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2018年04月20日 05:32:36
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In 1859, an unassuming Australian landowner named Thomas Austin got the hunting bug.1959年,澳大利亚一位默默无名的地主—Thomas Austin在打猎上碰到了瓶颈。Eager for something to shoot, he released twenty-four wild rabbits onto his property and had a jolly time tracking them down.在强烈的打猎欲望的催使下,他在自家的土地上放生了24头野兔。Unfortunately, some of the rabbits managed to escape and, as rabbits are known to do, began to breed like…well, rabbits.一时之间,他的一大乐趣便是找出那些兔子。可偏偏就有那么一些兔子逃了出去,做着我们所知兔子该做的事—生殖繁衍。By 1900, Austin was dead but his unwanted legacy lived on in the form of a rabbit infestation that sp throughout the entire Australian continent.1900年,Austin去世了。但是他那些让人头疼的“遗产”却已然遍布整个澳大利亚大陆,它们成群结队地袭击着一个个的庄园,让人头疼不已。Desperate landowners scrambled to captureover two million rabbits per year, but this hardly made a dent in the rabbit population.每年,农场主们能捕到超过两百万只兔子,可是,这只能算是冰山一角,区区两百万对兔子这一群体不够成任何影响。Rabbits, it seemed, had taken up permanent residence down under.就这样,兔子俨然已成澳大利亚的“常住居民”。With its long ears, twitching nose, and adorable hopping ability, the individual rabbit is fairly cute.乍看上去,长长的耳朵,抽动的鼻子和蹦蹦跳跳的可爱姿势,兔子真的是可爱得不行。Multiply that bunny by millions, however, and they begin to seem entirely sinister.当然,这只是针对一只兔子而言。如果是上百万只兔子聚在一起,那简直就是灾难。The greatAustralian rabbit infestation was ecologically devastating.澳大利亚兔子的“横行霸道”从生态学上来看简直就是毁灭性的。The buck-toothed creatures helpedextinguish nearly one-eighth of Australias native mammal species and led to the extinction ofcountless numbers of plants, leading to wide sp soil erosion.这些长着小龅牙的生物“帮助”澳大利亚八分之一的土著哺乳动物走向灭绝,顺道再让不计其数的植物从此消逝,最后的结果便是,澳大利亚严重的大面积水土流失。The Australian government tried to corral the rabbits by building so-called rabbit-proof fences across vast stretches of land.澳大利亚政府也曾圈出大片土地,围上所谓的防兔围栏,试图将兔子都赶到一个地方。Undaunted, the rabbits burrowed under.可是,这些兔子是毫无畏惧的,Finally, in the 1950s, theAustralians resorted to chemical warfare, injecting several rabbits with myxoma, an experimental virus known to target and kill rabbits.到后来的20世纪50年代,澳大利亚人终将化学药物投入了人兔大战中。人们将粘液瘤注入兔子体内,粘液瘤是一种用来杀兔子的实验用病毒。The virus sp, and the rabbit population dropped from six-hundred million to one-hundred million.随着该病毒的传播,兔子数量从6亿只急速减至1亿只。But thats still a lot of rabbits, and those with a natural resistance to the virus began breeding with a fury.但是,1亿仍是一个很大的数目。而且有些兔子天生就对这种病毒有抗体,接着这些兔子开始迅猛繁殖。And so, the rabbit wars carry on still.因而,直至今天,在澳大利亚这片土地上人兔大战仍在进行着。 /201407/310073清镇市人民医院中度宫颈靡烂能治疗吗贵阳/市金阳医院孕前免费吗?A camel can travel hundreds of miles, over several days, without stopping to drink.骆驼可以行走数百英里,并在几天之内也不用喝水。On todays Moment of Science, well learn how camels survive the dry desert.在今天的科学一刻中,我们将会学习骆驼是怎样在干燥的沙漠中生存的。Lets start with the hump.我们先从驼峰说起,Contrary to what you might have heard, camels do not store extrawater here.和你所听说的不一样的是,骆驼并没有储存多余的水在这里。The hump stores fat, providing energy for their long, desert trek.驼峰积聚着脂肪,为它们长距离的沙漠旅行提供能量。This fat, however,can help keep a camel from getting thirsty.然而就是这些脂肪,可以帮助骆驼止渴。As the fat is burned, water is produced as one of thebyproducts.水就是这些脂肪燃烧所产生的副产物之一。This extra water enters the camels bloodstream to add to its water supply.这些额外的水进入骆驼的血液,增加其水分的供应。Camels conserve water by not sweating as much as we do.骆驼不像我们那样出汗,这样也可以储存水分。A camels metabolism lowers at night,making its body temperature much lower than a humans.骆驼的新陈代谢到晚上就会降低,让它的体温低于人类。