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2017年12月11日 11:49:53 | 作者:华南移动站 | 来源:新华社
;End of the roll!;;让我们一起呐喊!;;NO!~~;;不!;;Ive got it coming out, I just didnt get them back in!;;我已经拿了出来,我只是不希望让它们再回来!;Below the sea ice, the dive team is setting up an underwater studio, using a range of water-proof lights and time-lapse cameras, they hope to capture the growth of bizarre underwater ice-formations.海冰下面,潜水队员正在组建一个水下工作室,使用防水照明和延时相机,他们希望捕捉奇异水下生物的成长情况。Over the coming weeks, the dive team would go below the ice over 100 times to film the extraordinary secret world on the lower flanks of mountain Erebus.在今后几个星期,潜水队员会在冰下进出超过100次,力求电影带给人们的是这座山底部非凡的秘密世界。On top of the ice, the Orca team has re-positioned. Their new goal is to get underwater shots of the whales. They dont dare to get in the water with ocker, attaching a camera to a pole is a safer option, provided the whales arent put off by it.No one was prepared for what happened next. The entire pod arrives.冰层之上,虎鲸团队已经整装待发。他们的新目标是水下的鲸鱼。他们不敢进入水中,把摄像机放入水中才是安全的选择,而且这还是假定鲸鱼买账的情况下。没有人知道接下来会发生什么。因为整个团体会到来。Eyeball to eyeball, this is about as close to kill a whale as its possible to get.By using multiple crews and cameras, the frozen planet team would be able to capture the full Erebus story. From the fire at its crater down to the whales that patrol its frozen shores.仔细观察,这才能捕捉到鲸鱼的踪迹。利用多个小组和照相机,冰冻星球的团队才能捕捉到鲸鱼的故事。从火山口的火山到鲸鱼在冰冻的海岸巡逻。;Its quite a privileged to feel a whale breathe on your face.;;一头鲸鱼在你的脸上呼吸,这可是一种相当的特权。;注:听力文本来源于普特201202/171796In our beauty conscious culture, people will go to great lengths to improve their appearance. Liposuction, tummy tucks, silicone implants--its all been done. But surely we wouldnt resort to injecting ourselves with a toxic substance that causes botulism, would we? Of course we would, in the form of Botox injections, widely advertised as a quick, easy way to remove wrinkles and crows-feet.在这个崇尚美丽的文化里,人们会竭尽全力改善自己的外表。抽脂,紧腹手术,硅胶填充,应有尽有。但想必我们不会对自己射入一些会引起肉毒中毒的有毒物质,会吗?当然我们会注射肉毒杆菌毒素,它被大肆宣传为一种快速、简单除皱和眼角鱼尾纹的方法。Botox is the marketing name given to a neurotoxin called botulinum toxin A. This toxin comes from the bacterium that produces the poisons responsible for causing botulism. Botulism is a form of food poisoning, the most serious symptom of which is paralysis.Botulism-related toxins attach to nerve endings, where they block their ability to trigger muscle contractions. If muscles cant contract, they cant move, resulting in paralysis.肉毒杆菌素只是市场对肉毒杆菌毒素A这种神经毒素的一个叫法。这种毒素来自细菌,它们可产生大量能引起肉毒中毒的毒素。肉毒中毒是食物中毒的一种,它最严重的临床表症就是身体瘫痪。肉毒毒素牵动神经末梢,阻止肌肉收缩,肌肉一旦不能收缩,肢体则无法运动,这样就导致瘫痪。So why would anyone risk injecting Botox into his or her body? There are legitimate medical reasons, such as treating spasms and involuntary muscle contractions.Although the paralyzing effects are not permanent, they can last up to eight months.And as long as Botox is injected directly into a particular muscle group, theres little chance that it will sp to other parts of the body. 那么为什么人们还要冒险往体内注入肉毒杆菌呢?其中就有诸如治疗痉挛和无意识性肌肉收缩等合法医疗因素。虽然麻痹的作用不是永久性的,但也能持续八个月。只要肉毒杆菌毒素直接注入到特定的肌肉组织,就不太可能扩散至身体的其它区域。