楼主:澎湃知道 时间:2018年02月24日 20:15:38 点击:0 回复:0
Xin#39;anjiang Hydropower Station新安江水电站The Xin#39;anjiang Hydropower Station, the countrys first large-scale power plant designed and built by Chinese in the 1950s, is still the pride of the local people. It is on the Xin#39;an River in Jiande city of Zhejiang Province in east China. Moreover, it formed a huge reservoir ( Qiandao Lake) with l,078 islands, which is part of a golden tourist route linking Hangzhou, provincial capital of Zhejiang, and Mount Huangshan in neighboring Anhui Province.新安江水电站建于1957年4月,是我国第一座自己勘测、自己设计、自行施工和自制设备的大型水电站。水电站位于浙江省建德市境内、钱塘江流新安江上,连接浙江省会杭州和著名的安徽黄山风景区;大坝之西,就是筑坝蓄水建设新安江水电站而形成的著名的千岛湖。千岛湖集太湖之浩翰、西湖之娟秀于一身,是理想的避暑胜地。Though squeezed out of China#39;s top 50 power stations, the self-designed and self-built Xin#39;anjiang Hydropower Station was the countnlrs first large-scale power plant after independence. The Xin#39;anjiang Hydropower Plant has 9 power generating units with a total installed capacity of 845,000 kw. and annual output of l. 86 billion kwh. As the first reinforced concrete dam in China, the Xinanjiang Dam is 105 meters high, also the first dam over 100 meters in China. The Dam is 466. 5 meters long, with a total storage capacity of 22 billion rn3 and a maximum flood discharging capability of 14,000 m3/s.尽管早已不是中国最大最先进的水电站,但新安江水电站是建国后建成的第一座大型水电站。电站安装机组9台,总容量84.5万千瓦,多年平均年发电量18.6亿千瓦时。大坝坝型为国内首座混凝土宽缝重力坝,位于铜官峡谷上段两个大断层之间,岸坡陡峻,气势雄伟;最大坝高105米,是当时国内第一座百米以上高坝;水库总库容量为220亿立方米,坝顶全长466.5米,最大泄流量1.4万立方米每秒。As the first landmark in hydropower development in new China, it has played and is still playing a major role in fueling the local economy, while acting as an ex- ample for hydropower development, station management, and resettlement of people in reservoir areas.作为新中国成立后水利发展史上第一个标志性的建设,新安江水电站在繁荣当地经济方面扮演了主要角色,并将继续发挥其重要作用,同时为发展水利事业、建设水电站和帮助人民安居乐业树立了很好的榜样。 /201602/419379Goldfish Now Have Better Attention Spans Than We Do人类注意力比金鱼还差Last week, Microsoft released a study that sought to analyze the impact that technology – cellphones and social media specifically – is having on our attention span and the quality of our focus. They found some pretty significant changes compared with research conducted 15 years ago. Let#39;s take a look at the findings.上周,微软公司就现代科技——手机和社交媒体对我们注意力时长和质量的影响做了一项调查。研究发现,与15年前做的调查相比,有了很大的改变。让我们来看看调查结果。1. The average attention span has fallen to just eight seconds.1.平均注意力时长降到了8秒The average human attention span in 2000 was 12 seconds, and now it#39;s just eight. The decrease was found across genders and all age groups. Apparently, a goldfish has an attention span of nine seconds. Measuring the attention span of animals is sort of tricky stuff though … so it#39;s possible we still have them beat.2000年人类平均注意力时长为12秒,现在只有8秒。各个年龄段的注意力时长都有下降。连一条金鱼的注意力时长都有9秒。不过研究动物时会有其他不确定因素,所以也许我们仍领先。。。2. Young people were most likely to demonstrate addiction-like behaviors when it came to digital technology.2.年轻人更容易痴迷科技产品Seventy-seven percent of 18- to 24-year-olds responded ;yes; when asked if the following statement was true for them: ;When nothing is occupying my attention, the first thing I do is reach for my phone.; Only 10 percent of people over 65 said the same thing.当问及以下问题是,18到24年龄段的青年中有77%人回答“是的”。这些问题是:“如果眼前没什么可做的,我会想到第一件事就是看手机。”而65岁以上人群中仅有10%会这么做。3. Young people may be more alert, just for shorter increments of time.3.