Because we sweat to cool ourselves off,starting with a lower body temperature means less need to sweat.出汗可以冷却我们自己,因此如果体温较低的话,对汗水的需求也会比较少。Camels are also covered withheavy fur which keeps the daytime heat out.骆驼同样覆盖着厚重的皮毛,这些皮毛可以防止白天的热量进入体内。Because its so good at keeping its cool, a camel cantravel a long way without sweating very much.正因为骆驼如此擅长保持其身体的冷却,所以它可以走很长时间,却不会流很多汗。Camels are also good at maintaining their blood volume.骆驼同样也很擅长保持它们的血容量。Once we humans lose about twelvepercent of our bodys water, our blood becomes too thick to work properly.我们人类一旦流失了身体百分之十二的水分,血液就会变得太浓稠以至于不能正常工作。A camels blood,however, stays more or less consistent, allowing the camel to lose up to twenty-five percent of itsweight by dehydration.可是骆驼的血液,总是可以坚持到让其脱水到其重量的百分之二十五。Another thing that helps a camel conserve water is its nasal passages.另一个有助于骆驼储存水的东西就是鼻腔。When we exhale, we loosea lot of water vapor, as any fogged up car window will prove.当我们呼气的时候,我们会流失许多水蒸汽,被雾气模糊的车窗可以明这一点。Camels have extra dry nasalpassages which actually recondense the water out of each breath, allowing much less to escape.骆驼有额外的干燥鼻腔,可以凝聚每次呼吸的水分,让水分的蒸发的变少。As you can see, there is no single explanation for a camels desert survival abilities.就如你所见,没有关于骆驼沙漠生存能力的单一解释。Instead, a cameldraws on a whole range of adaptations.相反地,骆驼有一系列的适应能力。 /201408/323661云岩区妇幼保健院查血怀孕多少钱

贵州省贵阳/友好医院妇产科大夫有哪几位贵阳/市第六人民医院网上预约Finance and Economics;New rivers of gold;Remittances from unlikely places are helping poor countries in the downturn;财经;新的资金流向;意外的汇款在经济低迷时帮助贫困国家;In tapachula, a furnace of a city in southern Mexico, people line up inside an air-conditioned branch of Banco Azteca to process their remittances. Last year Mexicans received an estimated billion from friends and family working abroad, mainly in the ed States, with which Mexico forms the worlds busiest remittance corridor (see map). But a closer look at the Tapachulan queue shows how the remittance business is changing. Many are not Mexicans receiving cash from America, but migrant workers sending it back home to Guatemala or Honduras. “Very similar to what happens at the other border,” observes Jorge Luis Valdivieso, the banks regional administrator, referring to Mexicos better-known northern frontier.他伯拉在墨西哥南部一个火炉区域,这里的大部分人阿紫别克的一个有空调的房间内排队处理他们的汇款。去年墨西哥人从海外朋友和家人那里得到大约240亿美元,大部分来自美国,为此墨西哥成了世界上最防盲的汇款渠道(如地图)。但是近距离观察塔帕丘拉的长队发现汇款业务怎么变化。大部分不是墨西哥人从美国得到现金,而是移民工人汇回他们的家乡危地马拉和洪都拉斯。“这与另一边的边境发生的情况很相似,”Jorge Luis Valdivieso说,这个的区域行政长官,指的是墨西哥著名的北部边境地区。The value of remittances to poor countries is enormous. Since 1996 they have been worth more than all overseas-development aid, and for most of the past decade more than private debt and portfolio equity inflows. In 2011 remittances to poor countries totalled 2 billion, according to the World Bank (total remittances, including to the rich world, came to 1 billion). That is not far off the total amount of foreign direct investment that flowed to poor countries. Given that cash is ferried home stuffed into socks as well as by wire transfer, the real total could be 50% higher.这些汇款的价值对于贫穷国家来说是巨大的。自从1996年其价值已经超过了所有的海外发展救助资金,并且对于过去的十年来说其价值超过了私人债券和股票的流入。在2011年汇向贫穷国家的总额已经达到3720亿美元,根据世界的统计(总汇款,包括流向富裕国家的,已经达到5010亿美元)。这与流向贫穷国家的总的外资直接投资相差不远。这些钱可能通过装在袜子里偷渡回家或通过电汇到家,真实总额可能要高出50%。