As a beauty treatment, Botox does what its meant to do: paralyze muscles. For example, injecting botox into muscle groups near the eyes will temporarily paralyze those muscles, keeping them from scrunching up. Consequently the wrinkles, or crows feet, they cause temporarily disappear. In time, however, wrinkles reappear.Not even Botox can permanently reverse the march of time. 对于整容来说,肉毒杆菌确实做了它该做的:麻痹肌肉。例如,在眼睛附近的肌肉组织注射肉毒杆菌毒素,会暂时性的麻痹那些肌肉,使它们不皱起。结果就是皱纹或眼角鱼尾纹会暂时性的消失。然而,时间一长皱纹会重新出现。即使是肉毒杆菌也不能让时光永远倒流。 201205/184213Move away from the sun and youd expect it to cool down a little.远离太阳,你会期望它冷却下来一点点。Venus the picture of coolness and calm all pale but galley clubbed by clouds.金星给人一种酷劲十足,平息所有阴云但又乌云密布的感觉。But the planet of love shrouded in mystery.但是这个行星又笼罩在神秘之中。Drop beneath her treacherous fail at you own risk.它时而变幻莫测,你自己会有一定风险。Planning of vacation to Venus , nothing is as it should be here on our twisted alien twin.规划金星的假期,没有什么比在我们的双胞胎行星更好的了。Beneath the clouds is the only planet in the solar system to rotate backwards and it does so very slowly.拨开云雾,就能见到这颗在太阳系的中唯一倒转而且非常缓慢的行星。The sun if you could see it rises in the west and sets in the east and the entire day here lasts for 8 earth months which is longer than the venusian year.如果你能看到太阳升起,它在西方升起而在东方落下,而这里的一整天会是地球的8个月,比金星的一年要长。Venus you can walk around the planet faster than the Firebrigades.在金星你可以步行环绕整个星球,比消防队还要快得多。The sky above is as heavy as it looks loaded with CO2.天空看起来总是那么沉重,因为它承载了大量二氧化碳。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/174327Don: Nice telescope, Yael, what are you looking at?唐:不错的望远镜,雅艾尔,你在看什么?Yale: Bacteria.雅艾尔:细菌。Don: In space?唐:在太空吗?Yale: Not that far out, Don. Scientists recently collected three brand new species of bacteria from the Stratosphere. When I heard about it, I couldnt believe it. Researchers have been using balloon lifted cryosamplers to collect bacteria and fungi from the stratosphere for years.雅艾尔:没那么远,唐。最近科学家们从平流层收集到三种新的细菌品种。当我听说时,我不太相信。多年来,研究人员一直在利用气球举起低温采样器来收集大气中的细菌和真菌。Don: I didnt think that anything can live that high in the amosphere.唐:我不认为在那么高的大气中会有生命存在。Yale: Neither did I. The stratosphere extends from ten to thirty miles above the surface. Thats above the clouds where temperatures can get as cold as minus 76 degrees Fahrenheit, and theres lots of ultra violet radiation.雅艾尔:我以前也是。平流层位于距地表10英里至30英里的高度。那里在云端之上,温度可低至零下76摄氏度,并且有大量的紫外线辐射。Don: So How do they think bacteria got up there?唐:那他们认为细菌是如何到达那里的?Yale: Some scientists think they ride up on particles ejected from volcanoes. Others think bacteria might be sucked through updrafts caused by a special kind of lightning that travels upwards from cloud tops. Forest fires can also cause thunderstorms that toss immense plumes of smoke into the stratosphere. Bacteria could ride on the soot.雅艾尔:有些科学家认为细菌是由火山喷射出的粒子带上去的。还有人则认为,细菌也许是卷入了一种自云层顶端向上运行的特殊闪电造成的上升气流。森林火灾会引起雷暴,将大量浓烟掷入平流层。细菌可能会驾尘而上。Don: And they are the same kind Of bacteria that live here on the surface?唐:那么它们与生活在地表的细菌是同一种类吗?Yale: Some are known species. They have found rod-shaped Bacillus that are very common here as well as Staphylococcus species related to disease causing bacteria. Others are completely new, including two new Bacillus species. Theres also a third group of bacteria found in clumps that cant be cultured in normal bacterial nutrients. So far, they are a puzzle.雅艾尔:有些种类是一样的。已经找到的有非常普遍的杆状杆菌,还有致病细菌——葡萄球菌。 其他的则是完全未知的,包括两个新的杆菌品种。还有第三种细菌,它们成群生长,不能在平常的细菌培养液中培养。到目前为止它仍是个谜。Don: Thats really out of this world, Yael. But you really are trying to see bacteria with your telescope, are you?唐:那真是不可思议,雅艾尔。但你真的在用望眼镜观察细菌,是吗?Yale: No, Don. They are away too small. Im just out enjoying the stars.雅艾尔:不,唐。它们太远,并且太小。我只是在观赏星星。原文译文属!201302/227680