相对下降的注意力,年轻人更灵敏The good news is that these young people, ;early adopters of technology,; as the study sometimes refers to them, have developed some strengths to accommodate for their shorter attention spans. 好消息是这项研究提到,那些走在科技前沿的年轻人已经进化出其他能力来弥补较短的注意力时长。4. The ability to multitask has improved.4.同时处理多重事件的能力有改变Part of the explanation for the shortened attention span comes from what the study refers to as ;multi-screening; – viewing multiple screens at once, using social media while consuming the latest news, etc. As long as the environment is active, early tech adopters are able to process information and commit it to memory more efficiently. But, their capabilities fall short if the digital experience is passive – probably due to their decreased ability to focus for long periods of time. 变短的注意力时长有些方面也可归因为“多屏”处理能力,即人们可以同时注视多个屏幕,比如看新闻的时候使用社交应用,等等。在主动环境下,使用科技产品的老手可以更有效的处理信息并把信息储存在记忆里。但是,如果是被动的,这些能力很可能会因为他们下降的注意力时长而减弱。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201509/393785IBM reported a decline in revenues for the 11th consecutive quarter on Tuesday, as it tries to divest unprofitable businesses and focus on cloud computing, big data and cyber security.IBM周二称,在继续重组业务之际,其营收连续第11个季度下降。该公司正在努力剥离盈利较差的业务,并将主要精力放在云计算、大数据和网络安全上。The New York-listed company said revenue had fallen 12 per cent to .1bn in the fourth quarter, compared to the same period the year before, lower than the average analyst estimate of .8bn.这家在纽约上市的企业表示,2014年第四季度,该公司营收同比下降12%,跌至241亿美元,也低于248亿美元的分析师平均预期。Fourth-quarter earnings were down 6 per cent to .81 per share on a non-GAAP basis, beating the average prediction of .41 per share. Earnings per share on a GAAP basis were .54 and net income was .5bn, down 17 per cent.按非公认会计准则(GAAP)计,该公司第四季度盈利下跌6%,降至每股5.81美元,高于每股5.41美元的平均预期。按公认会计准则计算,该公司净收入为55亿美元,每股盈利5.54美元,下降17%。For 2015, the company forecast a rise in earnings per share to between .75 and .50, slightly below the average analyst forecast of .51 because of investment costs and currency headwinds.IBM预计,2015年该公司每股盈利将升至15.75美元到16.5美元之间。由于投资成本及汇率方面的不利因素,上述预期略低于16.51美元的分析师平均预期。Despite the overall decline last year, Ginni Rometty, IBM chairman and chief executive, said the company’s “strategic” businesses of cloud, analytics, mobile, social and security grew 16 per cent in 2014 to represent 27 per cent of revenue. These businesses are forecast to grow in double digits next year, the company said.不过,尽管去年IBM总体营收出现下滑,该公司董事长兼首席执行官罗睿兰(Ginni Rometty)表示,去年它的云计算业务、分析业务、移动业务、社交网络业务及安全业务等“战略性”业务增长了16%,占全部营收的27%。该公司预计明年这部分业务将出现两位数增长。“We are making significant progress in our transformation, continuing to shift IBM’s business to higher value, and investing and positioning ourselves for the longer term,” she said.罗睿兰表示:“我们在转型方面取得了巨大进步。我们继续令IBM转向价值更高的业务,并在投资和定位上更着眼于长期。”Revenue from its mobile business was up over 200 per cent, cloud computing rose 60 per cent, security added 19 per cent and analytics increased by 7 per cent.IBM移动业务的营收增长了两倍以上,云计算业务增长60%,网络安全增长19%,分析业务则增长7%。The hardware business led the declines, down 39 per cent, or 12 per cent excluding a divestment and on a constant currency basis.在营收下滑的业务中,硬件业务首当其冲,下跌39%。在刨除资产剥离因素之后,以不变汇率计算,该部门营收下跌12%。 /201501/355985

