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黔 东 南 州 无 痛 人 流 手 术 多 少 钱贵 阳 人 流 手 术 怎 么 做Business商业报道Starbucks v Kraft星巴克对决卡夫A double shot of discord不合引发连环炮The kings of coffee brawl with the monarchs of macaroni咖啡之王对决通心粉之霸STARBUCKS once seemed so unstoppable that the Onion, a satirical paper, joked about a new Starbucks opening in the restroom of an existing Starbucks.星巴克曾经势不可挡,以至于以嘲讽著称的onion报开玩笑称星巴克的新店会开在老店的厕所内。Yet by January 2008, when Howard Schultz, the coffee chains most effective boss, returned as chief executive,但是在2008年前,直至最为卓著的领导人Howard Schultz返回公司担任董事长。it was rapidly declining.他的业绩款速下降。Mr Schultz closed stores, shed staff, slimmed the supply chain and arrested Starbuckss slide.Schultz先生关闭门店,裁减雇员,简化供应链。In fiscal 2010 the firms operating margins rebounded to 13.8%, the highest in its 40-year history.力挽了星巴克的颓势。2010财政年度,星巴克的运营利润率反弹至13.8%,为星巴克40年历史的最高。One of the problems Mr Schultz found, after a review of the business, was in the way Starbucks-brand coffee was sold in supermarkets.重新审视业务之后,Schultz发现其中一个问题-星巴克品牌在超市里售卖。The so-called consumer-packaged goods business is handled by Kraft, Americas biggest food company, which is best known for having mastered the art of mixing macaroni with cheese.号称快消品业务是由美国最大的食品公司卡夫经营的,卡夫由于其搅拌芝士通心粉而被人熟知。Following an agreement in 1998, Kraft sells, markets and distributes bags of Starbucks coffee.按照1998年达成的协议,卡夫分销袋装星巴克咖啡。Mr Schultz told Kraft he was dissatisfied.Schultz先生告知卡夫他对此感到不满意。Kraft acknowledged the complaint, but, according to Starbucks, failed to act because it was focused on the takeover of Cadbury, a maker of superior British sweets such as Creme Eggs.卡夫实了Schultz的抱怨,但是按照星巴克的说法,他之所以不采取行动是由于卡夫把业务重心放在收购吉百利上面,吉百利是英国优质糖果制造商,其代表商品有糖心巧克力。By the spring of last year, both sides realised that their partnership was broken.去年春天,双方都意识到他们的合作关系已经破裂。Starbucks says it offered Kraft 0m to give back the CPG business.星巴克声称他将出价5亿美元买回其快消业余。As part of the proposed deal, it still wanted to supply capsules for Tassimo, Krafts single-portion coffee machines.作为意向交易的一部分,星巴克依然使用卡夫的全自动Tassimo咖啡机。Kraft initially agreed to the buy-out offer, but then changed its mind and demanded another 0m, according to Starbucks.星巴克声称:卡夫同意了此项收购,但是接着就改变了主意并要求追加2亿。Kraft disputes this account.卡夫对否认了此种说法。It claims that Starbucks offered 0m to buy out the business in August.卡夫声称星巴在八月克出价7.5亿美元来买下了业务,It adds that it rejected the offer.卡夫补充到其拒绝了此项收购,A fair price would be .5 billion, Kraft says.合适的价格应该为15亿美元。In October Starbucks told Kraft that it was in material breach of their agreement.十月,星巴克告知卡夫他严重违约。Unless the matter was resolved within 30 days, Starbucks said, all their agreements would end by March 1st and Kraft would get nothing.除非30日内得到解决,否则所有协议最迟将于3月1日作废届时卡夫将一无所获。The alleged breaches include Krafts failure to involve Starbucks in sales planning, to provide detailed budgets and to obtain approval for advertising.所谓的违约包括卡夫未能将星巴克纳入到其销售计划中,未能提供详尽的经费以及未能获得广告推广的批准。Starbucks says Kraft also violated an exclusivity deal by promoting its own premium coffee.星巴克说卡夫还通过推广自己的优质咖啡而违反了了排他协议。Kraft says all these alleged breaches are baseless.卡夫方面宣称这些所谓的违约时无依据的,It says Starbucks brewed them up to give itself a pretext for grabbing back the best part of its business without paying for it.星巴克制造了这些说辞来作为重夺优质市场而不花一分钱的借口,星巴克的咖啡店业务进展缓慢。On November 29th Kraft initiated an arbitration proceeding to challenge this move.Schul提起开始仲裁希望改变这种情况。