Remittances are not just big, but growing—they have nearly quadrupled since the turn of the millennium—and resilient. In , when economies around the world crashed, remittances to poor countries fell by a modest 5%, and by 2010 had bounced back to record levels. By contrast, foreign direct investment in poor countries fell by a third during the crisis, and portfolio inflows fell by more than half. “The most remarkable thing about remittances today is their continued growth, year after year, despite the global economic crisis,” says Dilip Ratha, head of migration and remittances at the World Bank.这些汇款不仅数量大,而且不断增长并且有弹性,在千禧年左右汇款增加了量增加了四倍。在年,世界经济下滑的时候,汇向贫穷国家的钱稍微下降了5%,并且到了2010年这有反弹到历史水平。相反,在经济危机期间外资直接向贫穷国家的投资下降了三成,券投资流入下贱了一半。“尽管世界经济危机的今天汇款最大的特点就是其数量年复一年的增长,”Dilip Ratha说,世界移民和汇款长官。One reason for this apparent boom is simply that the data are better. Money senders such as Western Union and MoneyGram have improved their reporting to central banks. Oversight has tightened since September 11th 2001. This has led to big jumps in some numbers: Nigeria posted a near-doubling of remittance receipts in 2007. Where governments are sensitive about providing information, economists have used other methods. India, for instance, subjects remittances to Bangladesh to stringent tests. But by examining migration data, the World Bank reckons that some .8 billion probably crosses the border every year.明显增长的一个原因是数据更容易得到了。汇款邮寄公司譬如西部联合公司和速汇金公司已经提高其对中央的上报。自从2001年9月11日起已经加强了监管力度这导致汇款大数量的增加,尼日利亚报告2007年汇款收入将近翻了一番。 那些政府对上报信息敏感的地方,经济学家已经采取了其他的方法。比如印度对于汇向孟加拉国的汇款进行严厉的检查。但是通过检查银民数据,世界预计每年有38亿美元穿越边境线。Partly thanks to these techniques, it is now known that remittances come from a wider variety of countries than was previously thought. This might in turn explain how they have avoided being affected by Wall Streets hiccups. In 1970 46% of recorded remittances were reckoned to originate in America. By 2010 Americas share was just 17%. One big new player is the Gulf, which has sucked in migrant workers since the oil boom. Saudi Arabia is now the worlds biggest sender of remittances after America, posting billion in 2010, mostly to the families of South Asians and Africans who toil on its building sites and clean its homes. More than half of all remittances to South Asia come from the Gulf; worldwide, the region sends almost as many remittances to poor countries as western Europe does.部分归因于这些技术,现在知道汇款比以前认为的来自更多的更大范围的国家。这也可以解释为什么他们能够不受华尔街震荡的影响。在1970年46%有源可查的汇款来自美国。到2010年美国的份额只占了17%。一个新的大玩家来自海湾地区,自从石油经济暴增吸引了大批的移民工人。现在沙特阿拉伯是自美国之后最大的汇款输出国,在2010年寄出了270亿美元,大部人到了南亚和非洲家庭中,他们用这些钱整理房屋清理房间。所有的汇款中超过一半是从海湾地区邮寄到南亚地区的;世界范围内,这些地区向贫穷地区送出的汇款大致与西欧国家持平。Expensive oil has made Russia a big destination for immigrants, too. In 2000 it was only the 17th-biggest remitter in the world—indeed, it was a net receiver. But by 2010 it was the fourth-largest sender, dispatching nearly billion, mostly to Central Asia. Remittances from Russia are worth more than a fifth of Tajikistans economy (see chart).高昂的石油价格也俄罗斯成为一个巨大的移民输入地。在2000年的时候它实际上只是世界第十七位汇款输出国,他是净输入国。到了2010年它是第四大输出国,输送了大概190亿美元,大部分输送到中亚地区。来自俄罗斯的汇款相当于塔吉克斯坦整个经济的六倍(见图表)Though they are less volatile than many types of income, remittances are not immune to fluctuations. Cash flows to Mexico last year were still 12% lower than their pre-crash peak, partly because many Mexican migrants worked in the American construction sector, which is still reeling. The “Arab spring” of 2011 made a dent in remittance receipts in the Middle East and Africa, as migrant workers from the region fled countries such as Libya. An exception was Egypt, where receipts shot up by 14%. One reason may be that exiled Egyptians returned home with their savings; another is that a fall in property prices encouraged émigrés to snap up bargains.