Science and Technolgy科技infantile anaemia婴儿贫血Blood simple简单的输血A small change in how babies are delivered might abolish infantile anaemia分娩方式的简单改变可能帮助消灭婴儿贫血CHILDHOOD anaemia is a problem. Around the world, almost a quarter of under-fives suffer from it. And anaemia is not a trivial thing. A childs development, both physical and mental, is stifled by a lack of iron. The reason is that, besides its well-known role in haemoglobin, the oxygen-transporting molecule in the blood, iron is also involved in many aspects of brain development.儿童贫血症是一个全球性的问题,将近四分之一的五岁以下儿童忍受着该病的折磨,使得我们无法忽视它。儿童身体和智力的发育,都会受到铁元素匮乏的影响,因为除了在血液中的氧气运输分子——血红蛋白中发挥着众所周知的作用外,铁元素还在许多方面参与了大脑的发育。A study just published in the British Medical Journal by Ola Andersson, an obstetrician at the Hospital of Halland in Halmstad, Sweden, suggests that a simple change of medical procedure when a child is born may bring a big reduction in anaemia. That change is not to cut the umbilical cord linking the child with the placenta straight after birth—as is standard practice—but, rather, to give it time to transfer more of the placentas contents (particularly its blood) to the child it has been nurturing.来自瑞典哈尔姆斯塔德市哈兰医院的产科医生Ola Andersson刚刚在不列颠医学杂志上发表的一项研究表明,简单改变婴儿分娩的流程,也许就能显著降低贫血症的发生。这个改变是,不要像惯常操作那样,在胎儿出生后马上剪断连接胎儿与胎盘的脐带,而是等一等,让更多胎盘中的物质(特别是血液)流向胎儿。The argument in favour of rapid clamping is that too much blood may flow from the detached placenta to the newly born child, and that this can cause problems of its own. But that is unproven, and would be a strike against evolution because, in nature, the umbilicus of a mammal usually does remain attached to the infant for some time after birth. Only the modern technology of clamps and sharp scissors permits the slithery tube to be dealt with at speed.坚持快速钳住脐带(速钳法)的观点认为,让太多的血液从胎盘流向新生儿会带来其自身的问题,但这种观点其实从未被实,而且显然与进化论相抵触,因为在自然界中,哺乳动物的胎儿通常在出生后一段时间内仍然通过脐带与母体相连,只有钳子和剪子这种现代工具,才能迅速地处理光滑的脐带。To test her idea that extended post partum connection to the placenta is good for a childs health, Dr Andersson and her colleagues recruited 334 pregnant, non-smoking women whose fetuses appeared to be healthy. When these women came to term, their midwives followed one of two sets of instructions, chosen at random and given to them just before each birth. In 166 cases the newborns had their umbilical cords clamped within ten seconds of delivery. The other 168 had them clamped after at least three minutes had passed.为了实延长产后胎儿与胎盘的连接时间确实有益于儿童的健康,Andersson士和她的同事们招募了334个没有吸烟习惯的妇志愿者,她们肚中的胎儿看起来都很健康。在妇们临产时,助产士为她们从两种生产方式中随机选择一种。在166例中,脐带在新生儿出生后的十秒内被钳住,而在另一组168例中,这个时间至少超过三分钟。When the children were four months old, Dr Andersson re-examined them and took a blood sample. Those babies whose umbilical clamps had been applied after three minutes had, on average, iron levels 45% higher than those whose cords had been clamped immediately. Put another way, only 0.6% of them were anaemic, compared with 5.7% of the rapidly clamped.