Ignoring the arbitration, Starbucks said a couple of days later that from March onwards it would distribute its packaged coffee through Acosta, a marketing firm.星巴克方面宣称将不理会仲裁并于数十天后的3月开始通过行销机构Acosta来销售包装咖啡。On December 6th Kraft sought a preliminary injunction against Starbucks in a District Court of New York, for allegedly violating the terms of their agreement.据宣称12月6日卡夫以违反协议条款为理由向纽约地区地区法院申请一项初步禁令,The hearing of the injunction is tentatively scheduled for January 27th.听会将暂定于于1月27日举行。Kraft says that it played a central role in the success of Starbuckss packaged-coffee business, which grew tenfold during the course of their partnership.卡夫方面称其在星巴克的包装咖啡业务从双方开始合作到现今增长十倍上发挥着核心作用。Starbucks retorts that it could have grown faster if someone else had handled it.星巴克方面则反驳若是其他人经营业务本该增长的更快Even so, it will be tricky to prove material breaches of the agreement, so Starbucks will probably have to pay to end it.即便这样,明重大违约行为将变得非常棘手,星巴克极有可能以收购了事。Kraft stands to lose not only a lucrative business but also some “category captaincies”.卡夫不仅失去了获利颇丰的业务而且部分领军地位。Each large American retailer elects a product-category captain who is closely involved in how its sales are managed.每个美国大型零售商都会选择一家积极处理与之相关业务的领军企业。Kraft is category captain in more than 60% of the supermarkets in which it distributes coffee.卡夫占据了超市咖啡分销市场60%以上的份额,Acosta will soon be vying for this profitable honour.Acosta也将紧盯这快大肥肉。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201304/234305贵州四维彩超哪家医院最好的 South African cities南非城市现状Still worlds apart离破碎Urban communities remain divided along racial lines. Can that be changed?城市社区依然按照种族划分。这种状况是否有所转变?DRIVING throughSouth Africacan be like taking a disheartening trip back in time. Twenty years after introducing full democracy, the racist geography of the apartheid era is stubbornly unchanged.在南非境内驾车,犹如一场时空倒退的旅行。二十年前,南非就倡导完全民主,二十年后,南非的种族歧视和种族隔离并未得到一丝一毫改变。Most towns start with a collection of shacks, or perhaps rows of tiny matchbox houses, inevitably inhabited by blacks. A swathe of wasteland follows and then, further along, comes the town proper. Between the two, black people walk through fields or along roads—there are no proper pavements—or sometimes pile in and out of dilapidated minibus taxis en route from home to work. The effects of the Group Areas Act, which physically pushed non-whites to the margins of towns in 1950—at a distance, yet close enough to provide cheap labour—are still evident.多数城镇郊区都是成片破旧的、极其狭窄的房屋,这无疑是黑人的住所。周围是一大片荒地,再远处就是城区了。市区和郊区间并没有人行道,出门工作时,黑人们只能穿过田地或者道路,有时候还要挤破烂不堪的面包车。1950年族群住区法将非白种人驱赶至城市边缘地带—有一定距离,但这距离也足够提供廉价劳动力—这种状况如今并无任何转变。In sprawlingJohannesburg, the biggest city inSouth Africaand its economic heartland, government officials are trying to break down this “spatial apartheid”. City planners have embarked on an ambitious project to “restitch”Johannesburg, aiming to narrow the great distances between the black majoritys homes and their places of work. Getting communities to live side by side with each other will be no easy task. Income inequality and fear of violent crime have the effect of keeping races apart. Government efforts to provide electricity, water and housing to the poor have had the unintended consequence of strengthening apartheid geography by encouraging people to stay put. But the scheme can still make a big difference to peoples lives.