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连云港市永仁医院有治疗前列腺炎吗连云港九龙医院看不孕不育谁好Shang Dynasty商朝Political History政治状况The Shang Dynasty was the second monarchical state in Chinese history.商朝是中国历史上第二个君主制国家。Tang, the founder of Shang, having drawn lessons from the ruin of the previous dynasty,汤——商朝的创立者,从前朝的覆灭中吸取了教训,treated his people benevolently and employed many able and virtuous ministers.仁慈地对待他的臣民,并任用有能力且有德行的官员。The Shang made great progresses in its economy during the reign of Tang.商朝在汤在位期间在其经济上取得了长足的进步。While, due to political struggle for power in the imperial court and continuous wars with frontier tribes, Shang state moved its capital five times.同时,由于朝廷内对于权力的政治斗争和与外部的不断战争,商朝曾五次迁都。The most notable move was during the reign of King Pangeng, the seventeenth king of the Shang.其中最著名的一次是在盘庚——商朝的第十七任君主在位期间。He reestablished the capital at Yin, in the neighborhood of present Xiaotuncun, in Anyang City of Henan Province.他将都城重新迁回殷,也就是今天的河南省安阳市小屯村附近。The new capital contributed a lot to the stable government of the Shang Dynasty afterwards.新的都城后来对于商朝政府的稳定起到了很大作用。Once the successful new capital was established, it did not change throughout the remainder of the Shang Dynasty.新都一旦确立,商朝就再也没有改变过都城。Therefore, the Shang Dynasty is often called “the Yin” or “the Yin-Shang Dynasty”.所以,商朝常常被称为“殷”或是“殷商”。Another renowned Shang ruler was Wuding, the nephew of Pangeng.商朝另一个著名的君主是盘庚的侄子,武丁。He was an aspirant and benevolent king and always endeavored to make his kingdom strong.他是一个有抱负的人也是一个仁慈地君主,他总是致力于让国家更加强大。Under his leadership, the empire of Shang made great achievements in its economy, which laid a foundation for the continuous development of following dynasties.在他的领导下,商朝在经济上取得累累硕果,这也为之后的朝代奠定了基础。 /201509/393968连云港市第四人民医院男科预约 连云港男科那里更好

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连云港九龙男科医院不孕不育多少钱BDANDA, Nepal — From a pasture high in the Himalayas, Tulsingh Rokaya, 55, a shepherd, watched for years as the number of itinerant harvesters swelled.尼泊尔巴格丹达——来自喜马拉雅山脉一个高原牧场的55岁牧民图尔辛格·罗卡亚(Tulsingh Rokaya),多年来眼睁睁地看着流动采摘者的人数在不断壮大。They came in search of what is known as caterpillar fungus, or yarsagumba in Nepali. A parasitic fungus, it forms out of the head of ghost moth larvae living in the soil at altitudes above 10,000 feet, and has been used as an aphrodisiac for at least a thousand years, earning it the nickname Himalayan Viagra.他们是来寻找所谓的“虫草”的,尼泊尔语叫;yarsagumba;。这是一种寄生真菌,由蝠蛾幼虫的头部形成,这种幼虫生活在海拔3000多米的高原土壤中。虫草被用作壮阳药至少有1000年了,它拥有“喜马拉雅伟哥”的别名。In the 1980s, the pickers used to trade the fungus for cigarettes and noodles. But as yarsagumba grew in popularity, it exploded into a multibillion-dollar industry spanning China, Singapore and the ed States.在20世纪80年代,采摘者用这种真菌换香烟和面条。但随着虫草越来越多地受到人们的喜爱,它迅速发展成为一个横跨中国、新加坡和美国的数十亿美元的产业。During the picking season, which runs from late May to July, the number of harvesters in Bagdanda and two neighboring camps has often reached several thousands of people. But this season, with the fungus becoming scarce, the number is down to the hundreds.在5月下旬至7月的采摘季节,前来巴格丹达和附近两个营地的采集者人数往往可达到几千人。但随着这种真菌变得越来越稀少,今年采集季节的人数已下降到了几百。They still hike from a camp below, carrying metal picks to dig out the fungus, helping to produce an average regional harvest of 135 tons a year. Occasionally, they stop at Mr. Rokaya’s tent to buy sheep’s curd. Most of the time they pass through, teetering on a steep hillside where they spend the morning hunched over to find the fungus’s crooked black stem poking through the dirt.他们仍从山下的营地徒步上山,手拿金属小镐把虫草挖出来,为这个山区平均每年135吨的产量做贡献。偶尔,他们会在罗卡亚的帐篷前停留,购买羊凝乳。