时间:2017年12月11日 11:44:13

It does not matter precisely how their ties are rhetorically framed - ;new type of major-country relationship; or otherwise. China and the ed States need a clear sense of direction as their relations approach a critical crossroad, and, as the latest talk about ;frenemy-ship; indicates, could go either way.如何形容中美两国关系,不管是“新型大国关系”或是别的词都不重要。中美关系走到了关键的十字路口,正如最近所出现的“亦敌亦友”的说法,两国可以是朋友,也可能变成敌人,所以中美两国需要为两国关系确立明确的方向。So, it matters whether each side gets reassurance that it can count on the due respect of the other. It also matters whether President Xi Jinpings visit has been successful - to both Beijing and Washington, actually the world at large.然而,重要的是双方能够得到对方应有的尊重,同样,此次习近平访美能否成功对中美两国甚至全世界都至关重要。Judging from the lists of achievements Beijing and Washington have published, the visit was nothing but a success - a big one from Beijings perspective.从双方公布的成果来看,此次访问无疑是成功的,从中方看来是巨大的成功。As some have observed, Chinese media have sounded more upbeat about the visit, and rightfully so, for it offered a badly needed dose of optimism for the worrisome state of bilateral ties.一些观察中发现,中国媒体对此次访问更为乐观,此举也为令人担忧的双边关系注入了急需的积极活力。That Beijing has published a much longer and detailed - 49-item - ;achievements check-list; than Washingtons ;fact sheet; reveals a subtle difference in perspectives. While Washington dwells on hard facts, Beijing cherishes everything conducive to stabilizing ties.中方公布9条“成果清单”,多于美方公布的“情况说明书”,并且也较为详尽,这显示双方的一个细微差异。美方注重既定事实,而中方则重视一切有利于稳定关系的内容。That the agreement on promoting what it terms as ;new type of major-country relationship; tops Chinas list while being absent on that of the US, too, offers food for thought. With some in the US preoccupied with what they see as imminent threats, from the South China Sea to cyberspace, Beijing wants strategic consensus as much as, if not more than, pragmatic cooperation.达成的协议将“新型大国关系”冠以中方成果清单,而该术语却没有出现在美方清单上面,这也值得令人深思。一些美国视为迫在眉睫的威胁,如中国南海和网络空间等亟待解决的问题,中方想要尽可能多的达成战略共识,最起码是进行务实合作。Business deals, like the purchase of 300 Boeing jetliners, is ;ballast; for Sino-US ties. But we need more than such ;ballast; to deepen strategical mutual trust. Beijings message in the lengthy list is clear: Everything conducive to building confidence is an achievement worth celebrating. Such enthusiasm deserves equally enthusiastic resonance from the other side of the Pacific.商业交易,诸如采购的300架波音飞机,是中美关系的“重头戏”,但我们需要更多的“重头戏”来深化战略互信。中方长长的成果列表传达出的信息很明确:任何有利于建立信任的举措都是值得庆祝的成果。这样的热情需要大洋彼岸的美国以同样的热情予以回应。Xis visit was about mutual assurance, and served that purpose well. That is good for both countries.习近平访美的目的是建立相互信任,同时也达到了既定效果,这对中美两国都有利。Citing Chinese villagers rescue of US pilots during World War II and the two countries collaboration in the recent fight against Ebola in western Africa, US President Barack Obama told his Chinese guests that the two countries not only need to cooperate, but also can continue cooperating. That is very correct.引用二战期间中国村民营救美军飞行员,还有最近两国在非洲抗击埃拉病毒的合作,美国总统奥巴马告诉习近平,两国不仅需要合作,还要继续深化合作。这是非常正确的。Once their remarks on ;managing and controlling divergences in constructive manners; are honored in practice, the potential of Sino-US partnership would be limitless.两国领导人提到,“通过建设性的方式应对和控制分歧”, 一旦应用于实践,中美关系发展的潜力将会是无限的。Sino-US agreements on matters of broader concerns, climate change and development cooperation in particular, added a global dimension to the visit. When China and the US join hands, the world benefits.中美合作协议涉及更为广泛的议题,特别是气候变化和发展合作等,同时此次访问还加上了全球维度的议题。中美携手,必将造福世界。来 /201509/401588