TAIPEI, Taiwan — Across Asia, motorized two-wheeled vehicles provide mobility for the masses, but emissions from hundreds of millions of scooters and motorcycles are responsible for more than half of traffic pollution in many cities, choking the air with hazardous levels of benzene and particulate matter, in addition to greenhouse gases.台湾台北——在亚洲,二轮机动车辆是民众普遍的代步工具。不过这些难以计数的机车所排放的气体,也得为许多城市的交通污染负上大半责任。这些废气使得空气中除了温室气体,还布满了苯与微粒物质,高达有害人体的程度。This year, a Taiwan-based startup called Gogoro has been using the scooter-filled streets of Taipei to test its Smartscooter, an electric scooter with an efficient all-electric drive train, sleek design and Internet of Things ingenuity. But Gogoro doesn’t want to be called a scooter company. It sees itself as an energy services company at heart.台湾起家的新创公司“睿能新动力(Gogoro)”自今年开始,在台北这个满街机车的城市测试他们的智慧双轮电动车。这是一种使用高效能全电力传动系统的电机车,造型时髦,还是一个智慧型物联网载具。不过Gogoro不甘于机车制造商的角色,他们自许为一间以能源务为本的公司。“What technology has done to content, it can also do to energy,” said Horace Luke, Gogoro’s chief executive. The company operates a 4G-connected network of 90 battery-swapping stations around metropolitan Taipei serving a fleet of 2,000-plus smartscooters that are challenging their gasoline-powered rivals in performance — zero to 30 in just over 4 seconds — convenience, and environmental impact.“科技改变了我们吸收内容的方式,这种影响力也可以发挥在能源上,”Gogoro的执行长陆学森(Horace Luke)说。Gogoro在大台北都会区设有90座电池交换站,全都有4G网路连线,为两千多辆智慧型电机车务。这些机车在性能(从0加速到时速30公里只需4秒)、便利性、环境影响等方面,都在挑战市面上与之竞争的汽油动力型机车。The Smartscooter is quickly gaining market share. As of late November, Gogoro’s flagship vehicle accounted for 95 percent of Taipei’s electric vehicles and 5 percent of scooters overall, Mr. Luke said.目前这些智慧型电机车正在快速抢攻市占率。陆学森表示,至十一月下旬,Gogoro的主力车款已占台北市电动型机车的95%,以及总机车数量的5%。Gogoro scooters are powered by two lithium-ion batteries that use the same Panasonic cells as Tesla batteries, with one charge enabling travel of up to 60 miles. When it’s time to swap in fresh batteries, a smartphone app offers directions to the closest station with available batteries (one is a 7-eleven convenience store). In seconds, the user replaces used batteries — which send vehicle diagnostics to the Gogoro network via Bluetooth — with the newest and most-charged batteries at the station.Gogoro机车使用的两个锂电池组由松下电器(Panasonic)生产的电池芯构成,和特斯拉(Tesla)电动车的电池芯是一样的。每次充满电后,最远行驶距离可达100km。需要更新电池的时候,车主可通过手机应用程序得知能取得有效电池且距离最近的交换站(其中一间还是7-11便利商店)。在这些站点上,数秒内就能取下旧电池,换上最新、电量最饱满的电池组,而那些旧电池会将车体分析资料经由蓝牙技术传送至Gogoro务网。Panasonic has bought into Gogoro’s vision. In November, Gogoro announced that the Japanese company had joined the Taiwan government and the billionaire Samuel Yin as Series B, or second round, investors in Gogoro, making it the second electric vehicle maker to attract Panasonic capital, the other being Tesla. Shortly after raising 0 million in Series B funding, Gogoro announced that it would expand into Europe, beginning with Amsterdam.松下电器与Gogoro是英雄所见略同。Gogoro在十一月时宣布,这家日本公司已经加入台湾政府与百万富豪尹衍梁(Samuel Yin)的行列,成为他们的B轮(第二轮)投资者。他们也是继特斯拉之后,第二个吸引松下投入资金的电力运输工具制造商。在B轮融资筹得一亿三千万美金后,Gogoro很快就宣布他们将自阿姆斯特丹开始,进军欧洲市场。“The fundamentals of how people live changed in a decade with the smartphone,” Mr. Luke said. “If we put the same effort into how energy is consumed, how much can we change things in 10 years?”“过去十年来,人们的基本生活方式因为智慧型手机起了很大变化。”陆学森表示,“如果我们也对能源的使用投入同样心力,接下来十年,又能造成怎样的改变呢?”Mr. Luke speaks from experience. He was chief innovation officer at the Taiwan-based smartphone maker HTC from 2006 to 2011, helping transform the company from one that made products for other companies to a global brand. While at HTC, Mr. Luke and a colleague, Matt Taylor, began discussing their vision for a new company that would leverage technology for social impact. Being based in Taiwan — where 14 million scooters serve a population of 23 million — scooters seemed like a good place to start.