但大多数时候,他们只是从这个搭建在陡峭山坡上的帐篷前路过,整个上午都在弯着腰寻找这种真菌露出泥土的弯曲黑茎。Folklore has it that interest in the fungus stems from the startling performance of Chinese runners at an international track meet in 1993, which their coach attributed to their consumption of a soup combining the fungus with turtle blood. (Western competitors suspected something less exotic, namely performance-enhancing drugs.)民间传说称,对这种真菌的兴趣,来自中国赛跑选手在1993年的一次国际田径运动会上令人吃惊的表现。他们的教练把成绩归结于运动员喝了用虫草和鳖血做的汤。(西方的竞争对手怀疑并不是出于这么具有异国风味的原因,而是由于使用了提高成绩的兴奋剂。)With prices topping ,000 a pound in China’s coastal megacities, harvesting of the fungus has helped to curb endemic poverty in the Himalayas, which stretch across Nepal, northern India, Bhutan, Tibet and China. For hundreds of thousands of people living in remote villages, selling yarsagumba has become a primary source of income.在中国的沿海大城市,虫草标价超过了每磅5万美元(约合每千克66万元人民币)。采摘虫草帮助改善了喜马拉雅地区普遍存在的贫穷状况。这一地区跨越尼泊尔、印度北部、不丹、藏区和中国。对于数十万生活在边远村庄的人而言,售卖虫草成了一项重要的收入来源。A study by Nepal’s central bank found that harvesters earned an average of about ,500, or 56 percent of their yearly income, selling the fungus. Money from yarsagumba has given some of the world’s most impoverished people access to electricity, hospital care and education.尼泊尔中央的一项研究发现,采摘者售卖虫草的平均收入约为2500美元(约合1.7万元人民币),占他们年收入的56%。由虫草获得的收入让世界上最贫穷的一些人用上了电,看得起病,也得以接受教育。“The whole Tibetan plateau is by now completely dependent on the cash influx,” said Daniel Winkler, a mycologist who has studied the caterpillar fungus extensively in Tibet. He estimated that over one million people in Tibet sell the fungus.“到现在,整个青藏高原地区完全依赖这部分资金来源,”真菌学家丹尼尔·温克勒(Daniel Winkler)说。他在藏区就虫草做过大量的研究。他估计藏区有超过100万人在卖虫草。But as quickly as demand for the fungus has surged, its supply has dropped sharply. Mycologists studying the fungus point to overharvesting as one reason. But another possible cause, some researchers now believe, is a warmer ecosystem precipitated by climate change, a phenomenon that may be more acute at higher altitudes.虫草的需求迅速上涨的同时,供应量却出现剧烈的下滑。研究虫草的真菌学家认为过度采摘是出现这种状况的一个原因。不过一些研究者现在认为,还有另一种可能的原因:由气候变化引起的生态系统变暖。在海拔高的地方,这种现象或许更加严重。“There are strong theoretical reasons as to why we might expect the rate of climate change to be faster higher up in the mountains than it is at sea level,” said Nicholas Pepin, a geographer at the University of Portsmouth in England.“我们有充分的理论依据认为,气候变化的速率在山区会比在海平面更快,”英格兰朴茨茅斯大学(University of Portsmouth)的地理学家尼古拉斯·佩平(Nicholas Pepin)说。Some of the most compelling data comes from the Tibetan plateau, where from 2001 to 2012, the increase in temperatures was between half a degree Fahrenheit and nearly an entire degree at weather stations above 10,000 feet. In the same decade, global temperatures rose by only about 0.2 degrees.一些最具说力的数据来自青藏高原。自2001年至2012年,那里的气温增长了0.5华氏度(约合0.3摄氏度),在海拔超过1万英尺(约合3000米)的气象站,增幅则达到将近1华氏度。而在同样的十年里,全球平均气温只增长了0.2华氏度左右。Scientists say it is unclear why mountain ranges may be warming more rapidly than other parts of the planet. But Kamaljit Bawa, a biologist at the University of Massachusetts Boston, said failure to better understand warming in the Himalayas could have serious consequences for the region’s unique biodiversity.科学家表示,目前还不清楚为什么山脉地区气温增速会比地球上的其他地区更快。不过,马萨诸塞州大学波士顿分校(University of Massachusetts at Boston)的生物学家卡迈勒吉特·巴瓦(Kamaljit Bawa)表示,倘若无法更好地理解喜马拉雅的气候变暖,可能会给该地区独一无二的生物多样性带来严重的后果。“We have to make very rapid progress,” he said. “We can’t use the slow approach, the traditional, slow scientific approach.”“我们得非常快速地取得进展,”他说。“我们不能采用慢的方式,那种传统的、比较慢的科学方法。”Not for yarsagumba, apparently.显然,用这种方式应对虫草问题是行不通的。