China objected Wednesday to Washingtons imposing new sanctions against eight companies it said a Chinese businessman used in the alleged sale of ballistic missile parts to Iran.中国政府周三反对华盛顿对八家公司实施的新制裁。美国方面称,一位中国商人涉嫌通过这八家公司非法向伊朗出售弹道导弹零部件。Chinese foreign ministry spokesman Qin Gang said that instead of unilaterally levying sanctions, the U.S. should deal with its concerns according to Chinese law. He didnt name the companies and the businessman, Li Fangwei, nor mention the million reward Washington offered to secure his arrest, but said that the U.S. actions, announced Tuesday, would hinder efforts to reduce proliferation.中国外交部发言人秦刚表示,中方坚决反对美国实施单边制裁,美方的有关关切应通过与中方开展执法合作予以解决。秦刚并未提及被制裁公司的名称和这位名为李方伟的商人,也未提到美国政府悬00万美元缉拿李方伟一事,但称美方周二宣布的做法有损双方防扩散合作We believe the relevant actions taken by the U.S. wont help solve the problem and will also impair our nonproliferation cooperation, said spokesman Qin Gang at a briefing. We urge the U.S. to stop sanctions of companies and individuals and come back to the right track of nonproliferation cooperation.秦刚在一次记者会上表示,美方有关做法无助于问题解决,而且有损双方防扩散合作。他还说,中方敦促美方停止制裁中国公司、个人的错误做法,回到防扩散合作的正确轨道上来。China has long-standing objections to Washingtons use of unilateral sanctions, a position the spokesman reiterated. The businessman, Mr. Li, has figured in previous discussions between Washington and Beijing over the transfer of components and materials for missiles to Iran.中国一直反对华盛顿实施单边制裁,秦刚也重申了中方的这一立场。两国政府之前讨论过李方伟涉嫌向伊朗出售导弹零部件和材料一事。Mr. Li, who also goes by Karl Lee, was targeted by sanctions and indicted by U.S. authorities in . The U.S. doesnt have an extradition treaty with China, and officials have said Mr. Li hasnt traveled to countries that might hand him over to U.S. authorities.李方伟又名Karl Lee,他009年成为制裁目标并被美国政府起诉。中美之间没有引渡条约。一些官员表示,李方伟也未前往那些可能将他交给美国政府的国家。Mr. Li couldnt be reached for comment on Tuesday. He has previously denied allegations of wrongdoing, including in a interview with The Wall Street Journal when he said his products arent used to make weapons.记者周二无法联系上李方伟发表。此前李方伟一直否认有关他行为不当的指控,包括年《华尔街日报The Wall Street Journal)的一次采访。当时他表示,自己的产品并未被用于生产武器。Reached for comment on Wednesday, officials at two of the companies on the new sanctions list either denied wrongdoing or said they had no knowledge of Mr. Li.记者周三联系到了新制裁名单上两家公司的管理人士置评。这些管理人士要么否认有不当行为,要么表示不认识李方伟。The charges unsealed by the U.S. Attorney in Manhattan on Tuesday allege that Mr. Li worked to conceal his transactions in the U.S. financial system by adding new layers of shell companies once U.S. authorities began targeting his businesses.美国曼哈顿地区检察官周二宣布相关指控说,李方伟在美国政府开始瞄准他的公司时,通过增添一层层“壳公司”的手段掩盖自己在美国金融系统中的交易,The Treasury Department on Tuesday also sanctioned eight Chinese companies that it said acted for Mr. Li or on his behalf. The measures have highlighted Washingtons ongoing efforts to undermine efforts by Iran to develop its nuclear and missile programs.美国财政部周二也宣布制裁其认为给李方伟代办或代理相关事务的八家中国公司。这些措施表明,华盛顿在继续采取措施削弱伊朗发展核项目和导弹项目的努力。The U.S. Embassy in Beijing didnt have an immediate comment on the foreign ministrys remarks.美国驻北京大使馆未立即就中国外交部的言论置评。来 /201405/295245