约翰尼斯堡被分割的七零八碎,却是南非最大的城市和经济中心,政府官员们正在努力打破这种“种族隔离”状态。城市规划者们已经着手实施一项伟大工程—“重新使约翰尼斯堡成为一个整体”,缩短黑人住所和工作地点的距离。但是,让人们挨着彼此近距离生活、挨着彼此并不容易。收入不均和对犯罪的担忧也对种族隔离造成影响。政府努力给穷人们供应电力、水源和住房,鼓励人们待在原地不动,这也造成了种族隔离的意外结果。但是这种体制也大大改变了人们的生活。The flagship project inJohannesburgis a stylish pedestrian bridge that will link Alexandra township, where Nelson Mandela once lived and where the slum-like conditions havent changed much since, with Sandton, the citys wealthiest suburb, where a statue of Mr Mandela is dwarfed by upscale shopping malls. These two areas are close as the crow flies, but cut off from each other by the countrys busiest highway. The bridge should have great practical benefits. According to a traffic study, at least 10,000 people walk between Alexandra and Sandton every day. Construction is expected to start next month.约翰尼斯堡大张旗鼓的工程就像个时尚的人行天桥,链接着曼德拉曾住过的亚历山大小镇,那儿的贫民窟什么的至今并未得到改变,该城镇最富有的郊区桑顿屹立着曼德拉的雕像,但却因一座座拔地而起的购物商场而显的矮小。这两个地方像两条平行线,距离非常近,但却被中间繁忙的高速公路隔离开来。该工程应该有些实际利益。根据一项交通调查,每天至少有10000人步行在亚历山大和桑顿之间。预计下个月开始着手建设。Johannesburgs “Corridors of Freedom” plan also includes a major expansion of the citys bus network and dedicated walking and cycling paths, linking areas slated for “mixed-use”development. Low-income workers typically spend many hours and big chunks of their salaries on transport.约翰尼斯堡的“自由走廊”计划也包括扩宽城市的公交网,建设人行道和自行车道,发展“共用空间”。尤其是工作时间长的低收入人群,交通费用较大。The mayor, Parks Tau, speaks of “a comprehensive transformation of our spatial destiny and a break from our apartheid past.” The citys promotional material has a more pragmatic promise: “Gone will be the days of being forced to rise at dawn to catch a train, bus or taxi to a place of work.” Some residents in neighbourhoods along the planned corridors have complained of a lack of consultation from the city, and are fearful that crime may worsen as the masses pass by. But these changes are long overdue. A more efficient, people-friendlyJohannesburgwill be a far better city.市长帕克斯在谈到“我们的生存空间将会全方位转型,摆脱过去的种族隔离状态。”该城市的宣传资料中有这么个务实的承诺:“压迫的日子将一去不复返了,早起赶火车、公交、出租车去工作的日子也不再有了。” “自由走廊”附近的居民都抱怨与城区缺乏沟通,每天有大量人群路过怕不安全,加大犯罪率。但其实这些担忧都是没必要的,约翰尼斯堡的人们将会过上美好的生活。 /201408/321637South Africa is a country that always creates an impression.南非是一个总是为人营造一种印象的国家。We know all of its diverse population, the trouble history of apartheid and its rebirth as a global travel destination.我们熟知这个国家的多样化人口,争议的历史及其作为全球旅游目的地的重生。I’ve been a fan of this country for many years.多年来我一直是这个国家的粉丝。But this is my chance to go beyond the obvious South Africa,但这次是我探寻超越显而易见的南非的一次机会,to explore on foot and take time to see how life and stunning landscape work today in the new South Africa.徒步探索并花时间了解今天在新南非生命及惊人的景象。A country thats now keen to invite the world.一个现在热衷于邀请世界的国家。Hello and welcome to one of the most famous wildlife reserves in the world, the Kruger national park.你好,欢迎来到其中一个最著名野生动物保护区世界,克鲁格国家公园。201306/244802贵 阳 哪 些 妇 科 医 院 好