在这些儿童四个月时,Andersson士重新对他们进行检查并抽取血样。那些脐带在三分钟后才被钳住的儿童,体内的铁元素平均水平要比采用速钳法的儿童高出45%。从另一个角度看,相较于采用速钳法的儿童中5.7%的贫血症发生率,他们的这个比例只有0.6%。Rapid clamping of the umbilicus, then, seems to cause one child in 20 to become anaemic, at least in the early months of its life. Any experiment of this sort needs to be repeated, of course, to check it is correct. But if it is, then the burden of proof in the matter of when to cut the cord will have shifted from those who would cut late to those who would cut early. The cost of doing so would seem negligible; the benefit, great.看起来速钳法在每20个儿童中便导致一例在其出生后的最初几个月内发生贫血。当然,这类研究结果都需要通过重复实验来验可靠性。但如果这个结论确实正确,那么采用速钳法的人将更有义务来明为什么要迅速的剪断脐带,毕竟延长几分钟时间没有什么麻烦,而益处却是显而易见的。 /201210/204096

Science科学技术The science of stuttering口吃科学Speech therapy演讲疗法Unravelling the mystery of faltering speech解秘演讲时的口吃Cures worthy of a king国王应该治疗DOWN the ages stuttering has been blamed on many things.多年来,口吃可以归咎于许多事。In the second century Galen pinned it on a dryness of the tongue.二世纪时,盖伦将口吃归咎于舌头干燥。In the 17th, Francis Bacon reckoned a stiff tongue was responsible.17世纪,弗朗西斯.培根认为僵硬的舌头应对口吃负责。In the 19th, surgeons suggested too large a tongue.19世纪,外科医生指出是长舌头造成了口吃。In the 20th, parental neglect and even an unfulfilled urge for oral sex had their moments of fame.到了20世纪时,父母的忽略,甚至是未实现的口交被认为是造成口吃的原因。The suggested remedies were just as diverse.矫正口吃的建议方法也多种多样。Galen thought wrapping the patients tongue in a cloth soaked in lettuce juice might help.盖伦认为将病人的舌头用浸过莴苣汁的布包起来可能有帮助。Bacon recommended wine.培根的推荐是酒。The Victorians wielded scalpels. The psychiatrists, the couch. None of it worked.维多利亚时代的外科医生们挥舞手术刀。精神科医生的建议是沙发。这些方法都不奏效。These days, as delegates to the AAAS meeting in Washington, DC, heard, the talk is of brain anatomy and genes.几天来,在华盛顿出席美国科学促进会的代表们都听说了大脑解剖和基因与讲话有关。Luc De Nil, of the University of Toronto, has been poring over stutterers brains using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging.多伦多大学的卢克.德.尼尔已经用正电子发射断层扫描和功能性磁共振成像仔细研究了口吃者的大脑。He has found that parts of the brain linked to the production of speech are more active in stutterers than non-stutterers, while those involved in perceiving sounds are less so.他发现大脑的一部分与生成话语的区域相连,口吃者的这个区域要比非口吃者活跃,而感知声音的那些区域则是非口吃者更活跃。The two sorts of brain look different, too.两者的大脑看起来也不同。Stutterers tend, for instance, to have more densely packed grey matter in the areas associated with processing and producing sounds.比如,有关处理和产生声音的区域上覆盖的灰质,口吃者要更密集。Such differences in activity and anatomy, though, must have deeper causes.活动性和解剖上的不同一定存在着更深层的原因。And, in time-honoured fashion, there is a debate about whether those causes are genetic or environmental.而这些原因是基因上的还是环境上的,其争论的历史也相当悠久。Dennis Drayna of Americas National Institutes of Health argued to the meeting that persistent stuttering is at least partly a matter of genes.美国国家卫生研究院的丹尼斯.德雷纳在会上说道,持续的口吃至少一部分原因是基因问题。It runs in families.在家族中遗传。Studies of twins suggest a genetic component larger than those known to be involved in high cholesterol and osteoporosis.对双胞胎的研究表明这个遗传因素要比胆固醇和骨质疏松症的遗传因素高。