Commentary on last months Russian-Chinese energy deal to ship 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas annually from East Siberia to China has focused on its benefits for China. Yet Beijing may come to regret the deal, especially when some superior options exist directly under its feet.上个月中俄达成能源协议后,外界的焦点一直是该协议给中国带来的好处。然而北京可能会对这项协议感到后悔,尤其是在又出现了一些更好的选择方案的情况下。根据中俄达成的协议,俄罗斯每年从东西伯利亚向中国出80亿立方米天然气。Granted, northeast China needs gas imports, and other sources such as liquid natural gas would be expensive compared with piped gas from Siberia. And Chinas demand for natural gas is going to grow rapidly in the next couple decades--far faster than can be met with non-Russian sources such as Australia.毫无疑问,中国东北部地区需要进口天然气,并且液化天然气等其他资源价格要高于来自西伯利亚的管道天然气。未0年中国的天然气需求将迅猛增长,如果不从俄罗斯进口,只是依赖澳大利亚等其他国家,可能远远无法得到满足。Even so, the 0 billion Siberian pipeline that China is now obligated to help finance wont be usable for four years. And by 2020 it will meet no more than 10% of the countrys needs.即便如此,中国目前负责融资的规模4,000亿美元的西伯利亚输气管道项目四年内也无法投入使用。到2020年该输气管道的供气量也只占中国需求的10%。The real beneficiaries of the Shanghai deal are Vladimir Putin and his state-owned Gazprom. Gas flowing through the Siberian pipeline will also be available for sale to other Asian countries at a considerable discount to what they pay for liquid natural gas. The deal offers insurance if Europe cuts back on Russian gas imports in the aftermath of the Ukraine crisis. Analysts at Wood MacKenzie liken the deal to finding a new Europe for Gazprom.其实,中俄两国上海能源协议的真正受益方是普京(Vladimir Putin)及其国有企业俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司(Gazprom)。来自西伯利亚输气管道的天然气也可以销售给其他亚洲国家,价格将远低于它们购买的液化天然气。即使欧洲在乌克兰危机后削减俄罗斯天然气进口量,上述协议也为俄罗斯提供了保障。Wood MacKenzie的分析师们把该交易比作是俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司找到了一个“新的欧洲市场”。That should give the Chinese additional pause. The rest of the world is learning that relying on Russia for natural gas can be a very bad idea--almost as bad as depending on oil shipped through the Iran-dominated Straits of Hormuz, as China does now. Yet Chinas energy demands are inexorable. Aly the worlds largest energy consumer, it will see demand surge again in the next two decades, including for natural gas.这将令中国更感踌躇。眼下世界其他国家都逐渐意识到,依靠俄罗斯的天然气可能导致非常不利的结果,差不多像依靠通过伊朗控制的霍尔木兹海Straits of Hormuz)运输石油一样糟糕――而中国目前正是如此。然而中国的能源需求势不可挡。中国已经成为全球最大的能源消费国,而且未来20年中国对天然气等能源的需求将再度猛增。A better idea is for China to crack open shale oil and gas reserves at home, which are enormous. The U.S. Energy Information Administration estimates that Chinese gas reserves could be almost one and a half times those of the ed States. Yet to date China has dug fewer than 200 shale-gas wells, compared to 40,000 dug in the U.S.对中国来说,更好的方案是开发本国巨大的页?油气储量。据美国能源情报 Energy Information Administration,简称:EIA)估计,中国天然气储量几乎是美国的1.5倍。但迄今为止,中国页岩气井数量不00口,而美国有4万口。Why hasnt China seen the kind of shale revolution that has turned the U.S. into the worlds biggest natural gas producer, and will make it the biggest oil producer by 2020?