黔南布依族苗族自治州做产前检查多少钱安顺治疗妇科多少钱 Arts of Cambodia柬埔寨艺术Out of adversity摆脱困境An ambitious festival of Cambodian arts is about to hit New York别有深意的柬埔寨艺术节将空袭纽约ON HIS lightning tour of South-East Asia last year, Barack Obama made a point of criticising Cambodias prime minister, Hun Sen, for his dismal human-rights record. Cambodians have indeed done horrifying things to each other. But what of Americas own legacy in the country? Cambodians have not forgotten the sustained American bombing campaign between 1970 and 1973, which drove so many people into the arms of Pol Pot and his Khmer Rouge army.在去年的东南亚一行中,巴拉克奥巴马因指责了柬埔寨首相洪森在人权上的可怕记录。的确,柬埔寨人对同胞做了一些令人发指的事。但美国又留下了些什么呢?柬埔寨人不能忘记美国在1970至1973年间持续的狂轰乱炸,致使很多人加入波尔波特的大军及其红色高棉军。“Parachute Skirt with Flowers”, an art installation made of military detritus collected over three decades, offers a disturbing reminder of that era. At its heart is a ed States Air Force parachute that landed in Prey Veng village, the home of Leang Seckon, a Cambodian artist. It was known locally as chhat, Cambodian for umbrella, and Mr Leang remembers how it was used to cover leaky houses during the rains.“带花的降落伞裙”是一种由收集了三十多年的军用碎石制成的艺术装置,总让人不安地想起那个年代。在其中心是降落在波萝勉村的美国空军降落伞,这个村子是一位柬埔寨艺术家Leang Seckon 的家乡。当地称之为chhat ,柬埔寨语是伞的意思,梁先生记得在雨天的时候漏雨的人家用伞来遮挡房屋。Mr Leangs artwork arrives at the Bronx Museum this month as part of “Season of Cambodia”, a 2.6m arts festival involving more than 125 artists of different disciplines, performing or exhibiting in 30 New York institutions, from the Metropolitan Museum of Art to the Asia Society. The catalyst behind the festival is Arn Chorn-Pond, a human-rights activist and outspoken critic of Americas foreign policy during that period. Orphaned as a boy, Mr Pond became a child soldier with the Khmer Rouge. After the war he was rescued from a Thai refugee camp by an American pastor, who adopted him. At Brown University Mr Pond met Amy Carter. It was partly through her father, former President Jimmy Carter, that he began working with Amnesty International.梁先生的艺术品在这个月到达布朗克斯物馆,作为“柬埔寨季节”的展览作品。这个耗资2600万美元的艺术节容纳超过125位来自不同流派的艺术家,这些作品将在纽约30个机构中被展出,从大都会艺术物馆到亚洲协会等。这次艺术节的背后始作俑者是阿恩乔恩-庞德,一位人权活动家,也是那段时期对美国外交政策的公开批评家。孩童时代就成了孤儿的他成为了红色高棉军的娃娃兵。战后,他在泰国难民营被一位美国牧师解救,随后被牧师领养。在布朗大学,庞德先生遇见了艾米卡特。他的父亲,前总统吉米卡特,对他产生的影响让他开始在国际特赦组织工作。During the Pol Pot years Mr Chorn-Pond was stationed in the north-western city of Battambang where he witnessed horrific violence every day. He was saved by his skill in entertaining Khmer soldiers on the khim, a dulcimer-like instrument used to play propaganda songs. Mr Chorn-Ponds search for his khim teacher, Yoeun Mek, and their eventual reunion led to the creation of what is now known as Cambodia Living Arts. This Phnom Penh-based organisation tracked down 20 other master musicians, many of them destitute. It gave them housing, food and a small allowance to encourage them to pass on their musical techniques and traditions to future generations. CLA initiated the New York festival.在波尔布特的那些年里,乔恩庞德驻扎在马德望西北部的一个城市,他在那目睹了每天爆发的恐怖暴力事件。他依靠“金”,一种用来弹奏宣传歌声的洋琴,为高棉军表演而逃过一劫。乔恩庞德找到了他的“金”老师,Yoeun Mek ,他们两的重聚创造了现今为人所知的柬埔寨生活艺术。以金边为基地的这个组织拉拢了20位音乐大师,他们当中很多都穷困潦倒。该组织给予他们住所,食物以及一点点津贴,鼓励他们将自己的音乐技术和习俗传递给下一代。CLA开创了纽约艺术节。Cambodia has a long tradition of classical music, dance and film. King Norodom Sihanouk, who ruled the country until 1970, used to appoint artists to Cambodias diplomatic missions. Sihamoni, his youngest son and the current king, trained as a ballet dancer in Paris and Prague. Norodoms eldest daughter, Buppha Devi, specialised in a classical dance style known as robam boran, and performed for General de Gaulle and Marshall Tito.柬埔寨在古典音乐、舞蹈和电影上有着悠久的传统。统治柬埔寨直到1970年的诺罗顿西哈努克曾任命艺术家们为柬埔寨的外交使团,他最年幼的儿子即现任国王西哈莫尼,曾在巴黎和布拉格接受过芭蕾舞的训练。诺罗顿最年长的女儿,布法提毗则专门从事一种现被称为robam boran的古典舞蹈,她还为法国戴高乐将军和马歇尔提托表演过。