At least two studies of adopted children suggest that those whose adoptive parents stutter are no more likely to develop the impediment than those taken on by non-stutterers.至少,有两个关于被收养孩子的研究表明,孩子是否会发展成为口吃者,其可能性,收养者是口吃者并不比非口吃者大。To discover which genes might be responsible, Dr Drayna looked at 44 Pakistani families.为了发现哪种基因与引发口吃有关,德雷纳士对44个巴基斯坦家庭进行了调查。Marriage between cousins is common in Pakistan, and such inbreeding leads to a high incidence of genetic disorders.近亲结婚在巴基斯坦很普遍,而这种近亲交配引发遗传性疾病的发病率很高。Dr Draynas analysis suggests that stuttering is linked to mutation of a gene called GNPTAB—a finding confirmed when the same mutation was subsequently discovered in a number of stutterers from Pakistan and India who were unrelated to the original group of families.德雷纳士的分析表明口吃与一种叫做GNPTAB的基因突变有关—随后,在巴基斯坦和印度非近亲结婚的家庭中发现了许多口吃者也有类似的突变时,这个发现得到了实。In January Dr Drayna and his colleagues published a paper in the Journal of Human Genetics tracing the responsible mutation back almost 600 generations, to a common ancestor who would have lived around 14,000 years ago.1月,德雷纳士和他的同事在《人类遗传学杂志》上发表了一篇论文,追踪了约600代人中发生过此种突变的人,他们的祖先是同一个人,生活在约14,000年前。Further study of South Asians has shown that mutations in two other genes, GNPTG and NPA, are found in individuals who stutter, but not in non-stutterers.对南亚人的进一步研究表明,另两大基因也存在突变—GNPTG 和 NPA,在口吃者中发现了这两种基因,而非口吃者中没有。All three affected genes encode enzymes that regulate lysosomes, the cells waste-disposal units.所有这三种受影响的基因通过编码酶调节溶解体,溶解体是细胞废物处理单元。Two of the encode mutations involved are also known to cause a rare disease called mucolipidosis.其中有两种编码突变也会引发粘脂沉积症—一种罕见的疾病。Severe mucolipidosis is fatal within ten years of birth.在出生的十年内,严重的粘脂沉积症是致命的。Even the mild variety has symptoms that include abnormal skeletal development and, sometimes, slight mental retardation.即使是温和一点的,也会引发许多症状,包括骨骼发育异常,有时还会有轻度精神发育迟滞。Fortunately for stutterers, close examination of those with the relevant mutations reveals no symptoms of mucolipidosis.在对相关突变进行仔细检查后,并没有发现任何粘脂沉积症的症状,这对口吃者来说是幸运的。Dr Drayna suspects that both conditions are caused by misfolding of the enzymes in question, but that the details are different.德雷纳士怀疑这两种病状都是由错误折叠酶引起,但细节有所不同。With stutterers, he thinks, a specific group of brain cells involved in speech production is, for an unknown reason, uniquely sensitive to the enzymatic glitch—perhaps producing the patterns seen by Dr De Nil in his brain scanners.他认为,对口吃者来说,参与话语生成的一组特定的脑细胞,不明原因的对酶毛刺有一种独特的敏感—也许将德.尼尔士在脑部扫描中看到的结构生成出来能够解释这个现象。To investigate further, Dr Drayna is now attempting to splice human stutter-causing genes into the DNA of mice.为了进一步调查,德雷纳士正尝试将引发人类口吃的基因拼接到老鼠的DNA中。That, of course, raises the question of what a stuttering mouse sounds like.当然,又有了另一个问题,口吃的老鼠听起来像什么呢。To the human ear, it may not sound like anything.人类的耳朵听来,这个声音可能什么都像。Many murine squeakings are too high-pitched to be perceptible.许多小鼠的尖叫声非常高亢,难以感觉它是否口吃。But ultrasonic detectors should deal with that.也许高声波探测仪可以解决这个问题。With luck, the causes of stuttering should soon be understood better.幸运的话,引发口吃的原因很快就会被更好的理解了。Whether that results in treatments more effective than lettuce juice and wine is another matter.而治疗方法是否比莴苣汁和酒更有效,则要另当别论了。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/230794

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