陆学森的发言源自他工作的经验。他曾在2006至2011年间,担任台湾智慧型手机公司宏达电(HTC)的创意长,协助这间公司从代工厂转型成全球品牌。当陆学森还任职于HTC的时候,他和同事麦特泰勒(Matt Taylor)就开始讨论他们的共同愿景,也就是借由打造一间新创公司,使科技发挥社会影响力。由于他们身在台湾,一个有两千三百万人口骑着一千四百万辆机车的地方,所以这种交通工具似乎是个不错的起点。“The scooter hasn’t seen much evolution in the last 20 years,” Mr. Taylor said. “We asked ourselves if we could apply modern technology to something we see buzzing in the streets every day and make a better product in the process.”“机车自过去二十年来似乎没有多大的进展,”泰勒说,“我们自问,是不是能把现代科技运用在这种满街跑的东西上,并且从中创造出更好的产品来。”In 2011, the two men co-founded Gogoro, with Taylor as chief technology officer. They decided to rebuild the scooter from the ground up. Their initial focus was on performance and innovation, but minimizing environmental impact quickly became important.2011年,两人共同成立Gogoro,泰勒担任首席技术官。他们决定从头开始,重新设计机车。他们最初的重点在性能和创新上,但很快,把对环境的影响降低到最少变得重要起来。In Taiwan, pollution from scooter exhaust is a public health concern. Studies have found correlations between higher measurements of the fine particulate matter classified as PM2.5 in the air and increased cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in local hospitals.在台湾,机车废气污染是一个公共卫生问题。研究发现,空气中被划分为PM2.5的微小颗粒物的测量数值升高,和当地医院慢性阻塞性肺病病例增加存在相关性。During peak traffic hours, exhaust hangs heavy on the city’s scooter lanes, also affecting air quality for nearby pedestrians. The amount of pollutants found in emissions from a new gas scooter exceeds the pollution found in new car emissions by a factor of 100 to 1,000, said André Prév琀 of the Switzerland-based Paul Scherrer Institut. Scooters using two-stroke engines are the worst culprits, he said.交通高峰期间,浓重的废气笼罩着这座城市的机车道,并影响到了附近行人的空气质量。瑞士保罗·谢尔研究所(Paul Scherrer Institut)的安德烈·普雷沃(André Prév琀)称,一辆新汽油机车的排放物中污染物的含量,是一辆新汽车的100到1000倍。他说最糟糕的是使用二冲程发动机的机车。“The two-stroke engine scooter is the first vehicle to think about in terms of going all-electric, even before larger vehicles, because the pollution is much worse,” said Mr. Prév琀, who researched scooter emissions from 2010 through 2014. “It’s the logical next step in reducing traffic pollution in many Asian cities.”“如果要使用全电力,首先要考虑的甚至不是大型车辆,而是使用二冲程发动机的机车,因为它的污染要严重得多,”在2010到2014年间曾研究机车排放物的普雷沃说。“这是很多亚洲城市减少交通污染接下来应该采取的合理步骤。”The Taipei government agrees, and is actively promoting electric scooter purchases. The city’s Department of Environmental Protection offers replacement subsidies of around for residents who retire their two-stroke scooters. A subsidy of up to 0 is available to those who replace their gas motorcycles with electric scooters. Gogoro Smartscooters currently cost between ,200 and ,375.认同这一观点的台北政府正在积极鼓励购买电动机车。该市环境保护局向弃用二冲程机车的民众发放约45美元的换车补贴。而用电动机车替代汽油托车的人,最高可获得800美元的补贴。Gogoro智慧型电动机车目前售价在2200美元到2375美元之间。In Gogoro’s most recent round of funding, the government also invested million via its Taiwan Development Fund. The company appeals to a government concerned by the vulnerability of its semiconductor industry, an economic pillar that faces increasing competition from China. “They see Gogoro as a huge opportunity for furthering the tech sector,” Mr. Luke said.在Gogoro最近的一轮融资中,政府也通过台湾发展基金投资了3000万美元。作为台湾经济柱的半导体行业面临着大陆日益激烈的竞争,其脆弱性让政府担忧,这家公司因此就有了吸引力。