All that changed with the arrival of Pol Pot in 1975. He regarded artists as superfluous. One of his favourite sayings was, tuk min chamnen, dak chenh ka, min kat—“to keep you is no gain, to kill you no loss”. Thousands died before Pol Pot fled in 1979 and the terror ended. It took another decade for cultural life to recover.这些都在1975年波尔布特到来的时候发生了改变。波尔布特认为艺术家们是多余的。他的一句至理名言是“多你一个不多,差你一个也不少”。1979年波尔布特逃亡恐慌终结前,有数千名艺术家身亡。又过了十年,文化生活才得以复苏。Identifying survivors was just the first challenge. Robam boran dancers start training when they are six years old, and have to learn thousands of different positions to achieve the required balance of technical perfection and spiritual poise. One of the festivals highlights—to be shown at the Brooklyn Academy of Music—is “The Legend of Apsara Mera”, which includes a dance that Princess Buppha Devi made famous. Among the performers are two young stars of the genre, Chap Chamroeun Mina and Chey Sophea.第一项挑战就是确认幸存者。Robam boran 舞蹈家在6岁的时候就开始接受训练,并且得学习数千种不同的姿势以达到技术上的完美和心灵上的镇静所需的平衡。这次艺术节的一个亮点—将在布鲁克林音乐学院上演—是“仙女梅拉的传奇”,当中包括因布法提毗而成名的一种舞蹈。在表演者中有两位风俗画的新星,章姜米娜和谢伊索菲亚。The Joyce Theatre in Chelsea will host the Khmer Arts Ensemble, a privately funded company created by Sophiline Cheam Shapiro, who trained with the Royal Ballet. The ensemble gives modern twists to classical dances, folk legends and even Western plays and operas. “A Bend in the River” (pictured), from a popular Cambodian story of village love and revenge, receives its world premiere in New York. This event has brought together for the first time three of Cambodias most important artists—Ms Shapiro, a Moscow-trained composer, Him Sophy, and Pich Sopheap, a sculptor who is working for the first time as a stage designer.切尔西的乔伊斯剧院将接待高棉艺术团,这是一家由与英国皇家芭蕾舞团有来往的索菲丽娜奇姆夏皮罗私下创建的团队。该团队把现代扭动加入到古典舞蹈、民间传说甚至是西方戏剧和歌剧中。来自柬埔寨有名的乡村爱情与复仇故事“大河湾”在纽约全球首映。该事件首次集齐了三位柬埔寨最重要的艺术家—在莫斯科受过训练的作曲家夏皮罗先生、伊姆索菲以及雕刻家皮奇梭熙,后者首次担任舞台设计师。Mr Pich aly has an international reputation. A child during the final days of the Khmer Rouge, he emigrated to America and enrolled at the Art Institute of Chicago. Mr Pichs works, with their broken Buddhas and undetonated bombs, have a strong autobiographical feel. He was the first Cambodian artist to be offered a solo show at the quinquennial dOCUMENTA exhibition in Kassel, in Germany. During the festival Mr Pichs work will be shown at Tyler Rollins Fine Art, the Metropolitan Museum and the World Financial Centre.皮奇先生早已享有世界声誉。在红色高棉军最后的日子里,还是孩童的他移民到了美国并进入了芝加哥艺术学院。皮奇先生的作品,破碎的佛像和没有爆炸的炸弹,带有一种强烈的自传色。他是首位能在德国每五年一次的卡塞尔文献展上个人表演的柬埔寨艺术家。在艺术节期间,皮奇先生的作品将在泰勒罗林斯美术馆、大都会物馆和环球金融中心展出。Amrita Performing Arts promotes contemporary dance in Phnom Penh with the help of several Westerners, including Peter Chin of Canada and a German choreographer, Arco Renz. Chey Chankethyas 15-minute solo, “My Mother and I”, which opens at the Abrons Art Centre on April 18th shows both her classical Cambodian roots and the influence of these choreographers.仙露表演艺术团与几位西方艺术家将在金边共同表演现代舞,这几位西方艺术家包括加拿大的彼得陈及德国编舞者阿科伦兹。谢伊15分钟的个人表演“我和我的母亲”4月18号将在Abrons艺术中心上演,同时展现了她的古典柬埔寨根源和这些编舞者们的影响。Only two shadow-puppet companies survived the war. Wat Bo, a Siem Reap-based troupe, will perform scenes from the “Ramayana” at the World Financial Centres Winter Garden. An unlikely setting perhaps, but the organisers are confident that the atrium with its giant palms is as close to the puppeteers natural environment as can be found in New York.