为何中国没有看到使美国成为全球最大天然气生产国的页?革命?而且020年,美国还将成为全球最大石油生产国。Part of the problem is geology. Chinas shale is heavily mixed with clay, unlike the brittle bedrock that surrounds American shale. Chinas is also buried deeper, and some deposits may contain lethal contaminates like hydrogen sulfide.其中一个原因是地质问题。中国页岩掺杂大量粘土,而美国页岩则由比较脆的基岩包裹。中国页岩埋藏较深,有些矿藏还可能含有致命污染物,如硫化氢。Theres also geography. Chinas biggest shale gas fields are in Sichuan province, which is densely populated, unlike North Dakota or West Texas. And Sichuan cant spare the tremendous amount of water that American-style fracking demands.还有地理方面的问题。中国最大页岩气田位于人口稠密的四川省,而不是像美国,位于人口较少的北达科他或西德克萨斯。四川也没有那么多水供美式压裂法之用。But the biggest problem is the Chinese government. The countrys major energy companies are state-owned and naturally get most contracts whether they have the expertise or not. There is little opportunity for homegrown startups to introduce innovation that would address the technical obstacles. And given Chinas legal system, there are no guarantees that an individual investor in such projects would get his money back.但最大的问题还在于中国政府。中国大型能源企业都是国有企业,无论是否具备相应能力都自然能获得最多的项目合同。民间初创企业没有什么机会为解决技术难题进行创新。另外,从中国的法律制度来看,个人投资者对这种项目的投资不能保能收回成本。So even though China has set a 2015 target for shale gas extraction of 6.5 billion cubic meters--a tiny fraction of what the U.S. extracts every year--it seems unlikely they will come close to meeting it. At one gas site auction in late 2012, not one of the 16 companies bidding had ever drilled a gas well.因此,虽然中国制定了015年页岩气产量达到每年65亿立方米的目标(仅相当于美国每年页?气产量的很小一部分),但这一目标不太可能得以实现。在2012年底招标的一个页岩气区块,参与竞标的16家企业中没有一家具备钻探页岩气井的经验。There is one place where China could find the expertise to open its gas potential: the ed States. China has aly turned to giants such as Shell for help--and joint ventured with companies such as FTS International with experience in fracking--but only U.S. companies are truly poised to solve Chinas issues.如果说中国可以从一个国家找到开采页岩气储备所需的技术,这个国家就是美国。中国已求助于壳Shell)等巨头,并与具有压裂经验的FTS International等企业组建了合资公司,但只有美国企业真正做好了帮助中国解决问题的准备。Houston-based eCorp, for example, has developed a technology for fracking shale wells with liquid propane instead of water mixed with chemicals. Unlike conventional fracking, the process produces no waste because the propane goes into the pipeline along with the gas.例如,总部位于休斯顿的eCorp已开发了一项用液态丙烷取代混有化学剂的水来压裂页岩井的技术。和常规的压裂不同,这一工序不会产生废弃物,因为丙烷会随着页?气一起进入管道。But for China to tap sufficient foreign expertise would require some rethinking--namely to begin viewing foreign entrepreneurs not as profiteers but as partners. Such a change might also encourage Beijing to see the U.S. less as a geopolitical and economic rival, and more as a potential partner in solving its biggest energy needs.但中国对大量采用国外技术还存有一些顾虑,因为这意味着不能再将国外企业视为牟取暴利者,而是当做合作伙伴。这种转变或许还会促使北京更多地将美国视为解决本国巨大能源需求的潜在合作伙伴,而非地缘政治和经济竞争对手。Chinas long-term economic and energy security are at stake. Betting on help from the U.S. seems far wiser than relying on a Siberian pipeline with Vladimir Putins hand on the spigot.中国的长期经济和能源安全危如累卵,求助美国似乎比依赖由普京掌控龙头的西伯利亚输气管道似乎要靠谱得多。来 /201406/307950

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