they can provide. But it takes time and consistent policy to make such changes and Argentina is notorious for sudden alterations in the political weather.而现在英国的顶尖大学都在为其所能提供的额外产物和收益而狂热。但是这些转变都需要长久的时间和一贯的政策才能得以确保,而阿根廷却因为在政界中风云突变而名声狼藉。That makes the country a perilous place to invest, whatever the current climate.无论现阶段状况如何,整个国家都成了投资者的危险之地。 /201306/242535

  

  French political fiction法国政治小说What if it were true?如有雷同,纯属巧合?When truth really is stranger than fiction事实远比小说离奇ONE pleasure of the French summer is the publication of political fiction in media usually busy with the soap opera of real political life. During the holidays, reporters let their imaginations run wild. Improbable alliances, liaisons and betrayals are invented. Le Figaro, a conservative newspaper, ran a 17-part fictional series in August entitled “Hollande departs”.LOpinion, another daily, ran a 14-part series originally called “The kidnapping of Arnaud Montebourg”.法国夏日的乐趣之一---媒体相传的政治小说通常都是取自于真正政治闹剧或政界风云。在假日里,记者们让自己自由驰骋在想象的大草原上。他们构造出不可能的联盟、伙伴和对手。保守派报刊费加罗报在8月连载了一部17期的系列小说《奥德朗的离开》。另一份观点日报则连载了一部14期的原创小说《阿诺德·蒙特的绑架》。Other countries turn out political drama, from Americas “House of Cards” to Denmarks “Borgen”. But the French seem keen on fiction based on real characters. In recent years directors have made films about serving, or recently active, politicians, including “La conquete”, a fictional portrayal of the rise to power of Nicolas Sarkozy, the former president. “Quai dOrsay” was an entertaining glimpse into theatrics at the foreign office under a fictitious Dominique de Villepin, a former foreign minister.从美国的《纸牌屋》到丹麦的《根》,其他国家也有政治题材的电视剧。但是似乎只有法国尤其喜欢基于真实人物的作品。近些年导演们只做了一些关于役、近期政治动作或政客的电影,包括《征》。这部电影虚构的描述了前总统尼古拉斯·萨尔科齐的崛起。《奥尔赛码头》则是对虚构的前外交部长多米尼克·德维尔潘手下的外交部做了一个有趣的窥探。Television does it too. A French series, “LEcole du Pouvoir”, followed five characters who met at the elite Ecole Nationale dAdministration in the late 1970s, ahead of the election of a Socialist president, Fran?ois Mitterrand, in 1981. One seemed rather like Fran?ois Hollande, the incumbent; another resembled Ségolène Royal, his classmate, former partner and defeated 2007 presidential candidate.电视媒体也很热衷政治剧。一部名为《学院权利》的电视剧讲述了19世纪70年代末在精英学校国家行政学院相遇的5名主角的故事。剧中背景为1981年,正值社会主义总统弗朗索瓦·密特朗当选前。其中一名主角就像现总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德,另一个就像他的同学塞格琳·罗雅尔。罗亚尔也是奥朗德的前女友,但她在2007年总统候选人选举中落选。French publishers also like the stuff, although more often as apocalyptic futurism. Recent titles include “La nuit de la faillite”, a racy thriller by Gaspard Koenig, a former speechwriter for Christine Lagarde when she was finance minister, in which he imagines a New York trader provoking a default on French sovereign debt. Nicolas Baverez, a lawyer and writer, recently published “Lettres béninoises”, a novel set in a dystopian 2040 France.法国出版商也很喜欢这种题材,尽管这类作品经常被当做世界末日的预警。最近一些作品名,例如加斯帕德·科尼戈的生动惊悚片《夜间破产》。他是克里斯蒂娜·拉加德就任财政部长期间的前演讲稿攥稿人。在影片中他想象纽约以拖欠国债来挑衅法国。律师兼作家尼古拉斯·巴维莱兹最近出版了一部小说《贝宁的文学》,其背景设定在2040反乌托邦的法国。Why the passion for political fiction? The truth in French politics is often as strange as, or stranger than, such musings. A summer 2013 series in Le Figaro imagined Mr Valls as prime minister; in 2014 it happened. And in “The kidnapping of Arnaud Montebourg”, also penned by Mr Koenig, a group of libertarians snatch the former minister to stop him damaging France. The series was still running when Mr Montebourg was evicted from the government for criticising its economic policy为何媒体如此热衷于政治小说呢?事实上,法国政治经常与这种小说思路一样奇特,有时甚至更甚。2013年夏天《奥朗德的离开》中虚构瓦尔斯担任总理,结果2014年这变为现实。在科尼戈所著的《阿诺德·蒙特的绑架》中,一群自由主义者抓了前任部长以阻止他继续破坏法国。这部剧集在蒙特伯格因批评政府的经济政策而被逐出政府时仍在播映。 /201409/325603。

  