尽管并不像大部分类型的收入,汇款并不受经济波动的影响。去年流入墨西哥的现金仍然比以前的最大值少了12%,部分死因为墨西哥裔移民大部分在美国建筑部门工作,这些仍在倒退中。在“阿拉伯之春”的2011年中东和非洲地区外汇收入下降了,因为移民工逃离一些国家例如利比亚。埃及一个例外,其进款猛增了14%。一部分原因是流亡的埃及人带着他们的储蓄回到家乡;另一个原因是物价下降鼓励一民工抢购廉价物品。Currency fluctuations can also skew remittance patterns. American greenbacks and euros are no longer sought after in those African countries where currencies have appreciated sharply in real terms thanks to demand for the commodities they export. “When you send dollars back to a family in Angola, they dont feel as rich as before,” says Marcelo Giugale of the World Bank. Working in Europe for five years no longer buys a house back home.现期的货币波动可能影响汇款模式。美元和欧元再不是非洲国家追逐的对象了。这些地区的货币急剧升值这归因于对他们出口商品需求的增加,“当你送回美元到阿格拉家庭中的时候,他们不会像以前那样感到富有。”来自世界的Marcelo Giugale 说,在欧洲工作5年再也不能在家乡购买一套房子了。The question is whether migrants will react by spending longer in far-flung destinations, or by staying closer to home. Many aly go for the second option: one-tenth of remittances to Africa come from within the continent. South Africa sends most of its .4 billion in remittances to its neighbours, for example.问题是这些移民是否愿意为长远的目标做出反映,或者呆在家里。很多人已经选择第二个选择了:十分之一汇向非洲国家的汇款来自欧洲国家。例如,南非已汇款形式想起邻邦输送1亿美元。In the rich world, many countries have closed their borders to protect home-grown workers. America has made its southern frontier harder to cross, which partly explains the slowdown in immigration from Mexico. Emigration has risen, too, since the economy stalled. But perhaps because they know it will be harder to come back, migrants are staying longer. According to the Pew Hispanic Centre, 27% of Mexicans deported from America in 2010 had been in the country for at least a year, up from 6% in 2005. That may help explain why remittances from America fell by only 5% in , whereas in Britain, which has open borders with some of its biggest senders of immigrants, they fell by 27% (exchange rates played a part, too). Stricter border controls keep migrants in as well as out, and the remittances flowing.在富裕国家,很多国家已经关闭器边境以保护其本土的工人,美国已经使其南部边境线变得更难穿越,这部分说明了墨西哥汇款的降低。自从经济失速以后移民处境也增加了,但是可能因为他们知道回去更困难的,移民呆的时间更长了。根据裔研究中心的报告2010年27%被驱逐出境的墨西哥人至少在美国带了一年,甚至有6%自2005年就在了。那可以帮助解释为什么年来自美国的汇款仅仅下降了5%,然而在柏林,这个与其汇款输送人所在国家开放边境的下降了27%(汇率起了也起了一定的作用),严格的边境控制使得移民进出保持相对不变,和汇款上升。 /201306/243224Science and technology科学技术R D in America美国研发战略Bad medicine医学受阻Cutting American health research will harm the world美国削减医药研究经费,影响波及整个地球BARACK OBAMA, in his state-of-the-union speech on February 12th, called for a new era of scientific discovery.2月12日,巴拉克·奥巴马在国情咨文演讲中号召人民开启科研成果新纪元。Now is the time to reach a level of research and development not seen since the height of the space race, he declared.他宣布:自太空竞赛取胜以来,我们始终未能将科技研发推向一个新高度,现在是时候了。He praised projects to map the human brain and accelerate regenerative medicine.他还表扬了大脑活动图谱绘制工程和再生医学提速项目。This would mean spending more on research.这意味着他打算在科研上投入更多的经费。As The Economist went to press, Americas government was about to do the opposite.本期《经济学人》付印时,美国政府正欲背道而驰。Federal spending is due to be cut on March 1st, the result of a long brawl over the deficit.赤字当前,各政客长期意见不合,导致联邦自动减于3月1日强制启动。Complex politics triggered this sequester but the sequester itself is brutally simple.政局复杂导致了财政封存,但是财政封存却简单得要命。America will cut 85 billion from this years budget, split between military and non-military programmes.美国将在本年度预算中削减850亿美元,由军事开和非军事开共同分担。