“他们认为Gogoro是进一步推动科技业的巨大机遇,”陆学森说。Taiwanese themselves have welcomed Gogoro. Elaine Kuan, a 29-year-old corporate accountant in Taipei, said she bought her Smartscooter in late July for its ease of riding and convenient technology, but also for its low environmental impact.台湾人自己也对Gogoro持欢迎态度。29岁的台北公司会计伊莲·关(Elaine Kuan)说自己在7月末买了一辆智慧型电动机车,因为它好骑,技术方便,对环境的影响也小。“I have asthma, so air pollution is a big deal to me,” Ms. Kuan said. “I hope that starting with myself I can slowly influence others and make the planet a place without vehicle emission pollution.”“我有哮喘,所以空气污染对我来说是大问题,”她说。“我希望从自己做起,再能慢慢影响其他人,让地球成为一个没有机动车尾气污染的地方。”Performance and convenience were the two main reasons Darren Liu, a 31-year-old pastry chef, bought his Smartscooter. “The riding experience and acceleration are much better than my previous gas-powered bike,” Mr. Liu said. “It’s the first electric scooter I’ve seen that can get up into the hills.” The battery swap model was also a big selling point. His previous experience using a relative’s electric scooter required hours of charging, compared with 30 seconds to swap his Gogoro batteries.性能和方便是31岁的糕点师达伦·刘(Darren Liu)买智慧型电动机车的两大原因。“骑行体验和加速都比我之前那辆汽油机车好很多,”他说。“这是我看到的第一辆能上山的电动机车。”电池交换模式也是一大卖点。他之前用亲戚的电动机车时,充电要好几个小时,而现在他的Gogoro电池只用30秒便可完成交换。As it expands beyond greater Taipei to Taoyuan — where it is headquartered — and the tech hub Hsinchu, Gogoro is exploring the possibilities offered by a growing network of battery stations.随着从大台北地区扩展到其总部所在地桃源和科技中心新竹,Gogoro正在探索一个不断扩大的电池交换站网络所带来的可能性。“At our core, we’re an energy company,” Mr. Taylor said. “Once the mix is actually working, it’s ily scalable.” The stations cost less than ,000, have a small footprint and require only an outlet and Internet access, he said.“本质上,我们是一家能源公司,”泰勒说。“一旦二者的结合真的起作用了,就容易拓展了。”他表示,电池交换站的成本不到1万美元,碳足迹小,只需要一个插座和互联网接入。Mr. Luke said his company envisions an open system in which other companies develop products that can use Gogoro’s batteries.陆学森表示,公司设想的是一个开放的系统。在这个系统中,其他公司也能开发使用Gogoro电池的产品。Many companies — in fields as diverse as robotics, logistics and appliances — have inquired, he said. But he added that Gogoro’s longer-term vision was focused on “how to take energy and give it back to the grid when it needs it most.”他说,很多公司都来打听过。这些公司所处的领域多种多样,如机器人、物流和电器。但他接着表示,Gogoro的长远侧重点在“如何取电用电,并在电网最需要的时候把电回馈给电网。”Gogoro’s entrance into the market this year comes as car companies including General Motors, Ford and Daimler-Benz are beginning to view themselves as service providers rather than manufacturers.Gogoro今年进入这个市场之际,正值通用汽车(General Motors)、福特(Ford)和戴姆勒-奔驰(Daimler-Benz)等车企开始把自己当做务供应商而非制造商。“There’s a transformation in the market where companies are being expected to expand into energy services,” said John Gartner of the consultancy Navigant Research. Companies that get involved in electric-powered mobility will naturally move toward stationary storage, he said.“市场发生了变革,企业被寄予了进入能源务的期望,”咨询公司Navigant Research的约翰·加特纳(John Gartner)说。他表示,进入电动车领域的公司自然会向静态储存的方向发展。“They’re looking to expand both markets by getting to economies of scale faster,” Mr. Gartner added.“他们希望通过更快形成规模经济来开拓这两个市场,”加特纳说。Mr. Luke said that taking the scooter to Amsterdam in the first half of 2016 would provide a platform for demonstrating the role of Gogoro’s scooters and battery stations to new markets.陆学森表示,智慧型电动机车将在2016年上半年进入阿姆斯特丹,这会提供一个向新市场展示Gogoro电动机车和电池站所扮演角色的平台。“If you think about smart cities in the world today, Amsterdam comes up in the top three, if not the top one,” he said. “We’ve seen a lot of success in Taipei. We’re taking that momentum and building on that to move into Europe quickly.”“想到当今世界的智慧型城市,阿姆斯特丹即便不是第一,至少也是前三,”他说。“我们在台北看到了巨大成功。我们正借着这股势头,希望以此为基础迅速进入欧洲。” /201512/415136