  Water水资源All dried up全面干涸Northern China is running out of water, but the government’s remedies are potentially disastrous中国北方水资源渐耗尽,政府举措存风险Oct 12th 2013 | BEIJING |From the print editionCHINA endures choking smog, mass destruction of habitats and food poisoned with heavy metals. But ask an environmentalist what is the country’s biggest problem, and the answer is always the same. “Water is the worst,” says Wang Tao, of the Carnegie-Tsinghua Centre in Beijing, “because of its scarcity, and because of its pollution.” “Water,” agrees Pan Jiahua, of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. “People can’t survive in a desert.” Wang Shucheng, a former water minister, once said: “To fight for every drop of water or die: that is the challenge facing China.”中国正遭受着持续雾霾、栖息地大规模破坏以及食品重金属中毒等问题。然而,当问起环境专家“什么是中国最大的问题”时,得到的通常如出一辙。北京清华-卡耐基中心的王涛答道:“水资源问题最为严重,一方面由于水资源缺乏,另一方面由于它的污染状况。” “水资源,”中国社科院潘家华表示认同,“人们不能在沙漠中生存。”前水利部部长汪恕诚曾说:“中国面临的挑战就是要珍惜每一滴水,否则就是灭亡。”He was not exaggerating. A stock image of China is a fisherman and his cormorant on a placid lake. The reality is different. The country uses 600 billion cubic metres (21,200 billion cubic feet) of water a year, or about 400 cubic metres a person—one-quarter of what the average American uses and less than half the international definition of water stress.他并非夸大其词。人们脑海中的中国印象是平静湖面上的渔民和他的鸬鹚。现实却大相径庭。中国水资源的年消耗量达6000亿立方米(212,000亿立方英尺),即约每人400立方米——为美国人平均使用量的四分之一,不到国际公认的用水紧张线的一半。The national average hides an even more alarming regional disparity. Four-fifths of China’s water is in the south, notably the Yangzi river basin. Half the people and two-thirds of the farmland are in the north, including the Yellow River basin. Beijing has the sort of water scarcity usually associated with Saudi Arabia: just 100 cubic metres per person a year. The water table under the capital has dropped by 300 metres (nearly 1,000 feet) since the 1970s.全国平均用水量背后的地区差异更为令人担忧。中国五分之四的水资源位于南方,尤其是长江流域。一半人口以及三分之二的耕地则位于北方,其中包括黄河流域。北京的水荒常被与沙特阿拉伯的相比较:人均年用水量仅为100立方米。自从20世纪70年代以来,首都的地下水位已下降约300米(1,000英尺左右)。China is using up water at an unsustainable rate. Thanks to overuse, rivers simply disappear. The number of rivers with significant catchment areas has fallen from more than 50,000 in the 1950s to 23,000 now. As if that were not bad enough, China is polluting what little water it has left. The Yellow River is often called the cradle of Chinese civilisation. In 2007 the Yellow River Conservancy Commission, a government agency, surveyed 13,000 kilometres (8,000 miles) of the river and its tributaries and concluded that a third of the water is unfit even for agriculture. Four thousand petrochemical plants are built on its banks.中国正以一种难以长期持续的速度消耗水资源。过度使用使河流几近干涸。重要集水区的河流数量已从50年代的50,000条减至如今的23,000条。仿佛事态还不够严重,中国仅存的河流也正遭受污染。黄河常被称为中华文明的摇篮。2007年,政府组织黄河保护委员会调查了13,000公里(8,000英里)的黄河及其流,结论是三分之一的水域不甚健康,甚至无法用于农业生产。4000家石油化工厂矗立黄河两岸。