As harvesters returned from the pastures to Bagdanda on a recent afternoon, children gathered in the camp’s dusty thoroughfare and divided teams for a volleyball game. A mother held down her squirming daughter to pick lice from her scalp. Men congregated on trash-strewn dirt mounds and peeled strips of kutki, an herb used to treat vomiting and fever.不久前的一个下午,采摘者从牧场返回巴格丹达,孩子们聚集在营地尘土飞扬的大路上,分组玩排球游戏。一位母亲按着她浑身扭动的女儿,给她抓头发里的虱子。男人们聚集在垃圾遍布的土丘上,给胡黄连去皮。这是一种治疗呕吐和发热的草药。In a village below the meadows, Prithvi Budha, 60, a beekeeper who is sitting out the harvest to watch dozens of empty mud and stone huts, said less precipitation may be the cause for the drop in yarsagumba supplies.在位于草原下方的一座村子,现年60岁的养蜂人普里特维·布达(Prithvi Budha)没有参加采摘,而是负责看守那几十座没人的泥石棚屋。他说降水减少可能是虫草产量降低的原因。“We used to have snow up to here and up to here,” he said, pointing to his torso and his shoulders as he recalled a string of childhood winters.“过去这里会下很大的雪,积雪能有这么高,这么高,”他说一边说,一边把手比到自己的躯干和肩膀部位。他在回忆童年时期的冬天。Uttam Shrestha, a researcher at the University of Southern Queensland in Australia, said it was difficult to say why the supply of yarsagumba had dropped. Changes in temperature, he said, could be one of several factors affecting the supply of the fungus.澳大利亚南昆士兰大学(University of Southern Queensland)的研究人员乌塔姆·什雷斯塔(Uttam Shrestha)表示,很难确定为什么虫草的产量会减少。他说气温变化可能是影响虫草供应的多种因素之一。“We can draw some inferences,” he said. “Here, the fungus is very sensitive to the increase in temperature and so that could have an impact, but there is no empirical evidence yet.”“我们可以做一些推论,”他说。“在这里,虫草对气温的上升是非常敏感的,所以它可能会有影响,但目前还没有实践经验的据。”Jir Bahadur Budha, 43, a farmer, said he was disappointed with this year’s harvest. He estimated that his family of six would collect only 400 pieces of yarsagumba, 200 fewer than last year and 500 fewer than the year before. The selling price for a single piece is about .50 in Nepal.现年43岁的农民哥吉尔·巴哈杜尔·布达(Jir Bahadur Budha)表示,他对今年的收成感到失望。他估计今年家里六个人只能采到400株虫草,比去年少200株,比前年少500株。目前虫草在尼泊尔的单株售价约为3.5美元。On a recent morning, Mr. Budha joined dozens of others in a pasture as a heavy fog set in. Within 10 minutes of searching, calls echoed from a few hundred feet away, where a teenager had spotted one of the day’s first pieces. Clawing away dirt from the larva’s body, the boy received a smattering of congratulations. He had found a good piece.不久前的一个上午,布达和另外几十个人在浓雾弥漫之时走进了牧场。开始搜寻不到十分钟,几百英尺远的地方传来喊声,一名少年找到了当天第一株虫草。扒开幼虫尸体上的泥土,他找到了一株品质不错的虫草,得到了零星的祝贺。“Only lucky people find yarsagumba in the morning,” one man said.“只有运气很好的人才能在早上找到虫草,”一名男子说道。Mr. Rokaya, the shepherd, was cautious in his appraisal of the day’s pickings. Whatever the reason for the decline in yarsagumba, he said, it may be too late to salvage what has been lost.对于当天的采摘,牧民罗卡亚的评价比较谨慎。他说不管是什么原因导致虫草产量下降,要挽回这里损失的东西可能都已经太迟了。“No jobs. No money. What to do?” he said, thrumming his fingers on a gnarled cane. “We eat the rice that even donkeys and horses don’t eat.”“没有工作。没有钱。能怎么办?”他一边说,一边用手指连续敲击一根弯曲的手杖。“我们吃的是连驴和马都不吃的大米。” /201606/451779 Levels of debt in emerging markets continue to rise and are becoming a source of “significant concern”, the Institute of International Finance warned on Wednesday. 周三,国际金融协会(Institute of International Finance)警告,新兴市场债务水平继续攀升,正在成为引发“严重担忧”的一大源头。 Total government, household, financial sector and corporate debt in emerging markets rose .6tn last year to tn, or more than 210 per cent of gross domestic product, according to the IIF, which represents global banks and other financial institutions. 国际金融协会是一家代表全球和其他金融机构的组织,该组织称,去年新兴市场政府、家庭、金融部门和企业债务总额攀升了1.6万亿美元至62万亿美元,是其国内生产总值(GDP)的2.1倍以上。 