GUILDFORD, England — On the outskirts of this sleepy commuter town just south of London, plans are underway to build the fastest cellphone network in the world.英格兰吉尔福德——在这座伦敦南缘的宁静通勤小镇的郊区,打造世界上最快的手机网络的计划正在进行中。The work is being done at the University of Surrey, where a leafy campus is dotted with rundown Brutalist-style buildings. Here, researchers and some of the world’s biggest tech companies, including Samsung and Fujitsu, are collaborating to offer mobile Internet speeds more than 100 times faster than anything now available.这项工作在萨里大学(University of Surrey)展开。它那浓荫密布的校园里,点缀着一些粗野主义风格的老旧建筑。在这里,研究人员和包括三星(Samsung)、富士通(Fujitsu)在内的世界上最大的一些科技公司,正在合作研发一种新的手机网络,其速度会比现有的所有手机网络快上百倍。Their work on so-called fifth-generation, or 5G, wireless technology is set to be completed in early 2018 and would, for example, let students download entire movies to smartphones or tablets in less than five seconds, compared with as much as eight minutes with current fourth-generation, or 4G, technology. Companies also could connect millions of devices — including smartwatches and tiny sensors on home appliances — to the new cellphone network, and automakers could potentially test driverless cars around the suburban campus.他们进行的有关第五代无线技术——或称为5G——的研发工作,计划于2018年初完成。它将能让学生们在五秒钟内将整部影片下载到智能手机或平板电脑上,而用目前的第四代——即4G——网络下载一部影片,则需要八分钟。企业可以将包括智能手表、家用电器上的微型传感器在内的无数种设备与新一代手机网络相连,汽车厂商或许也可以在这座位于郊区的大学校园里测试无人驾驶车。“A lot of the technology aly works in a laboratory environment,” said Rahim Tafazolli, director of the university’s research center that oversees the 5G project, which includes almost 70 powerful radio antennas around the two-square-mile campus. “Now, we have to prove it works in real life.”“有很多技术已经可以在实验室环境下实现,”萨里大学5G项目研究中心的主任拉希姆·塔法佐利(Rahim Tafazolli)说。这个项目在面积2平方英里的校园各处布置了将近70个功率强大的无线电天线。“现在,我们必须明它在现实生活中也一样有效。”The work by Dr. Tafazolli and his team puts them at the heart of a heated race. Fueled by people’s insatiable appetite for accessing s, social media and other entertainment on their mobile devices, many of the world’s largest carriers, like ATamp;T and NTT DoCoMo of Japan, are rushing to be the first to offer customers this next-generation ultrafast wireless technology.塔法佐利及其团队的工作,让他们处在了一场激烈竞赛的中心。人们对接入视频、社交媒体和其他内容的需求巨大。受其鼓舞,全球很多排名靠前的运营商,包括ATamp;T和日本的NTT都科(NTT DoCoMo),都急于成为第一家向顾客提供下一代超快无线技术的公司。The competition has led to research worth billions of dollars from telecommunications equipment makers like Ericsson of Sweden and Huawei of China, which are hoping to secure lucrative contracts to upgrade the mobile Internet infrastructure of operators like ATamp;T from the ed States and China Mobile in Asia. Those plans have become even faster paced as tech giants including Google consider their own ambitions for the latest, and fastest, high-speed Internet.这场竞争促使瑞典爱立信(Ericsson)和中国华为等电信设备生产商投入数十亿美元进行研发。它们希望拿到ATamp;T和中国移动等亚洲运营商的移动互联网基础设施升级订单,获取丰厚利润。随着包括谷歌(Google)在内的科技巨头开始考虑自己在最新、最快的高速互联网领域的宏图,这些计划的进展速度变得更快了。“Everyone is rushing to demonstrate they are a leading player for 5G,” said Bengt Nordstrom, co-founder of Northstream, a telecom consulting firm, in Stockholm.