The water available for use is thus atrocious. Song Lanhe, chief engineer for urban water-quality monitoring at the housing ministry, says only half the water sources in cities are safe to drink. More than half the groundwater in the north China plain, according to the land ministry, cannot be used for industry, while seven-tenths is unfit for human contact, ie, even for washing. In late 2012 the Chinese media claimed that 300 corpses were found floating in the Yellow River near Lanzhou, the latest of roughly 10,000 victims—most of them (according to the local police) suicides—whose bodies have been washing downstream since the 1960s.可用水如此匮乏。建设部城市水质监测中心总工程师宋兰合说,城市水资源中仅有一半能供人安全饮用。据土地称,超过半数中国北部平原的地下水不能用于工业,同时,七成的水不适于与人体接触,也就是说,这些水甚至无法用于洗涤。2012年下半年,中国媒体曝出在黄河兰州段附近发现300具浮尸。自60年代以来约10,000名新受害者(据当地警方称,其中多为自杀)的尸体顺流而下。In the World Bank put the overall cost of China’s water crisis at 2.3% of GDP, mostly reflecting damage to health. Water shortages also imperil plans to expand energy production, threatening economic growth. China is hoping to follow America into a shale-gas revolution. But each shale-gas well needs 15,000 tonnes of water a year to run. China is also planning to build around 450 new coal-fired power stations, burning 1.2 billion tonnes of coal a year. The stations have to be cooled by water and the coal has to be washed. The grand total is 9 billion tonnes of water. China does not have that much available. According to the World Resources Institute, a think-tank in Washington, DC, half the new coal-fired plants are to be built in areas of high or extremely high water stress.年,世界认为中国在水危机上的总出占GDP的2.3%,这在很大程度上反映出水资源状况对健康之危害。水资源短缺同样危及扩大能源生产,对经济增长造成威胁。中国希望能跟随美国进入天然气时代。然而,一个天然气井需一年15,000吨水来运转。中国也正在计划建造约450座新的燃煤发电站,一年燃烧12亿吨煤炭。发电站需要用水冷却,而煤炭需要用水清洗。总需水量达90亿吨。供不应求。据位于华盛顿的智囊组织世界资源协会称,一半的新燃煤发电站建造于水资源紧缺或极度紧缺的地区。Every drop is precious滴滴珍贵The best answer would be to improve the efficiency with which water is used. Only about 40% of water used in industry is recycled, half as much as in Europe. The rest is dumped in rivers and lakes. Wang Zhansheng of Tsinghua University argues that China is neglecting its urban water infrastructure (sewerage, pipes and water-treatment plants), leading to more waste. Water prices in most cities are only about a tenth of the level in big European cities, yet the government is reluctant to raise them, for fear of a popular backlash.最好的办法是提升水的利用效率。只有约4成工业用水循环使用,该比例仅为欧洲的一半。而余下的则被弃于江河之中。清华大学王占生认为中国忽视城市水利基建(污水、管道和污水净化厂)导致更多浪费。大部分城市的水费仅为欧洲大城市的十分之一,而政府由于担心民众反对,则不愿涨价。The result is that China’s “water productivity” is low. For each cubic metre of water used, China gets -worth of output. The average for European countries is per cubic metre. Of course, these countries are richer—but they are not seven times richer.造成的结果是中国的“水分生产率”低下。每立方米水产出值为8美元。而欧洲国家平均产出值为58美元。当然,这些国家更为富有——但不至于富裕七倍。Rather than making sensible and eminently doable reforms in pricing and water conservation, China is focusing on increasing supplies. For decades the country has been ruled by engineers, many of them hydraulic engineers (including the previous president, Hu Jintao). Partly as a result, Communist leaders have reacted to water problems by building engineering projects on a mind-boggling scale.相比合理使用、价格显著调整以及水资源保护,中国采取的主要方法则是增加供应量。几十年来,中国的领导人多为工程师,他们中有不少是水利工程师(包括前国家主席胡锦涛)。部分由于上述原因,共产党领导对水资源问题的反应乃是在令人难以置信的范围内建立工程项目。