It happened even as developed markets reduced their overall debt by an estimated tn last year, to about 5tn. 与此同时,据估计去年发达市场总体债务却减少了12万亿美元,至大约175万亿美元。 “Total debt in EMs is high and getting higher,” said Hung Tran, the IIF’s executive managing director. “This will inhibit the ability to borrow to support growth, and the need to delever in the future will be a strong headwind to future growth.” “新兴市场总的债务水平极高,而且正在继续升高。”国际金融协会执行总裁洪川(Hung Tran)表示。“这种状况将会抑制新兴市场通过借债持经济增长的能力,而未来去杠杆的必要性也将成为阻碍未来增长的一大不利因素。” Mr Tran said the IIF’s figures were consistent with those of the Bank for International Settlements, which said recently that dollar-denominated lending to EMs had peaked in the middle of last year and subsequently fallen for the first time since the global financial crisis. 洪川表示,国际金融协会的数据与国际清算(Bank for International Settlements)的数据一致。最近,国际清算的数据显示,发放给新兴市场的以美元计价的贷款在去年年中达到峰值,并在随后出现全球金融危机以来的首次下滑。 The BIS, the central bank of central banks, warned of a vicious circle of deleveraging, financial market turmoil and a global economic downturn. 作为“央行的央行”的国际清算就去杠杆、金融市场动荡和全球经济下行的恶性循环发出了警告。 “Many non-financial corporations in emerging markets and especially in China have paid down their foreign currency debts so the BIS is correct,” said Mr Tran. “But they have increased their local currency debts by more than the amount they have paid down so net on net the stock of debt continues to increase everywhere, particularly in China.” 洪川表示:“在新兴市场、尤其是中国,许多非金融企业已偿还了外汇债务。因此,国际清算说得没错。不过,他们的本币债务增加的数额超过了他们所偿还的数额。因此从净结果看,各地的债务额仍在继续增加,尤其是在中国。” Companies in developed markets reduced their level of debt to GDP by 0.4 percentage points during 2015 to 87.4 per cent, the IIF’s figures show, while those in emerging markets added 6.7 points to reach 101.3 per cent of GDP. The IIF’s figures are for 19 emerging markets; in those countries taken together, corporate debt rose more than .9tn in 2015, to more than tn. 国际金融协会的数据显示,2015年期间发达市场企业债务与GDP之比降低了0.4个百分点,降至87.4%。与此同时,新兴市场企业债务与GDP之比却增加了6.7个百分点,达到101.3%。国际金融协会的数据涵盖了19个新兴市场国家,这些国家加总来看,2015年它们的企业债务攀升了逾1.9万亿美元,达到逾25万亿美元。 The IIF warned that emerging market borrowers face a particularly heavy period of bond and loan maturities this year and in the subsequent four years. Including governments, households, the financial sector and non-financial sector, about 0bn in bonds and loans will come due between April and December this year, rising to more than 0bn next year, according to the IIF. 国际金融协会警告,今年和今后四年,新兴市场的借款人面临一段债券和贷款到期的尤为密集的时期。根据该机构的数据,包括政府、家庭、金融部门和非金融部门在内,大约7300亿美元的债券和贷款将会在今年4月和12月之间到期,这一数字明年会攀升至逾9000亿美元。 Most of the maturities are in the non-financial corporate sector (see chart). 这些到期债务中的大多数来自非金融企业部门(见图表)。 “This is a challenge for many EM corporates,” said Mr Tran. “If we continue to see the current picture of a strong dollar, low commodity prices, slow growth and rising US interest rates, it will be very tough for many companies to raise the necessary refinancing.” 洪川表示:“这是许多新兴市场企业面临的一大挑战。如果当前这种强势美元、低大宗商品价格、增长低迷和美国利率攀升的局面持续下去,许多企业将极难进行必要的再融资。” He said this was reflected in the low rate of bond and loan issuance this year, which is running at about 35 per cent less than it was this time in 2015. 他说,今年债券发行和贷款发放低迷就能反映出这一点——比2015年同期低了35%左右。 “The level of non-performing bank loans has been rising and will probably keep rising, and we think the risk and incidence of default by corporates will increase this year,” he said. 他说:“不良贷款的水平一直在攀升,也许还会继续攀升。我们认为,今年企业违约的风险和发生率将会升高。” /201605/444659连云港九龙医院预约连云港包皮切割的医院



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