“人人都急着想明自己是5G的领导者,”斯德哥尔电信行业咨询公司Northstream联合创始人本特·努德斯特伦(Bengt Nordstrom)说。The efforts around 5G will be on display at Mobile World Congress, a four-day tech and telecom event in Barcelona that begins on Monday. Most of the world’s largest operators and device makers like Samsung are expected to announce their latest wireless technology, including smartphones, wearable products and digital applications at the trade show.周一,科技和电信业盛事世界移动通信大会(Mobile World Congress)将在巴塞罗那开幕。围绕5G展开的行动将在为期四天的大会上亮相。全球最大的运营商及三星这样的设备生产商中,预计大部分都会在这场行业大会上宣布自己最新的无线技术,包括智能手机、可穿戴产品和数字应用。Not to be outdone, telecom manufacturers also have announced glitzy demonstrations — including driverless cars, remote-controlled drones and autonomous robots balancing balls on tablets — to showcase their 5G credibility. The need to persuade carriers to buy the latest wireless technology has become ever more important as operators consider cutting investment plans in the face of a global economic downturn.为了不被甩在身后,电信制造商也推出了一些耀眼的产品展示,包括无人驾驶车、遥控无人机和能在平板电脑上让几个球保持平衡的自主机器人,以展示自己的5G实力。在面临全球经济下行的运营商考虑削减投资计划之际,电信制造商需要说它们,让它们相信最新的无线技术现在具有空前的重要性。“If we miss the chance to make our networks relevant, it will be a disaster,” said Ulf Ewaldsson, Ericsson’s chief technology officer. “The billion-dollar question is what will a 5G network look like?”“如果错过让我们的网络参与进来的机会,就是一场灾难,”爱立信首席技术官艾华信(Ulf Ewaldsson)说。“这里面一个最重要的问题是,5G网络会是什么样子?”Despite companies’ efforts to outspend each other, that question remains unanswered.尽管各公司的投资力度一个更胜一个,但这个问题依然没有。A global standard for 5G wireless technology will not be finished before 2019, at the earliest. Companies worldwide must agree on how their networks talk to each other, so users’ mobile connections do not become patchy when traveling overseas. That involves lengthy negotiations over what type of radio waves the new technology should use, among other complicated global agreements, which can take years.5G无线技术的全球标准至少要到2019年才能完成。世界范围内的公司必须就彼此的网络之间如何衔接沟通达成一致,这样用户在国外时,他们的移动通讯才不会变得时好时坏。这就涉及新技术应该使用何种无线电波,以及其他复杂的全球协议进行漫长的谈判。这个过程可能要花数年时间。As a result, carriers, telecom equipment makers and tech companies are lobbying global-standard bodies and national lawmakers to promote their own technologies over rivals’, according to industry executives and telecom analysts. Because of this jockeying, a widesp rollout of 5G networks is not expected until well into the next decade.因此,据行业高管和电信业分析人士称,运营商、电信设备生产商和科技公司正在游说制定全球标准的机构和各国议员,告诉他们自己的技术比对手的好。因为存在这种争夺,5G网络的广泛铺开预计要等到下一个10年。Some analysts question why carriers are focusing on the next generation of wireless technology when many parts of the world, particularly in emerging markets, still suffer from achingly slow mobile Internet access. And industry experts say mobile Internet speeds in much of the developed world, especially in places like South Korea, where connections are often comparable to traditional broadband, aly meet people’s needs.一些分析人士质疑,为什么在世界上很多地方,特别是在新兴市场的移动互联网接入还极其缓慢时,运营商却把焦点放在了下一代无线技术上。行业专家称,在很多发达国家,特别是在连接速度通常堪比传统宽带的韩国等地,移动互联网速度已经能满足人们的需求了。“A lot of this is about carriers and equipment makers looking for new ways to make money,” said Thomas Husson, an analyst at Forrester Research in Paris. “Consumers shouldn’t expect great things until after 2020.”“这在很大程度上是因为运营商和设备生产商在寻找赚钱的新途径,”弗雷斯特研究公司(Forrester Research)驻巴黎的分析师汤玛斯·赫森(Thomas Husson)说。“2020年之前,消费者不应该期待有什么伟大的技术出现。”