The best known such project is the Three Gorges dam on the Yangzi. But this year an even vaster project is due to start. Called the South-North Water Diversion Project, it will link the Yangzi with the Yellow River, taking water from the humid south to the parched north. When finished, 3,000km of tunnels and canals will have been drilled through mountains, across plains and under rivers. Its hydrologic and environmental consequences could be enormously harmful.此类工程中最著名的就是位于长江的三峡大坝。但今年一个更大的项目即将启动。南水北调工程将长江与黄河接通,将水从湿润的南方调运至干旱的北方。项目完成后,将有3,000公里的隧道与运河贯通山脉,穿越平原与地下河。它将在水文与环境上造成严重后果。The project links China’s two great rivers through three new channels. The eastern, or downstream one is due to open by the end of this year (see map). It would pump 14.8 billion cubic metres along 1,160km of canals, using in part a 1,500-year-old waterway, the Grand Canal. The water pumped so far has been so polluted that a third of the cost has gone on water treatment. A midstream link, with 1,300km of new canals, is supposed to open by October 2014. That is also when work on the most ambitious and controversial link, the upstream one across the fragile Himalayan plateau, is due to begin. Eventually the South-North project is intended to deliver 45 billion cubic metres of water a year and to cost a total of 486 billion yuan (.4 billion). It would be cheaper to desalinate the equivalent amount of seawater.该项目通过三条新水道接通中国两大河流。东部,即下游调水线将于年底贯通(见地图)。它将沿1,160公里的运河(部分利用拥有1500年历史的水道——大运河)输水148亿立方米。迄今输送的水已被污染,以至于三分之一的开被用于水污染治理。长达1,300千米的中游调水线预计于2014年十月贯通。而最为雄心勃勃和最具争议的上游调水线也预备动工,它贯穿了脆弱的喜马拉雅高原。最终,南水北调工程计划每年调水450亿立方米,总花费4,860亿元人民币(794亿美元)。这比除去等量海水中的盐分的成本来得更低。The environmental damage could be immense. The Yangzi river is aly seriously polluted. Chen Jiyu of the Chinese Academy of Engineering told South Weekly, a magazine, in 2012 that the project so far has reduced the quantity of plankton in the Yangzi by over two-thirds and the number of benthic organisms (those living on the river bottom) by half. And that was before it even opened. Ma Jun, China’s best known environmental activist, says the government’s predilection for giant engineering projects only makes matters worse, “causing us to hit the limits of our water resources”.这可能造成巨大的环境破坏。长江已被严重污染。2012年,中国工程院院士陈吉余告诉南方周末记者,项目迄今造成长江浮游生物数量减少超过三分之二,底栖生物(生活在水底的生物)减少一半。这还是没有贯通之前所发生的。中国著名环保斗士马军说,政府对大型工程项目的偏好只会让事情变得更糟,“导致我们冲击水资源的使用极限”。But the biggest damage could be political. Proposed dams on the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra, Mekong and other rivers are bound to have an impact on downstream countries, including India, Bangladesh and Vietnam. The Chinese say they would take only 1% of the run-off from the giant Brahmaputra. But if all these projects were operational—and the engineering challenges of one or two of them are so daunting that even the Chinese might balk at them—they would affect the flow of rivers on which a billion people depend. Hence the worries for regional stability. And all this would increase China’s water supplies by a mere 7%. The water crisis is driving China to desperate but ultimately unhelpful measures.不过,最大的危害可能是政治上的。计划在雅鲁藏布江、湄公河以及其他河流上游建造的大坝必定会对下游国家产生影响,包括印度、孟加拉国和越南。中国方面说他们仅从广阔的雅鲁藏布江中调取1%的水量。但是如果所有的项目都开始运转——其中一两个工程上的挑战就会令人沮丧,届时中国可能予以回避——这将影响傍河而生的10亿人口。从而导致地区稳定上的隐忧。而所有这些工程仅增加中国供水量的7%。水资源危机迫使中国孤注一掷,而终究未必治本。201310/261348

  

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