只有两个皮影戏公司从战争中存活下来。在暹粒市创建的剧团笏公司将在环球金融中心的冬季花园表演“罗传”的场景。也许是一个不太可能的环境,但组织方相信长有巨大棕榈树的中庭是在纽约能够找到的最贴近皮影戏表演自然环境的地方。Cambodia had a vibrant film industry during the 1960s and Asias first international film festival was held in Phnom Penh in 1968. Its best-known director, Panh Rithy, has put together a programme of ten full-length feature films to be shown in New York, along with four shorts.在20世纪60年代,柬埔寨拥有着充满朝气的电影工业,1968年亚洲第一届国际电影节就在金边举行。柬埔寨最有名的一位导演是潘瑞希,他的一个将在美国上映的节目是由十部未删减的剧情片和四个短片。The link between creativity and memory is raised repeatedly by Mr Panh, who lost almost his entire family during the Khmer Rouge era. How to revive a culture after a holocaust is a question that he would like to see more widely discussed. The festival will introduce new audiences to Cambodian culture, and remind Americans of their governments checkered role in Cambodias history.潘先生反复突出创造性和记忆的连接,他在红色高棉军时代几乎失去了所有家人。怎样复原一次大屠杀之后的文化是他想要看到被广泛研究的一个问题。这次艺术节会给柬埔寨文化带来很多新的观众,也能提醒美国政府曾在柬埔寨历史中扮演的多变角色。 /201405/299304贵阳铁路医院做全身检查要多少钱

贵阳友好医院收费好不好Don:Heres a simple demonstration you can do with cool implications.唐:这是一个你可以做的具有很酷含义的简单演示。Find a large object that is brightly colored--lets make it a green door.找一个色鲜艳的大物件—让我们使它摇身一变成为一道绿色门。Stand with that door to your side but dont look directly at it; you want it to be in your peripheral vision.站在那扇门身边,但不要直视,你要想它是在你的周边视觉中。Now, without shifting your gaze, examine the door in the edge of your field of vision.现在,不用转移你的目光,仔细审视在你视野边缘的这扇门。What color is it? Answer? Its still green.它是什么颜色的?回答?它仍然是绿色的。Yael:Its still green? What kind of experiment is that?雅艾尔:它仍然是绿色的吗?这个实验到底想说明什么?I thought you were going to say something happens to the color.我以为你会说颜色发生了某些变化。Don:Thats exactly right!唐:完全正确!The color stays green, which means something has happened-- because nothing in your peripheral vision should have any color at all.之所以仍然是绿色,这意味着发生了一些事情—因为在你的周边视觉里应该应该没有任何颜色。Yael:Nothing in your peripheral vision should have any color? Why not?雅艾尔:在你的周边视觉内应该没有任何颜色?为什么没有呢?Don:Because color is what we perceive when light of a particular frequency meets cones-special cells in your retina.唐:因为颜色是特定频率光线投射到视网膜锥细胞上我们的感知。But the light being reflected off the door is only landing on the outside edge of your retina.但被反射到门的光只是在你的视网膜外边缘。And there are almost no cones on the edges.而且在边缘几乎没有视锥细胞。Everything we see roughly seventy-five degrees away from the point were fixed on should be black and white.从这一个固定的点大约七十五度我们看到的一切事物都应该是黑白两色。Yael:Thats fascinating! But why is the door still green?雅艾尔:太神奇了!但为什么门还是绿色的?Don:Presumably the door remains green because vision isnt a simple matter of retinal cells.唐:大概门仍然是绿色的是因为视觉不是简单的视网膜细胞。All the data your eyes send is interpreted by the brain.你眼中的所有数据发送给大脑解读。Your brain knows that the door is green, so it supplies information that isnt really there to keep the image stable.你的大脑知道门是绿色的,所以它提供信息,并不是真的在那里保持图像稳定。This is just one of the many ways your brain saves time and energy by making reasonably safe assumptions about the world around you.这只是你的大脑通过对你周围环境合理安全的假设节省时间和精力的其中一种方式。 201311/264414 Science and technology科学技术Mining asteroids小行星采矿Going platinum小行星采矿—淘铂去Mining metals from asteroids seems a bonkers idea. But could it work?