These challenges have not stopped companies from staking a claim in hopes of being at the forefront of 5G.这些挑战没能阻止各家公司纷纷押注,以期能让自己身处5G市场的前沿。That is particularly true ahead of major global sporting events like the Olympics and the World Cup, at which carriers and national governments want to promote their technological know-how. At the 2018 World Cup, which will be held in Russia, for instance, the local operators MegaFon and MTS are expected to test 5G-style services, including ultrafast mobile Internet, even without global standards in place.在奥林匹克运动会和世界杯等全球大型体育赛事到来之前尤其如此,运营商和各国政府都想在这些赛事上宣传自己的技术能力。比如,在将于俄罗斯举行的2018年世界杯上,当地运营商MegaFon和MTS计划推出包括超快移动互联网在内的5G类务,尽管相关的全球标准还未确立。The Korean mobile operator KT also plans to offer its own version of 5G technology at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, and NTT DoCoMo has said it will have similar trials y for the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo.韩国移动运营商KT也计划在韩国平昌举办的2018年冬季奥运会上提供自家版本的5G技术,而日本电信公司NTT DoCoMo则表示,它也会做好准备,在2020年于东京举办的夏季奥运会上进行类似的尝试。“The only way of learning is by doing,” said Mats Svardh, head of networks at the Scandinavian carrier TeliaSonera, which will test its own 5G technology in both Stockholm and Tallinn, Estonia, in 2018. “It’s about putting pressure on ourselves to move forward with specifics, not just theories.”“学习的唯一方式就是上手做,”北欧电信运营商TeliaSonera的网络业务负责人马茨·斯韦德(Mats Svardh)说。该公司将于2018年在斯德哥尔和爱沙尼亚的塔林两地测试其5G技术。“这其实是给我们自己施压,以便在一些具体的问题上取得进展,而不只是在理论上。”ed States carriers have also jumped on the 5G bandwagon, partly to offer people new services as current mobile speeds have become relatively interchangeable between major operators nationwide.美国运营商也加入了这场5G风潮,部分原因是想给人们提供新务,因为美国几家主要运营商目前提供的移动网络的网速已经差别不大,可以互相替代。Last year, Verizon Wireless announced that it would start testing new wireless technology in 2016 in order to offer new services, including potentially ultrafast mobile Internet, sometime next year. Last month, ATamp;T countered with its own tests — expected to start in Austin, Tex., by the end of 2016 — that could offer mobile speeds roughly 100 times faster than its current offering.“We will be y when it’s y,” said John Donovan, ATamp;T’s chief strategy officer, who added that traditional rivals like Verizon and new arrivals like Google could eventually compete to offer 5G services. “Everywhere you don’t solve a problem, someone else might step in.”去年,威瑞森无线(Verizon Wireless)宣布,它将在2016年开始测试新的无线技术,以便在明年某个时候提供可能包括超快移动互联网在内的新务。上个月,作为反击,ATamp;T也提出,自己计划于2016年底在德克萨斯州奥斯丁开始进行测试,有望提供比现在的网速快大约100倍的移动网络。“等它好的时候,我们就会一切就绪,”ATamp;T首席战略官约翰·多诺万(John Donovan)说。他还表示,威瑞森这样的传统竞争对手和谷歌这样的新对手,最终都有可能参与5G务的竞争。“不管是在哪个领域,只要有个问题你不解决,别人可能就会进来做。”For Dr. Tafazolli, of the University of Surrey, whose team started working on 5G in late 2011, these battles have led to an increasing number of companies offering support — including the use of high-speed computer servers, costly radio antennas and millions of dollars of financing to research and build the next-generation wireless network on his college campus, he said. Their primary goal: to test their latest technology in a real-world setting.萨里大学的塔法佐利自2011年末开始带领团队进行5G技术研发。他表示,这些竞争促使越来越多的企业为他们提供持,包括高速务器、价格昂贵的无线电天线,以及大把的资金,让他们可以在这所大学校园里研究和打造下一代无线网络。他们目前的首要目标是:在真实场景里测试他们的最新技术。“In the race to 5G, everyone wants to be first,” he said.“在5G技术这场比赛中,每个人都想拔得头筹,”他说。 /201602/428252

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