Among the areas to be squeezed is Ramp;D, and medical research in particular.研发项目开也将被削减,而医学研究首当其冲。For years America has enjoyed pre-eminence in research, but this is fading.美国历年都在科研方面独占鳌头,但现在她龙头的光环越来越小。Chinese investment more than quintupled from 2000 to 2010, to 160 billion, in 2005 prices.以2005年价格核算,2010年中国的研发投资是2000年的5倍多,达1600亿美元;Americas RD spending rose by just 22% over that period, according to the OECD.而据经济合作与发展组织称,同期美国只增加了22%。Research also makes up a smaller portion of Americas economy than some other countries.同时,研究经费在美国经济中所占的比例比其他一些国家都要小。In a ranking of RD spending as a share of GDP, America came tenth in 2011.A decade earlier it was sixth.在2011年研发开占GDP比例上,美国排名第十,而十年前,美国位居第六。Nevertheless, America remains the worlds biggest engine for innovation.然而,美国仍然是全球最大的创新引擎。It spent 366 billion on research in 2011, compared with 275 billion by all 27 countries of the European Union.2011年,美国在科研上投入了3660亿美元,而27个欧盟国家的总投入仅有2750亿美元。Despite Chinas rapid ascent, America still spends more than twice as much on Ramp;D. Subsidies help.虽然中国涨势迅猛,美国在研发上的开仍比中国高出1倍以上。Americas government pays for about one-third of all domestic research and for most basic science.这少不了补贴的功劳。美国政府承担国内三分之一左右的研究经费及多数基础科学费用。Medicine is one of the main beneficiaries.医学研究成了补贴的主要受益对象。Americas National Institutes of Health is the worlds biggest funder of biomedical research.美国国家卫生研究所是世界最大的生物医学研究投资方。It pays for risky basic science; companies pay for later stages of development.对于成功率较低的基础科学,开始阶段的研究由研究会买单,而后阶段的开发则由各大公司付。For example, the NIH supported early research into monoclonal antibodies.比如,NIH付了单克隆抗体早期的研发费用。By 2010 such research underpinned five of Americas 20 bestselling drugs.截至2010年,美国最畅销的20种药物中,有5种来自于这种方式。As drug firms trim their budgets, the NIHs work is becoming even more vital.药物公司的预算减少,NIH的作用就更加重要了。But since 2003, inflation-adjusted spending on medical research has declined.然而,由于通胀所迫,医学研究经费自2003年起也有所下降。With the sequester public investment will shrink further.由于财政封存,国家投资将进一步减少。Americas total outlay on RD will drop by 8.7 billion this year, according to the American Association for the Advancement of Science.据美国科学发展协会称,今年美国在研发上的总出会减少87亿美元。Francis Collins, the NIHs director, says that his organisation will spend 1.6 billion less in 2013—a cut of 5.1%—and 16 billion less over the next decade.NIH所长弗朗西斯?柯林斯说,今年,NIH的开也会缩减16亿美元,减少约5.1%。在未来十年内,将减少160亿美元;Hundreds of grants will not be awarded.数百项项目经费也将取消。Existing grantees will receive only 90% of the cash promised to them.已申请成功的人士也只能拿到约定经费总额的九成。These cuts will speed the erosion of American supremacy in research.美国在研究领域的龙头地位已经不保,以上各项开削减进一步加快了其下滑速度。In December Battelle, a research group, predicted that China would surpass Americas spending by 2023.去年12月,巴特尔研究中心预测,中国的科研经费将在2023年赶超美国。Thanks to the sequester, that date may come earlier.拜财政封存所赐,这天将来得更早了。But the real problem is absolute, not relative, and affects the whole world, not just America.然而,真正的问题在于,美国不仅会在研发开排名上下滑,也无疑将在研发进展上落后。这不仅会减缓美国发展,且影响会波及全世界。RD is a rare type of public spending that stimulates growth.能刺激经济增长的国家投资不多,研发就是其中之一。Knowledge is cumulative, easy to share and generates benefits that spill rapidly across borders.知识是可积累的,便于分享,而且还可以带来效益、造福各界。Dr Collins says that cuts to the NIH will slow work on Alzheimers disease, a universal flu vaccine and cancer therapies, to name just a few.柯林斯士说,削减NIH出,会减缓多种研究的进程,比如老年痴呆症、通用流感疫苗和抗癌疗法。 /201309/257663安顺市第二人民医院网上预约六盘水市人民医院产科咨询电话

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