小行星采矿这想法听似疯狂,但行得通吗?CAN reality trump art? That was the question hovering over the launch on April 24th, at the Museum of Flight in Seattle, of a plan by a firm called Planetary Resources to mine metals from asteroids and bring them back to Earth.4月24日,行星资源公司在西雅图的航天物馆启动了一项计划—在小行星上采矿并将矿物带回地球。对这项计划,人们一直都在疑惑:现实能否战胜艺术?It sounds like the plot of a film by James Cameron—and, appropriately, Mr Cameron is indeed one of the companys backers.这听着就像詹姆斯卡梅隆的电影中的情节—恰好,詹姆斯卡梅隆实际上就是这家公司的赞助人之一。The team behind the firm, however, claim they are not joking.但是公司背后的团队宣称小行星采矿这事可不是在开玩笑。The companys founders are Peter Diamandis, instigator of the X Prize, awarded in 2004 to Paul Allen and Burt Rutan for the first private space flight, and Eric Anderson, another of whose companies, Space Adventures, has aly shot seven tourists into orbit.行星资源公司的创始人是X奖发起者Peter Diamandis和拥有太空探险公司的Eric Anderson。Larry Page and Eric Schmidt, respectively the chief executive and the chairman of Google, are also involved.GOOGLE的总经理Larry Page和董事长 Eric Schmidt也参与其中,So, too, is Charles Symonyi, the engineer who oversaw the creation of Microsofts Office software.曾负责监督开发微软办公软件的工程师Charles Symonyi同样是其中一分子。With a cast-list like that, it is at least polite to take them seriously.阵容如此强大,出于礼貌至少也该重视这个想法。As pies in the sky go, some asteroids do look pretty tasty.这想法虽不切实际,但有些小行星看来确实很诱人。A lot are unconsolidated piles of rubble left over from the beginning of the solar system.它们许多是由太阳系诞生时遗留下来的碎石堆成的,结构松散;Many, though, are pieces of small planets that bashed into each other over the past few billion years.但仍有很多是过去几十亿年里小行星相互碰撞产生的碎片。These, in particular, will be high on Planetary Resources shopping list because the planet-forming processes of mineral-melting and subsequent stratification into core, mantle and crust will have sorted their contents in ways that can concentrate valuable materials into exploitable ores.特别是后者将被行星资源公司优先列在其采矿清单上。因为在行星诞生时,矿物熔化之后会层化为地核、地幔、地壳;这个过程将使其中物质分门别类,令有价值的矿物浓缩成可供开采的矿石。On Earth, for example, platinum and its allied elements, though rare at the surface, are reckoned more common in the planets metal-rich core.例如在地球上,铂和铂系元素在地表上虽然罕见,但人们认为在富含金属的地核里却是较为常见的。The same was probably true of the planets shattered to make asteroids.对于那些相互碰撞后其碎片形成小行星的行星而言,情况可能同样如此。Indeed, the discovery of a layer of iridium-rich rock was the first sign geologists found of the asteroid impact that is believed to have killed the dinosaurs.实际上,地质学家们提出小行星曾撞击地球的第一个据就是发现了富含铱的岩层。人们认为恐龙就是因小行星撞击地球而灭绝的。Most asteroids dwell between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.大部分的小行星都位于火星和木星的轨道之间。But enough of them, known as near-Earth asteroids, or NEAs, come within interplanetary spitting distance of humanity for it to be worth investigating them as sources of minerals—if, of course, that can be done economically.但近地小行星也不少,它们距离地球很近,值得勘探。当然,费用要划得来才行。First catch your hare勿谋之过早The first thing is to locate a likely prospect.首先,要找到一个可能有矿藏的小行星。At the moment, about 9,000 NEAs are known, most of them courtesy of ground-based programmes looking for bodies that might one day hit Earth.目前已探明的近地小行星约有9000颗,其中大部分是地面计划在寻找可能撞击地球的天体时探测到的。That catalogue is a good start, but Planetary Resources plans to go further.从这个范围开始寻找是很好,但行星资源公司却有更远大的计划。In 2014 it intends to launch, at a cost of a few million dollars, a set of small space telescopes whose purpose will be to seek out asteroids which are easy to get to and whose orbits return them to the vicinity of Earth often enough for the accumulated spoils of a mining operation to be downloaded at frequent intervals.该公司打算在2014年耗资数百万美元发射一组小型太空望远镜,用于寻找容易到达的、能经常回到地球附近的小行星,以便常将所采矿物送回地球。That bit should not be too difficult. But the next phase will be tougher.这一步应该不会太难,但下一步就难度更大了。In just over a decade, when a set of suitable targets has been identified, the firm plans to send a second wave of spacecraft out to take a closer look at what has been found.当该公司发现了一组适合采矿的小行星时,便计划要在短短十年多一点的时间内发送第二批宇宙飞船仔细研究一下这些小行星。This is a significantly bigger challenge than getting a few telescopes into orbit.这个挑战可比向太空中发射几个望远镜要艰巨得多。It is still, though, conceivable using existing technology.不过,利用现有的技术仍是可以实现的。It is after this that the handwaving really starts.在这之后,纸上谈兵才真正开始。Broadly, there are two ways to get the goodies back to Earth.要将所采矿物运回地球大致有两种方法。The first is to attempt to mine a large NEA in its existing orbit, dropping off a payload every time it passes by.其一是在不改变其轨道的情况下于一颗较大的小行星上采矿,在这颗小行星每次接近地球时卸下所采矿物。That is the reason for the search for asteroids with appropriate orbits.这就是为何要寻找轨道合适的小行星的原因。This approach will, however, require intelligent robots which can work by themselves for years, digging and processing the desirable material.不过,此法需要能独立工作数年的智能机器人来开采并加工有价值的矿物。The other way of doing things is for the company to retrieve smaller asteroids, put them into orbit around Earth or the moon, and then dissect them at its leisure.其二是行星资源公司改变较小的小行星的运行轨道,将其安置在环绕地球或月球的轨道上,再在有空时仔细研究之。But that limits the value of the haul and risks a catastrophic impact if something goes wrong while the asteroid is being manoeuvred.但那将减少每次采矿的量,且要承担移动小行星时出现问题而带来灾难性后果的风险。Either way, the expense involved promises to be out of this world.不论哪种方法,所需费用都一定是天价。A recent feasibility study for the Keck Institute for Space Studies reckoned that the retrieval of a single 500-tonne asteroid to the moon would cost more than .5 billion.最近,克柯太空研究所进行的一项可行性分析认为,将一颗重量为500公吨的小行星移到月球附近所耗资金将超过二十五亿美元。Earlier research suggested that, to have any chance of success, an asteroid-mining venture would need to be capitalised to the tune of 0 billion.较早前的研究指出,必须投资一千亿美元才有可能实现小行星采矿。Moreover, a host of new technologies will be required, including more-powerful solar panels, electric-ion engines, extraterrestrial mining equipment and robotic refineries.而且,还需要大量新技术,包括功率更大的太阳能电池板、电子离子引擎、太空采矿设备和自动冶炼厂。All of which can, no doubt, be done if enough money and ingenuity are applied to the project.当然,若为这个项目投入足够的资金和人才,以上种种都能实现。But the real doubt over this sort of enterprise is not the supply, but the demand. Platinum, iridium and the rest are expensive precisely because they are rare.但对于这种工程浩大的项目,人们真正质疑的并非是否有人能提供这种务,而是有没有这种需求。正因为稀有,铂、铱等矿物才价格不菲。Make them common, by digging them out of the heart of a shattered planet, and they will become cheap.若这些矿物能在一个由碎片构成的行星的地核中被开采到,它们就成了普通金属,价格也会变得便宜。The most important members of the team, then, may not be the entrepreneurs and venture capitalists who put up the drive and the money, nor the engineers who build the hardware that makes it all possible, but the economists who try to work out the effect on the price of platinum when a mountain of the stuff arrives from outer space.所以,这个团队里最重要的成员可能不是推动这项事业并参与投资的企业家和风险投资人,也不是设计实现这一目的的硬件工程师;而是当大量的铂从天外而来时,那些试图算出其对铂价冲击的经济学家。 /201402/277661贵 阳 人 流 哪 地 方 好毕 节 盆 腔 炎 哪 家 医 院 最 好 的

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